Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Warplane Survivors USA: Ohio, Dayton, National Museum of the USAF (Part II), Loening to Yokosuka

National Museum of the USAF (Part II)

Loening to Yokosuka

Data current to 1 Oct 2019.

Dayton, National Museum of the United States Air Force (NMUSAF), 1100 Spaatz St., Wright-Patterson AFB, 45433-7102.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

Loening OL/OA-1A amphibian, USN, 1923.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Loening OA-1A (Serial No. 26-431).

LTV A-7C Corsair II (Serial No.)

LTV A-7D Corsair II (Serial No. 69-6192).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

LTV A-7D Corsair II (Serial No. 70-0970), MB, C/N D-116.  The A-7D on display in the NMUSAF was flown on 18 Nov 1972, by Maj Colin A. Clarke on a nine-hour rescue support mission in Southeast Asia for which he received the Air Force Cross, the USAF's second highest award for valor in combat.  It was delivered to the museum on 31 Jan 1992.

 

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

LTV XC-142A (Serial No. 65-5924).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Macchi MC-200 Saetta (Serial No. MM8146), 372-5.  The NMUSAF's MC.200 was transferred from the Regia Aeronautica's 372nd Squadron in Italy to the 165th Squadron in North Africa in Nov 1942.  It was abandoned at Banghazi airfield following the battle of El Alamein.  It appears that it retained its 372nd markings.  Captured by British forces, it was subsequently shipped to the USA where it was exhibited around the country to sell war bonds. it was later obtained by the New England Air Museum.  In 1989 it was purchased by a private owner who had it restored in Italy by a team from Aermacchi, the original builder, before its acquisition by the NMUSAF.  It is displayed in the markings of the 372nd Squadron of the Regia Aeronautica that it carried at the time of its capture. 

Mk. 41 Nuclear Bomb.

 

Martin MB-2, ca 1930s.  (USAAC Photos)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Martin MB-2 (Serial No. AS 6419).  The MB-2 became the Air Service's primary multi-engine bomber until replaced by the Keystone bombers of the late 1920s.  Today, no original MB-2 exists.  The reproduction on display at the museum was built using original Martin drawings and completed in 2002. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Greg Goebel Photo)

Martin B-10 (Serial No. 146).  When the B-10 design was released for export in 1936, several countries purchased the export version of the bomber, the 139W, for their armed forces.  Argentina bought 35 Martin 139Ws, including 12 for the Argentine Navy.  After many years of service, the obsolete bombers were used for various types of training.  The aircraft on display at the museum was last used as a ground-training tool for Argentine engineering students at the "Jorge Newberry" National School of Technical Education, No. 1, in Buenos Aires.  When museum staff learned that the only known surviving B-10 was in Argentina, discussions began with Argentine officials to obtain this historic American aircraft for the museum.  As a magnificent gesture of friendship between Argentina and the United States, and in recognition of the tremendous historical value of the B-10 to the U.S. Air Force, the Argentine Navy presented this aircraft as a gift to the United States on behalf of the Argentine nation on 21 Aug 1970.  The gift was accepted by the U.S. Ambassador to Argentina, John Davis Lodge.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Martin B-26G Marauder (Serial No. 43-34581), C/N 8701 "Shootin In".  It is painted as (Serial No. 42-95857) a 9th Air Force B-26B assigned to the 387th Bombardment Group in 1945.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

  (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (Clemens Vaster Photo)

Martin-Marietta X-24A.

 (NASA Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

Martin-Marietta X-24B (Serial No. 66-13551), actually SV-5Y, displayed as X-24A.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Martin EB-57B Canberra/Night Intruder (Serial No. 52-1499), c/n 082.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was assigned to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, as a test aircraft in the early 1960s.  It was returned to combat configuration to replace combat losses in Southeast Asia.  Assigned to the 8th Bomb Squadron at Phan Rang, South Vietnam, in 1967, it flew in combat there for 2-1/2 years.  After returning to the United States, it was converted to an electronic countermeasures EB-57B.  It was flown to the museum in August 1981, and restored back to its Southeast Asia War bomber configuration in 2010.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Martin RB-57D Canberra (Serial No. 53-3982), C/N 006.  The RB-57D differed significantly from the earlier B-57 bomber.  The RB-57D's much longer wings had a lightweight, honeycomb internal structure, and its more powerful engines provided a total of 6,000 pounds more thrust.  Martin built 20 RB-57Ds in three variants: 13 single-seat photoreconnaissance aircraft (seven of which could be refueled in mid-air), one single-seat radar mapping aircraft, and six two-seat electronic reconnaissance aircraft.  The RB-57D on display in the NMUSAF is one of the 13 photoreconnaissance RB-57Ds.  It is painted as it appeared in the late 1950s while it served in the 4025th SRS(L), and went on display in the museum in 2004.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

McDonnell XF-85 Goblin (Serial No. 46-0523), C/N 1.  The McDonnell Aircraft Corp. developed the XF-85 Goblin "parasite" fighter to protect B-36 bombers flying far beyond the range of conventional escort fighters.  The "parent" B-36 would carry the XF-85 within a bomb bay, then if enemy fighters appeared, the Goblin would be lowered on a trapeze and released to combat the attackers.  Once the enemy had been driven away, the Goblin would return to the B-36, reattach to the trapeze, and be lifted back into the bomb bay.  Two test aircraft were ordered in October 1945, and flight testing with a modified B-29 began in 1948.  Test pilots could successfully launch the XF-85, but the turbulent air under the B-29 made recovery difficult and hazardous.  About half of the Goblin flights ended with emergency ground landings after the test pilot could not hook up to the B-29.  No XF-85s were ever launched or carried by a B-36.  The program ended in late 1949 when aerial refueling of conventional fighter aircraft showed greater promise.  The XF-85 was transferred to the NMUSAF in 1950.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

McDonnell XH-20 (Serial No. 46-0689).  The XH-20 was essentially a test stand built to research ramjet-propelled helicopter rotor blades.  The XH-20 first flew in May 1947, but its fuel was delivered through a flexible line from tanks on the ground.  In May 1948, it made its first flight with self-contained fuel tanks.  Being a test stand, Little Henry was never intended to fly at any appreciable altitudes or distances.  While the XH-20 proved that a helicopter could use ramjet-propelled rotor blades, it was very loud and consumed fuel at a high rate.  The XH-20 on display in the NMUSAF, the only one built and flown, was obtained by the museum in 1953.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

McDonnell F-101B Voodoo (Serial No. 58-0325), 13, C/N 697.  The F-101B on display in the NMUSAF served with the 18th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota, and with the 142nd Fighter Interceptor Group, Oregon National Guard.  It was flown to the museum in February 1981. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

McDonnell RF-101C Voodoo (Serial No. 56-0166), AH, C/N 127.  The RF-101C on display in the NMUSAF participated in Operation Sun Run in 1957.  This Voodoo also flew vital low-altitude reconnaissance during the Cuban Missile Crisis and helped confirm that offensive missile sites in Cuba were being dismantled.  It also served in Southeast Asia with the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron.  It was flown from the 153rd Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Mississippi Air National Guard at Key Field, Mississippi, to the museum on 27 Oct 1978.

 (Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Devin M. Langer, USN Photo)

McDonnell AV-8B Harrier assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 163, launches from USS Makin Island’s (LHD 8) flight deck. Makin Island is underway off the coast of Southern California, conducting Composite Training Unit Exercise with Amphibious Squadron Five and the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit, 14 Aug 2016.

McDonnell AV-8 Harrier (Serial No. 64-18262).

