Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   
Warplanes of the Second World War preserved in Albania, Monaco and Montenegro

Warplanes of the Second World War preserved in Albania, Monaco and Montenegro

Data current to 9 Nov 2018.

Italian Puppet States of Albania, Monaco and Montenegro


In spite of Albania‘s long-standing protection and alliance with Italy, on 7 April 1939 Italian troops invaded Albania, five months before the start of the Second World War.  Following the invasion, Albania became a protectorate under Italy, with King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy being awarded the crown of Albania.  Albanian troops under Italian control were sent to participate in the Italian invasion of Greece and the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia.  Following Yugoslavia’s defeat, Kosovo was annexed to Albania by the Italians.  After the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the country was occupied by the Germans until the end of the war.

Albania (under German control)

After the Italian armistice, a void of power opened up in Albania.  The Italian occupying forces could do nothing, as the National Liberation Movement took control of the south and National Front (Balli Kombëtar) took control of the north.  Albanians in the Italian army joined the guerrilla forces.  In September 1943 the guerrillas moved to take the capital of Tirana, but German paratroopers dropped into the city.  Soon after the fight, the German High Command announced that they would recognize the independence of a greater Albania.  They organized an Albanian government, police, and military with the Balli Kombëtar.

The Germans did not exert heavy control over Albania‘s administration, but instead attempted to gain popular appeal by giving the Albanians what they wanted.  Several Balli Kombëtar leaders held positions in the regime.  The joint forces incorporated Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, and Presevo into the Albanian state.  A High Council of Regency was created to carry out the functions of a head of state, while the government was headed mainly by Albanian conservative politicians.  Albania was the only European country occupied by the Axis powers that ended the Second World War with a larger Jewish population than before the war.  The Albanian government had refused to hand over their Jewish population.  They provided Jewish families with forged documents and helped them disperse in the Albanian population.  Albania was completely liberated on 29 November 1944.  (Wikipedia)

After the establishment of the Albanian Kingdom in 1928, King Zog formed the Royal Albanian Air Corps under the direction of the Royal Albanian Army.  The Royal Air Force, and the rest of Albanian armed forces, were abolished following the Italian invasion of Albania during the Second World War.  On 24 April 1951, following the end of the Second World War, Albania re-established its air force.  The Albanian Air Force was equipped with Soviet aircraft. The first squadron was equipped with a dozen Yakovlev Yak-9 piston-engine fighters from stockpiles of Soviet Second World War equipment.  Among the twelve was included a single two-seat operational conversion trainer variant.  The aircraft were only intended as a stop-gap to allow the force to develop its organization and skills prior to the provision of its own jet fighter force.  Very rapidly after the arrival of jets, the Yak-9 was withdrawn from service in 1956 and its unit converted to the MiG-15.

 (Soviet Air Force Photo)

Yakovlev Yak-9 in Soviet Air Force service, ca 1945.  


A minor fascist regime was established in Monaco after the Italian army occupied the country in the aftermath of Case Anton.  Monaco was finally liberated after the Allies landed on Western Europe.  (Wikipedia)


Sekula Drljevi? and the core of the Montenegrin Federalist Party formed the Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro on 12 July 1941, and proclaimed on the Saint Peter’s Congress the “Kingdom of Montenegro” under a protectorate of the Fascist Kingdom of Italy.  The country served Italy as part of its goal of fragmenting the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, expanding the Italian Empire throughout the Adriatic.  The country was caught up in the rebellion of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland.  Drljevic was expelled from Montenegro in October 1941. The country came under direct Italian control. With the Italian capitulation of 1943, Montenegro became a directly under the control of Nazi Germany.

In 1944 Drljevi? formed a pro-Ustaše Montenegrin State Council in exile based in the Independent State of Croatia, with the aim of restoring rule over Montenegro.  The Montenegrin People’s Army was formed out of various Montenegrin nationalist troops.  By then the partisans had already liberated most of Montenegro, which became a federal state of the new Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.  Montenegro endured intense air bombing by the Allied air forces in 1944.  (Wikipedia)