McDonnell Douglas F-4B Phantom II (BuNo. 151424).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 64-0829), SA, c/n 1169.  "SCAT XXVII", 149 TFG, two MiG kills.  The USAF sent its first F-4Cs to Southeast Asia in 1965, where they flew air-to-air missions against North Vietnamese fighters as well as attacking ground targets.  The first USAF pilot to score four combat victories with F-4s in Southeast Asia was Colonel Robin Olds, a Second World War ace.  The aircraft on display is the one in which Col. Olds, the pilot, and Lt. Stephen Croker, the weapons system officer, destroyed two MiG-17s in a single day, on 20 May 1967.  In its air-to-ground role, the F-4C could carry twice the normal load of a Second World War Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber.  The armament loaded on the aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is a typical configuration for an F-4C in 1967.  It consists of four AIM-7E and four AIM-9B air-to-air missiles, and eight 750-pound Mk 117 bombs.  The aircraft also carries two external fuel tanks on the outboard pylons and one ALQ-87 electronic countermeasures (ECM) pod on the right inboard pylon.

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 64-0763), SL, C/N 1059.  On loan to Air Heritage Inc, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania.

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 66-7554), "City of Fairborn I".

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 64-0683), C/N 917.  On display at the Newark AFB Museum.

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (BuNo. 151424), painted as (Serial No. 66-7660).

 (NMUSAF Photo)

McDonnell Douglas RF-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 64-1047), BH, C/N 943.

McDonnell Douglas F-4D Phantom II (Serial No. 66-7626), DO, C/N 2195, “City of Dayton III”.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

McDonnell Douglas YF-4E Phantom II (Serial No. 62-12200), C/N 266.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

McDonnell Douglas F-4G Phantom II (Serial No. 69-7263), "Wild Weasel", WW, C/N 3947.  F-4G Wild Weasels were modified F-4E fighters with their cannon replaced by AN/APR-47 electronic warfare equipment.  Their mission was to attack enemy air defenses, including surface-to-air missile (SAM) air defense radars.  One hundred sixteen F-4Es were rebuilt as F-4Gs for this special purpose.  Carrying AGM-88A/B/C High Speed Anti-Radiation Missiles (HARM), the F-4G worked in concert with other F-4Gs or as a hunter aircraft directing fighter-bombers, such as the F-16, against SAM sites.  The F-4G carried a pilot and an Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO), who navigated, assisted with communications and coordinated attacks on the SAM sites.  The F-4G Wild Weasel first flew in 1975 and was retired in 1996.  The NMUSAF's F-4G was placed on display in September 1996.

 (USAF Photo)

McDonnell Douglas F-15A Eagle (Serial No. 72-0119), C/N 19/A017.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

McDonnell Douglas F-15A Eagle (Serial No. 76-0027), FF, C/N 207/A179.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Goshimini Photo)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Messerschmitt Bf 109G-10/U4 Gustav (Wk Nr. 610824), 11/JG52, "Black 2".  This aircraft was captured at Neubiberg, near Munich, Germany in May 1945.  It was one of three Bf 109s taken to the US by Capt Fred McIntosh, in charge of collecting piston-engined aircraft for “Watson’s Whizzers”.  After test flying, it was found not to be airworthy and made its journey to Cherbourg by truck.  It was then shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper and landed at New York Harbor, from where it was then trucked to Newark, New Jersey, finally arriving at Freeman Field near Seymour, Indiana on 17 May 1946.  The aircraft was given a rather spurious paint scheme and coded USA FE-124, this was changed later to T2-124, when the Air Technical Service Command underwent re-organization and the Technical Data Laboratory Branch became part of T-2 Intelligence. 610824 was not used for research, but instead became a display aircraft in the early post war era touring various airbases.  In 1947, T2-124 was donated to the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta.  It later passed through several private owners, with Reg. No. N109MS.  The NMUSAF's Bf 109G-10 is painted to represent an aircraft from Jagdgeschwader 300, a unit that defended Germany against Allied bombers.  JG 300 was originally formed as a Wilde Sau (or Wild Boar) night fighter unit in 1943 but converted to the day fighter role as US bomber attacks intensified.  In the many pitched battles with the U.S. Army Air Forces, the Bf 109G-10s of JG 300 often provided top cover for the more heavily armed Focke Wulf Fw 190s attacking the bomber formations.  This unit also had the distinction of being the last command of the war for Maj. Gunther Rall, who with 275 victories, was the third-highest scoring ace in history.  "Black 2" has been on display at the NMUSAF since 1 Apr 1999, painted as “Blue 4” of JG 300, “Wild Sau.”  

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Messerschmitt Me 163B-1a Komet, (Wk. Nr. 191095), was flown by JG 400.  It was surrendered at Husum in Germany and shipped to the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), in the UK, where it was designated RAF AM 211.  It was despatched from Farnborough to No. 6 MU, Brize Norton, on 25 July 1945.  AM 211 was sent to No. 47 MU, Sealand on 26 June and prepared for shipment to Canada, leaving Salford Docks on board the SS Manchester Commerce on 28 August, and arriving at Montréal on 9 September 1945.  Subsequently, it was used as a gate guardian at RCAF Station St Jean, Québec, until it was taken over by the Canadian War Museum (CWM) in Ottawa.  This aircraft passed to the Canadian National Aeronautical Collection (CNAC), now the Canada Air and Space Museum (CA&SM), at Rockcliffe, near Ottawa, Ontario, in 1964.  AM 211 was restored to display standard in the CNAC workshops and loaned to the NMUSAF from 1978-1985.  It was made a gift from the CA&SM to the NMUSAF in 1999.  During the aircraft's restoration in Canada it was discovered that the aircraft had been assembled by French “forced labourers” who had deliberately sabotaged it by placing stones between the rocket's fuel tanks and its supporting straps.  There are also indications that the wing was assembled with contaminated glue.  Patriotic French writing was found inside the fuselage.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a "Schwalbe" (Wk. Nr. 501232), "Yellow 5", 3./KG(J)6.  This aircraft was designated Watson's Whizzers No. 111, and was painted as "Beverly Anne", later "Screamin Meemie".  "Yellow 5" was shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper,  with inventory control No. 20.  This aircraft was sent to the USN Armament Test Division at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland in Dec 1945 where it was designated USN (BuNo. 121442) and test flown, before coming to the NMUSAF.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Messerschmitt Me 262, Junkers Jumo 004 jet engine.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 Fagot (Serial No. 2015357).  The MiG-15 on display in the NMUSAF was flown by a defecting North Korean pilot to Kimpo Air Base in South Korea on 21 Sep 1953.  The airplane provided important intelligence data, especially since it was the advanced version of the MiG-15.  After considerable flight-testing, the USA offered to return the airplane to its "rightful owners."  The offer was ignored, and in November 1957 it was transferred to the museum for public exhibition.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17F Fresco C (Serial N. 3020), C/N 799.  Egyptian Air Force.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was presented to the museum by the Egyptian Air Force in 1986 as a symbol of friendship and cooperation between the two nations.  It is painted to represent a North Vietnamese Air Force (VPAF) MiG-17. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19S Farmer C (Serial No. 0138), Vietnam Air Force.  The first Soviet production fighter capable of supersonic speeds in level flight, the prototype MiG-19 (NATO code-name "Farmer") made its first flight in September 1953.  Entering production in 1955, it became the Soviet Union's primary fighter during the last half of the 1950s.  Possibly as many as 10,000 MiG-19s, in various versions, were built by the Soviet Union, China, Poland and Czechoslovakia.  Many other countries used the MiG-19, including Cuba, North Vietnam, North Korea, Iraq and most of the Warsaw Pact nations.  The Soviet Union phased out the MiG-19 in the early 1960s in favor of the more advanced MiG-21, but other nations continued to use the MiG-19 for many more years.  The NMUSAF's MiG-19S came from the 457th Technical Evaluation Squadron based at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.  It went on display in October 1994. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21F-13 Fishbed (Serial No. 5063), C/N 506301, 60, 4128, Vietnam Air Force.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21D (MiG-21PF Fishbed (Serial No. 4128).  In the Southeast Asia War, the MiG-21 was a dangerous adversary. Fast as US jets, it was more agile than the F-4 Phantom, its main opponent.  Although American forces lost about 50 aircraft to North Vietnamese MiG-21s, the USAF shot down 68 MiG-21s in air combat.  North Vietnam had more than 200 MiG-21s.  The aircraft on display, a MiG-21PF, carried air-to-air missiles but no guns . It is painted to represent a plane from North Vietnam's elite 921st Fighter Regiment.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23MLD Flogger K (Serial No. 44), ex-Soviet Air Force.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23MS Flogger E (Serial No. 39).  The MiG-23MS was designed for foreign export and was less capable than domestic Soviet versions.  It was equipped with a less sophisticated radar housed in a smaller radome.  First delivered in 1973, it was given the NATO code-name “Flogger-E.”  More than 5,000 MiG-23s of all types were built.  The US Air Force’s 4477th Test Squadron, the “Red Eagles,” flew this aircraft during Project Constant Peg.  This highly classified program provided USAF, Navy, and Marine Corps fighter pilots with realistic combat training against then state-of-the-art Soviet technology.  The MiG-23MS “Flogger-E” on display was declassified and transferred to the Museum in February 2017. 

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25RB Foxbat (Serial No. 25108), ex-Iraqi Air Force.

 (Ken LaRock, USAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29A Fulcrum (Serial No. 2960516761), "Blue 08".  The MiG-29 presented a formidable threat to Western pilots.  The radars used on earlier Soviet fighters had been unable to distinguish aircraft flying below them from ground clutter, and low-flying aircraft could avoid detection.  With the Phazotron NIIR N019 Doppler radar (NATO designation "Slot Back") capable of detecting a target more than 60 miles away, infrared tracking sensors, and a laser rangefinder carried on the MiG-29, a pilot could track and shoot at aircraft flying below him.  Also, the pilot's Shchel-3UM-1 helmet-mounted aiming device turned the MiG-29 into a very dangerous threat once opponents came within visual range.  No longer did a pilot have to turn his aircraft toward a target and wait for his missiles' sensors to "lock-on" before firing.  Now, the pilot simply turned his head toward a target, and the helmet aimed the missile's sensors toward the target.  This "off boresight" procedure gave the MiG-29 pilot a great advantage at close range.  The aircraft on display  in the NMUSAF is an early model Soviet Air Force MiG-29A that had been assigned to the 234th Gvardeiskii Istrebitelnii Aviatsionnii Polk (234th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment) stationed at Kubinka Air Base near Moscow.   It was one of the six MiG-29s that made a good will visit to Kuopio-Rissala, Finland, in July 1986.  This event marked the first public display of the MiG-29. 

 (IJN Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 22, flown by Japanese ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa over the Solomon Islands, 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M2 Reisen (Zero), (Serial No. 11593).  This Nakajima-built A6M2 was found in Papua New Guinea, near the city of Kavieng on New Ireland, and was probably one of the aircraft delivered to Rabaul and operated at Kavieng by the 6th Kokutai (Squadron) and later by the 253rd Kokutai.  It is painted to represent a section leader's aircraft from the aircraft carrier Zuiho during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, March 1943.  It was placed on display in the NMUSAF in 2004.

 (Valder137 Photos)

Nieuport 27 replica, Reg. No. NX27XZ.

Nieuport 28C-1, replica (Serial No. 1), Reg. No. N6301.  Constructed from original parts, 95th Aero Squadron.  This reproduction was rebuilt by museum personnel.  It contains wood and hardware from an original Nieuport 28.  The aircraft is painted and marked to represent a Nieuport of the 95th Aero Squadron, Third Flight, as it appeared in July 1918.  It was placed on display in May 1994.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Noorduyn UC-64A Norseman (Serial No. 44-70296), painted as (Serial No. 44-70534), C/N 561.  The Norseman on display in the NMUSAF was acquired by the museum in March 1981. It is marked as a Norseman based in Alaska late in the Second World War.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American O-47B (Serial No. 39-112).  The NMUSAF acquired the O-47B on display in 1978 from Loren L. Florey Jr., of Eden Prairie, Minnisota.  The 179th Consolidated Aircraft Maintenance Squadron, Ohio Air National Guard, Mansfield, Ohio, restored the aircraft in the markings of an O-47A of the 112th Observation Squadron of the Ohio National Guard.

 (BT-9A at Langley, NASA Photo)

North American BT-9B Yale (Serial No. TBC). 

  (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

North American BT-14 (Serial No. 737).  Ex-RCAF North American NA-64 Yale painted to represent a USAAC BT-14, in a diorama.  Very similar to the BT-14, this North American NA-64 is one of a group of aircraft originally built for the French. When Germany defeated France in 1940, undelivered NA-64s were diverted to the Royal Canadian Air Force where they served as Yale I flight and radio operator trainers.  In 1974 the aircraft on display was extensively restored, after which it flew in air shows and conducted aerial photography.  In 1978 Challenge Publications Inc. (Air Classics, Air Combat, Air Progress), Mr. Edwin Schnepf, president, donated it to the National Museum of the United States Air Force. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American T-6D Mosquito (Serial No. 42-84216), TA-216, C/N 88-15997.  The T-6D on display in the NMUSAF flew as an early Mosquito with the 6147th Tactical Air Control Group during the first two years of the Korean War.  Ironically, it was converted to a mosquito spraying aircraft in 1952.  Two years later, the USAF transferred it to the fledgling Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF).  After retiring this aircraft, the ROKAF placed it on display outside for several years.  The National Museum of the United States Air Force acquired it in 1995, and after restoration it went on display in 2001.

North American T-6G Texan (Serial No. 50-1279), painted as (Serial No. 41279).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American B-25B Mitchell (Serial No. 43-3374).  The airplane on display was built as an RB-25D.  It was removed from storage at Tucson, Arizona, and rebuilt by North American Aviation at Inglewood, California, to the configuration of the lead B-25B flown by Lt. Col. Doolittle on the Tokyo Raid.  It was then flown to the museum, arriving in April 1958.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

North American A-36A Apache (Serial No. 42-83665), C/N 97-15883.  The NMUSAF’s A-36A was donated by Charles P. Doyle of Rosemount, Minnesota and was restored by members of the Minnesota Air National Guard.  It is marked to represent the A-36A flown by Capt Lawrence Dye, a pilot of the 522nd Fighter-Bomber Squadron, during combat in North Africa and Italy.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

North American P-51D Mustang (Serial No. 44-74936), 52, C/N 122-41476, "Shimmy IV".  The NMUSAF P-51D on display was the last Mustang assigned to a USAF tactical unit.  It is painted as the P-51D flown by Col. C.L. Sluder, Commander of the 325th Fighter Group in Italy in 1944.  The name of this aircraft, Shimmy IV, is derived from the names of his daughter, Sharon, and his wife, Zimmy. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American F-82B Twin Mustang (Serial No. 44-65168), C/N 123-43754.  “Betty Joe”.  The F-82 was the last propeller-driven fighter acquired in quantity by the USAF.  The Twin Mustang carried a pilot and co-pilot/navigator to reduce fatigue on long-range bomber escort missions.  It was produced in time to take part in the Second World War, but after the war, Air Defense Command flew radar-equipped F-82Gs as replacements for the P-61 night fighter.  During the Korean War, Japan-based F-82Gs were among the first USAF aircraft to operate over Korea.   On 27 June 1950, all-weather F-82Gs shot down the first three North Korean airplanes destroyed by U.S. forces.  Of a total of 273 F-82s produced, 20 were F-82Bs.  The F-82B on display, Betty-Jo, flew from Hawaii to New York on 27-28 Feb 1947, a distance of 5,051 miles, the longest non-stop flight ever made by a propeller-driven fighter.  Betty-Jo came to the NMUSAF in 1957.

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

North American F-82B Twin Mustang (Serial No. 44-65162), C/N 123-43748.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is an F-82B, modified and marked as the F-82G crewed by Lts. Charles Moran, pilot, and Fred Larkins, radar observer, 68th F(AW)S, when they shot down a North Korean La-7 on 27 June 1950, near Kimpo Air Base, South Korea.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American/Ryan L-17A Navion (Serial No. 47-1347), painted as 8928.  All L-17s were re-designated U-18s in 1962.  The L-17A on display was flown to the museum on 7 April 1986.  It is marked as a Ryan-built L-17B used by the Air Force ROTC program at Bradley University, Peoria, Illinois, in the spring of 1959.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American F-86A Sabre (Serial No. 49-1067), C/N 161-61, painted as (Serial No. 49-1236).  The F-86A on display in the NMUSAF was flown to the museum in 1961.  It is marked as the 4th Fighter Group F-86A flown by LCol Bruce Hinton on 17 Dec 1950, when he became the first F-86 pilot to shoot down a MiG.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American RF-86F Sabre (Serial No. 52-4492), previously located at Bergstrom AFB, Texas.   The Sabre, originally built as a day fighter, was first modified for reconnaissance during the Korean War.  USAF personnel custom-fitted cameras to about a dozen F-86 fighters (known as "Honeybuckets" or "Ashtrays") to replace the slower RF-80 for missions in northwestern North Korea, "MiG Alley", and into Manchuria.  After the Korean War, a handful of F-86Fs received more capable cameras under Project Haymaker.  In order to fit the film magazines for the vertically mounted cameras, the aircraft acquired a distinctive bulge on both sides of the forward fuselage.  The armament was removed to allow for the cameras, and the RF-86F "Haymakers" had painted-on gun ports to appear as if they were armed.  In March 1954 the 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron deployed to Komaki Air Base, Japan, receiving eight newly-modified "Haymakers."  With these aircraft, they secretly overflew Soviet, North Korean and communist Chinese territory in the mid-1950s.  The RF-86F "Haymaker" on display in the NMUSAF participated in these critical overflight missions.  It was transferred to the South Korean air force (ROKAF) in 1958, which flew it into the 1980s.  Arriving at the museum in 1998 for restoration, it was placed on display in 2005.  It is marked as it appeared while assigned to the 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

North American F-86D Sabre Dog (Serial No. 50-0477), FU-863, C/N 165-23, painted as (Serial No. 52-3863).  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF came to the museum in August 1957.  It is marked as an F-86D assigned to the 97th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, during the mid-1950s.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American F-86H Sabre (Serial No. 53-1352), C/N 203-124.  Cutaway.  The NMUSAF obtained the F-86H on display from the New Jersey Air National Guard in November 1964.  It is exhibited with part of its stressed skin removed to show the internal structure and placement of equipment.

North American F-100C Super Sabre (Serial No. 54-1753)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American F-100D Super Sabre (Serial No. 55-3754), 6, C/N 223-436, Thunderbirds markings.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was used by the Thunderbirds, the official USAF Flight Demonstration Team, from 1964 until 1968.  During that period, the team toured the Caribbean, Europe, Latin America and nearly every state in the United States.  This F-100D was retired from service with the 114th Tactical Fighter Group, South Dakota Air National Guard, in 1977.  It was restored by Thunderbird maintenance personnel at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, to its original appearance as a team aircraft.  It was flown to the museum by the Air National Guard, and the Thunderbirds presented the aircraft to the museum on 22 July 1977. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

North American F-100F Super Sabre (Serial No. 56-3837), HE, C/N 243-113.  When F-100 units deployed to Southeast Asia, they included a mix of one- and two-seat F-100s, and both types participated in traditional bombing missions in support of ground forces.  As tactics developed, the two-seat F-100F became an important aircraft for two new missions, surface to air missile (SAM) suppression, known as "Iron Hand," and high-speed forward air control (FAC), known as "Misty FAC."  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was a Misty FAC aircraft assigned to the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing at Phu Cat Air Base, Vietnam.  It was flown in combat by several notable USAF figures, including Gen Merrill McPeak and Gen Ronald Fogleman (former USAF chiefs of staff), and Col Richard Rutan (the chief pilot of the first around-the-world unrefueled flight).  It is painted as it appeared in March 1968, and went on display in 2003.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

North American B-45C Tornado (Serial No. 48-0010), 10, C/N 153-38486.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was returned to the USAF by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division, where it had been on loan for engine testing.  It was flown to the museum in 1971, and is painted in the markings of the 47th Bomb Wing (Light).

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American YF-107A (Serial No. 55-5119), C/N 212-2.  The F-107A was a mid-1950s development of the successful F-100 Super Sabre . Special features of the F-107A included an engine air intake above the cockpit, an all-moving vertical fin, and a system (called a Variable Area Inlet Duct) that automatically controlled the amount of air fed to the jet engine.  The first of three prototype F-107As flew in September 1956, attaining Mach 1 (Mach 1 is the speed of sound).  A few months later, an F-107 flew at Mach 2 (twice the speed of sound).  The following year, after seriously considering the production of the F-107, the USAF instead chose to buy the F-105 Thunderchief.  The first and third F-107A prototypes were then leased to the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), predecessor to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), for high-speed flight research.  The F-107A on display in the NMUSAF is the second prototype, which was used for weapons testing with both conventional and atomic bombs.  It was flown to the museum when the program ended in 1957.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American X-10 (Serial No. 51-9307), C/N GM19307.

  (USAF Photo)

  (USAF Photo)

X-15 attached to its B-52 mother ship with a T-38 Talon escort.

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

North American X-15A-2 (Serial No. 56-6671), C/N 240-2.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American XB-70A Valkyrie (Serial No. 62-0001), C/N 278-1.  The futuristic XB-70A was originally conceived in the 1950s as a high-altitude, nuclear strike bomber that could fly at Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound).  At that time, any potential enemy would have been unable to defend against such a bomber.  By the early 1960s, however, new Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) threatened the survivability of high-speed, high-altitude bombers.  Less costly, nuclear-armed ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) were also entering service.  As a result, in 1961, the expensive B-70 bomber program was canceled before any Valkyries had been completed or flown.  Even so, the USAF bought two XB-70As to test aerodynamics, propulsion and other characteristics of large supersonic aircraft.  The first XB-70A, on display in the NMUSAF, flew in September 1964, and it achieved Mach 3 flight in October 1965.  The second Valkyrie first flew in July 1965, but in June 1966, it was destroyed following an accidental mid-air collision.  The third Valkyrie was not completed.  The first XB-70A airplane continued to fly and generate valuable test data in the research program until it came to the museum in 1969.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American T-28A Trojan (Serial No. 49-1494).  The T-28A on display in the NMUSAF is painted as a typical Air Training Command T-28A in the mid-1950s and was transferred to the museum in September 1965.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American T-28B Trojan (BuNo. 140048), painted as 38365.  The T-28B on display in the NMUSAF is painted as a VNAF T-28B assigned to Bien Hoa Air Base in 1962, where USAF pilots trained and flew combat missions with VNAF crews in Operation Farm Gate.  It was flown to the museum in March 1987.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

North American T-39A Sabreliner (Serial No. 62-4478), C/N 276-31.

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American Rockwell OV-10A Bronco (Serial No. 68-3787), C/N 321-113.  The first USAF OV-10As destined for combat arrived in Vietnam in July 1968.  A total of 157 OV-10As were delivered to the USAF before production ended in April 1969.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF came to the museum in October 1991 and is painted as it appeared when it served in Southeast Asia.

 (USAF Photos)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Rogerd Photo)

Northrop P-61C Black Widow (Serial No. 43-8353), C/N N1399.  The Black Widow on display in the NMUSAF was presented to the museum by the Tecumseh Council, Boy Scouts of America, Springfield, Ohio, in 1958.  It is painted and marked as a P-61B assigned to the 550th Night Fighter Squadron serving in the Pacific in 1945. 

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Northrop A-17A (Serial No. 36-0207).  The aircraft on display, Air Corps serial number 36-207, is the only A-17 series aircraft known to exist.  It was delivered to the Air Corps and assigned to Barksdale Field, Louisiana on 25 June 1937.  Following a brief stay at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas, the aircraft was assigned in April 1940 to Bolling Field, Washington, D.C., and also served as a support aircraft for U.S. Military attaches in Honduras, Guatemala and Haiti.  The aircraft was dropped from Army Air Forces records in January 1945.  The aircraft is marked in the colors of the 90th Attack Squadron, 3rd Attack Group, at Barksdale Field in June 1938. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (YoSam Photo)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Northrop YC-125B Raider (Serial No. 48-0626), painted as (Serial No. 48-0622), C/N 2510.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Northrop F-89J Scorpion (Serial No. 52-1911), FV-509, C/N N405.  The Maine Air National Guard transferred the Scorpion on display in the NMUSAF to the museum from  in July 1969.  This aircraft was the last F-89 in service with an operational unit.  It is painted to represent an F-89J (Serial No. 53-2509) assigned to the 449th Fighter Interceptor Squadron in the late 1950s.  Based at Ladd Air Force Base, near Fairbanks, Alaska, it carries insignia red arctic markings.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop X-4 Bantam (Serial No. 46-0677), C/N 3238.  During the Second World War, engineers in the USA and UK studied semi-tailless aircraft, and the German Luftwaffe fielded the semi-tailless Me 163 Komet.  After the war ended, Northrop built two X-4s to test if this configuration could perform at transonic (near-supersonic) speeds better than conventional aircraft.  Flight testing of the X-4 began in 1948, and in 1950 both X-4s were turned over to the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), predecessor to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).  The first X-4 was grounded after only 10 flights, and only the second X-4 (on display at the museum) was used in the joint USAF/NACA program.  Instability of the X-4 at high speed led to the conclusion that semi-tailless aircraft were not suitable for transonic flight (with the technology then available).  The X-4 on display in the NMUSAF was transferred to the museum shortly after the program ended in 1953.  It was restored by the Western Museum of Flight, Hawthorne, California.

 (YF-5A Prototype, USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Northrop YF-5A Freedom Fighter (Serial No. 59-4989), FA-989.  Painted as (Serial No. 64-13332).  The YF-5A on display in the NMUSAF, one of three prototypes ordered, was delivered to the museum in 1970.  It is painted as a "Shoski Tiger" of the 4503rd Tactical Fighter Squadron TFS), which combat tested the F-5 in Vietnam in 1965-1967.  The 4503rd TFS later was redesignated the 10th Fighter (Commando) Squadron in March 1966.  In October 1966 the 10th F(C)S began training South Vietnamese pilots to fly F-5s and later turned its aircraft over to the South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) in June 1967.

Northrop T-38A Talon (Serial No. 60-0566).

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Northrop T-38A Talon (Serial No. 65-10441).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop AT-38B Talon (Serial No. 63-8172), HM, C/N N5519.  The NMUSAF’s AT-38B flew as a lead-in-fighter trainer until its retirement in 1991.  It came to the museum in 1999 and was placed on display in 2004.

 (Greg Hume Photo)

Northrop SM-62 Snark, early intercontinental cruise missile.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop YF-117D Tacit Blue.  Built in the early 1980s in great secrecy, the revolutionary Tacit Blue aircraft tested advanced radar sensors and new ideas in stealth technology.  Tacit Blue proved that a stealthy aircraft could have curved surfaces, unlike the faceted surfaces of the F-117 Nighthawk, which greatly influenced later aircraft like the B-2.  Tacit Blue’s design also minimized the heat signature emitted from the engines, further masking its presence.  Tacit Blue was aerodynamically unstable, but it had a digital fly-by-wire system to help control it.  With its low, “all-aspect” radar signature, Tacit Blue demonstrated that such an aircraft could loiter over and behind the battlefield without fear of being discovered by enemy radar.  Using advanced sensors, it could also continuously monitor enemy forces (even through clouds) and provide timely information through data links to a ground command center.  Moreover, these sensors functioned without giving away the location of the aircraft.  The Tacit Blue aircraft flew 135 times before the program ended in 1985.  The aircraft was declassified and placed on display at the NMUSAF in 1996.

 (Bobbi Zapka, USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop Grumman RQ-4A Global Hawk (Serial No. 98-2003), BB, c/n AV-3.   The Global Hawk on display in the NMUSAF was the third prototype built.  Designated Air Vehicle-3 (AV-3), it was officially designated an YRQ-4A.  However, AV-3 had anything but a normal career for a prototype.  After the terrorist attacks of 11 Sep 2001, the USAF deployed AV-3 to Afghanistan in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.  Because it still showed some of the "crankiness" of a prototype, AV-3 was nicknamed "Grumpy."  Nevertheless, it also flew reconnaissance missions in support of Operations Southern Watch (OSW), Iraqi Freedom (OEF), Enduring Freedom (OEF) and the Combined Task Force-Horn of Africa.  During Operation Iraqi Freedom, AV-3's sensors successfully tracked Iraqi Republican Guard forces during a fierce sandstorm in March 2003.  While the dust blinded AV-3's optical and infrared sensors, its radar provided information accurate enough for fighters and bombers to attack the enemy successfully with Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) weapons.  In February 2006, it made another spectacular flight by flying autonomously and non-stop from Australia to Edwards Air Force Base, California.  Over its career, AV-3 completed 251 flights for 4,891.3 total hours flying time.  This total included 195 combat sorties and 4,152.7 combat hours.  A remarkable aircraft, AV-3 went on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in 2008. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop Grumman B-2A Spirit (Serial No. 82-1070), WM, C/N 1005/AV-5.  This the static test article used for structural stress tests during B-2 development. The airframe has no flight deck or engines.  It is named "Spirit of Freedom".   In 1993 the Spirit of Ohio (endured more than 1,000 hours of extensive temperature testing at the McKinley Climatic Laboratory at Eglin Air Force Base, Floriad.  It withstood temperatures ranging from -65 to 120 degrees Fahrenheit, rain and high humidity.  To verify the test results outside the laboratory, the Spirit of Ohio deployed to Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, in March 1996 for further cold climate testing.  To signify these tests, the technicians painted the "Fire and Ice" artwork on the nose landing gear panel and signed it.  Presented to the museum in 1999, that nose panel was installed on the NMUSAF's B-2 during restoration.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop McDonnell Douglas YF-23A Black Widow (Serial No. 87-0800).  The YF-23A competed in the late 1980s/early 1990s against the YF-22A in the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) program.  During the late 1970s, a new generation of Soviet fighters and Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) prompted the USAF to find a replacement for the F-15 Eagle air superiority fighter.  In 1986, the USAF awarded demonstration contracts to two competing industry teams, Lockheed-Boeing-General Dynamics (YF-22A) versus Northrop-McDonnell Douglas (YF-23A).  The Northrop YF-23A, unofficially named the Black Widow II, emphasized stealth characteristics.  To lessen weight and increase stealth, Northrop decided against using thrust vectoring for aerodynamic control as was used on the Lockheed YF-22A.  Northrop built two YF-23A prototypes.  In 1991, after extensive flight testing, the USAF announced that the Lockheed YF-22A had won the airframe competition.  Northrop ended its ATF program, and the YF-23A on display came to the NMUSAF in 2000.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Northrop BQM-74C, devloped o simulate subsonic aircraft, including cruise missiles, for the US Navy in the late 1970s.  Prior to the beginning of Operation Desert Storm in 1991, the US Air Force acquired 44 BQM-74Cs and reconfigured them from aerial targets into decoys.  The BQM-74C's ability to fool Iraqi air defenses significantly reduced US and coalition aircraft losses

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Packard Lepere LUSAC 11 biplane (Serial No. SC42133).  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is the only LUSAC 11 in existence.  It originally went to France just before the end of the First World War.  In 1989 the museum acquired it from the Musee de l'Air in Paris, France.  After extensive restoration by museum personnel, it went on display in 1992.  It is marked as it appeared while at the Allied test facility in Orly, France, in late 1918.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Panavia Tornado GR1 (Serial No. ZA374), CN, C/N 178/BS056/3088.  During the 1991 Gulf War, military planners made the elimination of Iraq's air defenses a top priority.  At the start of Operation Desert Storm (called Operation Granby by the British), Royal Air Force (RAF) Tornado GR1 aircraft attacked Iraqi air bases at low-level with Hunting JP233 anti-runway weapons and suppressed enemy air defenses.  Afterward, GR1 aircrews flew medium-level missions using 1,000-pound bombs.  At the end of the conflict, they used Paveway II laser-guided bombs against other strategic targets.  Flying more than 1,500 operational sorties, mostly at night, RAF GR1 aircrews played an important role in forcing the Iraqis out of Kuwait, and the RAF lost six GR1s in combat.  Tornados could carry a wide range of weapons, including the Air-Launched Anti-Radar Missile (ALARM) for the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) and the Paveway II and III laser-guided bombs (LGB).  The RAF also modified a number of Tornados to carry the Sea Eagle anti-shipping missile.  This variant became the GR1B.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF flew with the RAF's 17 Squadron from Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, where it sported desert camouflage and the name Miss Behavin'.  The aircraft is currently painted as an aircraft assigned to 617 Squadron.  It came to the museum in October 2002 as a donation from the RAF. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Piasecki H-21B Workhorse (Serial No. 51-15857), C/N B.4.  Designed by helicopter pioneer Frank Piasecki, the Vertol H-21 first flew in April 1952.  With two main rotors, its long fuselage could hold large numbers of people or heavy cargo loads.  Later adaptations allowed the aircraft to perform rescue and assault operations under combat conditions.  In addition to the pilot and copilot, the H-21 could carry either 20 fully-equipped troops or 12 litter patients and two medical attendants.  Originally called the "flying banana," the H-21 served with the USAF, the U.S. Army, the French Navy, the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and the West German Air Force.  The NMUSAF obtained the CH-21B on display from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in January 1965. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Piper J-3 Cub (Serial No. 42-36446), c/n 8570, Reg. No. NC42050.  This Piper J-3 represents the contributions of the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) to the U.S. Air Force. The J-3 on display is further identified as a J-3C-65-8 indicating it is a J-3 aircraft powered by a Model 8 Continental A-65 engine of 65 horsepower.  It is painted in the widely known Piper "Cub yellow".  The aircraft on display was donated in 1971 by the Greene County Composite Squadron, Civil Air Patrol, of Xenia, Ohio.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Piper L-4A Grasshopper (Serial No. 42-36790), painted as (Serial No. 42-36389).  The L-4 on display in the NMUSAF is painted and marked to represent an L-4 that flew in support of the Allied invasion of North Africa in November 1942.  It was placed on display in April 1995. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Piper PA-48 Enforcer (Serial No. 48-8301001), Reg. No. N481PE.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Radioplane OQ-19D.  In response to the USAAF's requirement for fast aerial targets with which to train anti-aircraft gunners, Radioplane (a division of Northrop Aircraft Co.) developed a 200 mph class airplane in 1945 . Evolved from earlier designs, such as the OQ-2A, the OQ-19 was first flight tested in 1946.  It was capable of catapult launches, rotary launches from a circular runway, and air launches from a B-26C.  When hit or out of fuel, the target was recovered under a 32-foot diameter parachute. Some OQ-19Ds were fitted integral flotation material to permit water recoveries.  Four men were needed to launch this target, whether by catapult or by the rotary method.  A fifth man flew the target from the ground or from another aircraft.  At a range of 200 yards, the OQ-19 appeared to gunners like a single-engine fighter at 500 yards.  Over 10,000 OQ-19s were built for the USAF between 1955-1958. Of the four models, the OQ-19D was the largest and fastest.  The OQ-19D on display in the NMUSAF was donated in 1960 by C.E. Manning of Sidney, Ohio, and it was prepared for display by the Naval Air Reserve Detachment in Columbus, Ohio. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Radioplane OQ-2A.  Although Radioplane developed the OQ-2A, other companies shared in production contracts. The target on display in the NMUSAF was the last in the 1943 production run by the Frankfort Sailplane Co. of Joliet, Illinois.  It was donated in 1970 by John C. Smith of Massillon, Ohio. 

 (USAAF Photo)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolt (Serial No. 42-76248), 406th Fighter Group prepares for take off, England, 1943.

 (IWM Photo)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolts of the 78th Fighter Group at Duxford, England, 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (S. Kaiser Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolt (Serial No. 42-23278), "Fiery Ginger IV".  The P-47D "Razorback" Thunderbolt on display in the NMUSAF is an early version of the "D", nicknamed for the ridge behind the cockpit (later P-47Ds had a bubble canopy).  It is painted to appear as the Thunderbolt flown by Colonel Neel Kearby on his last mission.  Colonel Kearby named all of his aircraft Fiery Ginger after his red-headed wife Virginia.  Recovered from the crash site and obtained by the museum, the actual vertical fin of Fiery Ginger IV is also on display.  This aircraft was donated by Republic Aviation Corp. in November 1964.

 (USAAF Photo)

Republic P-47N Thunderbolt formation, Pacific Theatre, ca 1945.  

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolt (Serial No. 45-49167), A, painted as (Serial No. 44-32718), C/N 399-55706, "Five by Five".

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Greg Hume Photo)

 (Valder137 Photos)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolt (Serial No. 44-33287), B8-A.  The P-47-40 on display in the NMUSAF was built at the Republic plant in Evansville, Indiana.  In the late 1940s, it was transferred to the Peruvian air force . The aircraft later came to the museum in 1981.  It is painted as the P-47D-30 "Five by Five" flown by Colonlel Joseph Laughlin, commander of the 362nd Fighter Group, 9th Air Force, in early 1945.

Republic F-84E-15-RE Thunderjet (Serial No. 49-2424), from the 9th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 49th Fighter-Bomber Wing/Group, taking off for a mission in Korea.  This aircraft was shot down by flak on 29 August 1952. (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic F-84E Thunderjet (Serial No. 50-1143), FS-454.  The F-84E on display in the NMUSAF arrived in 1963.  It is marked to represent the F-84G flown by Col. Joseph Davis Jr., commander of the 58th Fighter-Bomber Wing in 1953.

 (USAF Photo)

Republic F-84F-50-RE Thunderstreak (Serial No. 52-6852) of the 91st Fighter-Bomber Squadron, RAF Bentwaters, UK, Dec 1956.

 (USAF Photo)

Republic F-84F-55-RE Thunderstreak (Serial No. 52-6936), Ohio Air National Guard, ca 1950s.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic F-84F Thunderstreak (Serial No. 52-6526).  Evolved from the straight-wing F-84, the F-84F prototype first flew in June 1950.  Deliveries began in 1954, with most of the aircraft going to the Tactical Air Command as a ground support fighter bomber.  Republic built 2,112 F-84Fs while General Motors fabricated 599 more.  Of these, 1,301 were delivered to NATO air forces.  Production of a reconnaissance version, the RF-84F, totaled 715 aircraft, including 386 for allied countries.  To accommodate cameras in the nose, Republic moved the RF-84F's air intakes to the wing roots.  Through the late 1950s, the USAF replaced its F-84Fs with supersonic F-100s, and the Thunderstreaks went to Air National Guard units.  However, some F-84Fs temporarily returned to USAF service in the early 1960s due to the Berlin crisis.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was flown to the museum in 1970 following its assignment to the Ohio Air National Guard.  During its career, it served in England, Greece, Alaska and the continental United States.  In 1961 it participated in the mass deployment of 200 fighters across the Atlantic Ocean to Europe in response to the Berlin situation. 

 

 (USAF Photos)

Republic RF-84F Thunderflash (Serial No. 51-1847).

  (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic YRF-84F Thunderflash FICON (Serial No. 49-2430), Fighter Conveyor.  The NMUSAF’s YRF-84F participated in two USAF experimental programs, the development of the F-84F fighter-bomber and later testing of the “parasite” fighter concept.  This YRF-84F was the prototype of the F-84F Thunderstreak, which became a standard USAF fighter-bomber in the 1950s.  Consisting of an F-84E Thunderjet fuselage with swept-back wings and tail, it made its initial flight in June 1950.  In 1951 it was modified into the YRF-84F FICON (FIghter CONveyor), and first flew in this configuration in March 1953.  The concept envisioned carrying a “parasite” aircraft under (and partially enclosed within) a B-36 as a way to extend fighter range.  When needed, the fighter was lowered on a boom and released to protect the bomber or to conduct reconnaissance or bombing missions on its own.  After completing its mission, the fighter would return to the Convair B-36 Peacemaker.  The USAF employed FICON aircraft operationally for a brief period in the mid-1950s with RF-84Ks.  By the late 1950s, however, the successful development of mid-air refueling ended the use of parasite fighters.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic RF-84K Thunderflash (Serial No. 52-7259), c/n 215.  The RF-84K was a reconnaissance and nuclear strike fighter that was intended to be carried toward a target as a "parasite" underneath the Convair GRB-36 Peacemaker bomber.  At the time, jet aircraft possessed relatively short range and aerial refueling was not yet proven, so this provided a method to extend their range.  The U.S. Air Force applied this parasite concept to the FICON (FIghter CONveyer) project, which became the RF-84K.  The mission profile called for the recon aircraft or attack fighter to leave the carrier aircraft (a modified strategic bomber) upon reaching hostile territory, make a dash to the target and perform its mission.  The aircraft then returned to the waiting carrier, hooked up underneath it and was carried back to a base.  In 1952, as it tested two F-84 FICON prototypes, the USAF ordered 25 RF-84Ks and began modifying 10 B-36s into GRB-36 FICON carriers.  The RF-84K design was a modification of the RF-84F, the USAF's most numerous and advanced tactical reconnaissance aircraft at the time.  The only major differences were the RF-84K's retractable hook in the upper part of the nose, rods on either side behind the cockpit, and downward angled horizontal stabilizers (to fit inside the GRB-36's bomb bay).  The RF-84K entered service with the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (SRS) in 1955.  For the next year, pilots of the 91st SRS successfully flew their RF-84Ks, but they experienced many near disasters while separating or hooking back up to the GRB-36 carrier aircraft.  By 1957, the development of more capable strategic reconnaissance aircraft, along with greater range provided by dependable aerial refueling, made the parasite aircraft concept obsolete.  The 91st SRS's RF-84Ks were transferred to other units flying RF-84Fs and thereafter flew conventional missions from runways.  The NMUSAF's aircraft is marked as it appeared while serving in the 91st SRS in the mid-1950s.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic XF-84H Thunderscreech (Serial No. 51-1760).  The turboprop-driven XF-84H was a joint Air Force/Navy project designed to combine the speed of jet aircraft with the long range, low fuel consumption, and low landing speed of propeller-driven aircraft.  The XF-84H’s modified F-84F airframe included a T-tail and a triangular fin behind the cockpit to reduce the effect of torque from the propellers.  Between July 1955 and October 1956, two XF-84Hs made 12 test flights.  11 of these flights ended with emergency landings.  Although the XF-84H was one of the fastest single-engine, propeller-driven aircraft ever built, it never approached supersonic speed.  Due to poor performance and high maintenance requirements, the XF-84H never became operational.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was the first of the two prototypes produced by Republic, and it flew 8 of the 12 test flights.  The museum obtained the aircraft from Kern County, California, in 1999.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor (Serial No. 46-0680).  The XF-91 was America’s first rocket-powered fighter to fly faster than the speed of sound. It was originally conceived in the mid-1940s as an interceptor.  The Thunderceptor’s rocket engine supplemented its main turbojet engine, greatly increasing the aircraft’s speed and climb rate.  With its afterburning turbojet and rocket engine in operation, the XF-91 possessed a remarkable climb rate of nearly 30,000 feet per minute.  Republic built two prototype XF-91s, the NMUSAF’s aircraft was the first one built, and it first flew in May 1949.  Although the F-91 fighter program was canceled due to lack of funding, the prototypes were extensively tested and modified.  The Museum’s XF-91, the only remaining example, was transferred from Edwards AFB, California, in 1955.

Republic F-105B Thunderchief (Serial No. 57-5793).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Republic F-105D Thunderchief (Serial No. 60-0504), "Memphis Belle".  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is painted and marked as it appeared while serving in the 357th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 355th Tactical Fighter Wing, based at Takhli Royal Thai Air Base in Thailand.  The nickname "Memphis Belle II" refers to the B-17F that carried the same artwork during the Second World War.  The two red stars under the cockpit represent the two MiG kills it claimed during the Southeast Asia War. It arrived at the museum in April 1990.

 (Dsdugan Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic F-105G Thunderchief (Serial No. 63-8320), WW, C/N F97.   The F-105G on display in the NMUSAF began operational service in 1964 as a standard F-105F.  In 1967 it joined the 355th Tactical Fighter Wing in Thailand, where it flew combat missions for nearly three years.  During this time, it became one of a select few USAF aircraft to claim three MiG kills.  In 1970 it was fitted with electronic counter-measure equipment and joined the 388th TFW for "Wild Weasel" duty, attacking enemy surface-to-air missile sites.  In 1972 the aircraft was modified to the improved F-105G "Wild Weasel" configuration.  After another year in Thailand, it was assigned to the 35th TFW at George Air Force Base, California.  It remained there until February 1980 when it was flown to the museum.  It is marked as it appeared while assigned to the 561st Tactical Fighter Squadron based at Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand, in 1972-1973.

Rockwell B-1A Lancer (Serial No. 76-0174).  This aircraft has been moved to the Strategic Air & Space Museum, Nebraska.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Rockwell B-1B Lancer (Serial No. 84-0051).  First used in combat against Iraq during Operation Desert Fox in 1998, the B-1B has also been employed in Kosovo and Afghanistan.  Starting in 2002, the U.S. Air Force began reducing the number of B-1Bs as a cost-saving measure.  The aircraft on display arrived at the NMUSAF from the 7th Bomb Wing at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, on 10 Sep 2002.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Ryan PT-22 Recruit (Serial No. 41-15721).  The PT-22 on display in the NMUSAF was donated by Mrs. Nickolas A. Romano Jr. and her son, Nicky, of Hampton, Virginia, in 1969 in memory of her husband who lost his life in Vietnam on 1 July 1968.  Chief Warrant Officer Romano had served as an enlisted man in the USAF for 22 years prior to retiring.  He then enlisted in the U.S. Army to attend flight school and become a pilot.  The airplane was restored by the Department of Aviation Technology, Purdue University.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Ryan YPT-16 STA (Serial No. NC 18922), C/N 312.  Suspended from the ceiling.  Acquired by the museum in 1986, the aircraft on display is a Ryan STA withdrawn from the YPT-16 production run.  Never owned by the Air Corps, it flew under civilian registration.  However, the logbook shows that the aircraft participated in demonstrations to Air Corps officials at Wright Field, Ohio, in July 1939.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Ryan X-13A Vertijet (Serial No. 54-1620).  Suspended from its launch and recovery tower.  The X-13 was built to prove the concept that a jet could take off vertically, transition to horizontal flight, and return to vertical flight for landing.  Equipped with a temporary tricycle landing gear, the first of two X-13s flew conventionally in December 1955 to test its overall aerodynamic characteristics.  It was then fitted with a temporary "tail sitting" rig, and in May 1956 this X-13 flew vertically to test its hovering qualities.  The second X-13, on display in the NMUSAF, made history in April 1957, when it completed the first full-cycle flight at Edwards Air Force Base, California.  It took off vertically from its mobile trailer, rose into the air, nosed over into a level attitude and flew for several minutes.  Then, it reversed the procedure to vertical flight and slowly descended to its trailer for a safe landing.  This X-13 also made demonstration flights in the Washington, D.C., area later that year.  Even though the X-13 successfully proved the original concept, its design had limited operational potential, and a lack of funding shut down the program in 1958.  The X-13 was transferred to the museum in 1959.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Ryan BQM-34 Firebee.  The Firebee, originally designated the Q-2, was a high-speed target drone for both surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles.  It was used primarily for the testing of newly-developed missiles and for the training of fighter-interceptor pilots whose aircraft were armed with missiles.  Capable of being launched from the ground or from an airplane in flight, the Firebee is radio-controlled during its mission by an operator on the ground.  Upon being hit by a missile and disabled, or upon completing its mission undamaged, the Firebee is lowered safely to earth by a self-contained parachute.  The Firebee on display inthe NMUSAF was the first XQ-2C built and flown.  It established a record of 25 flights at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, from 1958 to 1960.  It was obtained from Ryan in May 1960.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Scaled Composites Long-EZ Borelis.  In January 2008, this modified Scaled Composites Long-EZ completed the first manned flight of an aircraft powered by a pulsed detonation engine (PDE).  The flight was the result of a five-year cooperative effort between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Innovative Scientific Solutions Incorporated (ISSI).  The project used the popular homebuilt Long-EZ designed by Burt Rutan as a platform.  Engines normally burn fuel and air at subsonic speeds to provide propulsion. Pulsed detonation engines detonate the fuel-air mixture to produce repeated, controlled explosions.  The resulting supersonic shockwaves create thrust. In this PDE, the thrust is expelled through four tubes out the back of the aircraft. Remarkably, the PDE engine in this aircraft was made in part from off-the-shelf automotive parts.  Pulsed detonation engines are much less complicated and promise to be less expensive to operate than jet engines. Moreover, they offer a fuel savings of between 5-20 percent over traditional turbojet engines. Although still in development, PDEs may become more common as the technology matures.  This aircraft was delivered to the NMUSAF in 2008.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Schweizer TG-3A Glider (Serial No. 42-52988).  The TG-3A on display in the NMUSAF was donated by Henry A. Shevchuk.  It was restored by the Spartan School of Aeronautics, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and delivered to the museum in December 1980.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Schneider Schulgleiter SG 38.  This SG 38 came to the museum in 2010, and is marked as a glider used to train Luftwaffe pilots.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Seversky P-35A (Serial No. 36-0404), PA70.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is the only known surviving P-35.  It served with the 94th Pursuit Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group.  The aircraft was restored by the 133rd Tactical Airlift Wing, Minnesota Air National Guard, with assistance from students of the Minneapolis Vocational Institute.  It is marked as the P-35A flown by the 17th Pursuit Squadron commander, 1st Lt. Buzz Wagner, in the Philippines in the spring of 1941.

 (NACA Photo)

Sikorsky YR-4B Hoverfly, USAAF (Serial No. 43-28229), at the NACA Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory at Hampton, Virginia.  It was transferred to the U.S. Navy and designated HNS-1 (BuNo. 39034).  It was test flown at Langley in March 1945. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Sikorsky R-4B Hoverfly (Serial No. 43-46506), 16, C/N 39.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The R-4B on display was donated to the museum by the University of Illinois in 1967. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Sikorsky R-6A Hoverfly II (Serial No. 43-45379).  The helicopter on display in the NMUSAF was acquired by the museum in 1986. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Sikorsky YH-5A Dragonfly (Serial No. 43-46620).  The YH-5A on display in the NMUSAF was obtained from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in March 1955.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Sikorsky UH-19B Chickasaw (Serial No. 52-7587).  The UH-19B on display in the NMUSAF is painted and marked as an H-19A known as Hopalong, one of two H-19s to make the first transatlantic helicopter flight, traveling during the summer of 1952 from Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts, to Scotland in five stages.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Sikorsky CH-3E Jolly Green Giant (Serial No. 63-9676), C/N 61508.

Sikorsky HH-3E being refueled by a Lockheed HC-130 Hercules.  Aerial refueling enabled the helicopters to rescue downed aircrew from any location in the Southeast Asia theater of operations. (USAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Ken LaRock, USAF Photo)

Sikorsky HH-3E Jolly Green Giant (Serial No. ----709).  The USAF developed the HH-3E helicopter, nicknamed the "Jolly Green Giant," to perform combat search and rescue (CSAR) to recover downed Airmen during the Southeast Asia War.  A highly modified version of Sikorsky's CH-3 transport helicopter, the HH-3E carried both armour plating and armament to protect it from hostile forces during rescues of aircrews in a combat area.  Fifty CH-3Es were converted to HH-3Es with the addition of armor, defensive armament, self-sealing fuel tanks and a rescue hoist.  With a watertight hull, the HH-3E could land on water, and its large rear door and ramp permitted easy loading and unloading.  The first air-refuelable helicopter to be produced, the HH-3E's retractable fuel probe and external fuel tanks gave it a range limited only by the endurance of the aircrew.  In fact, in 1967, two aerial refueled HH-3Es set the long-distance record for helicopters by flying non-stop from New York to Paris, France.  This long-range capability allowed HH-3Es to conduct CSAR operations anywhere in the Southeast Asia theater of operations, and they participated in the attempt to rescue American prisoners of war from the Son Tay prison camp in 1970.  The first USAF HH-3Es arrived in Vietnam in 1967, and they operated out of Udorn Air Base, Thailand, and Da Nang Air Base, South Vietnam.  During the Southeast Asia War, HH-3 crewmen were awarded one Medal of Honor, twenty-four Air Force Crosses, and over 190 Silver Stars.  A quarter of a century later, HH-3Es participated in OPERATION DESERT STORM, and they provided rescue support in the early years of the Space Shuttle program.  The USAF retired its last HH-3Es by 1995.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Sikorsky MH-53M Pave Low IV Helicopter (Serial No. 80357).  Air Force special operations forces used the Sikorsky MH-53M to covertly enter enemy territory.  Capable of operating at day or night or in bad weather, these helicopters conducted long-range, low-level missions to insert, extract, and resupply special operations forces.  Equipped with forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensors, inertial global positioning systems (GPS), Doppler radar navigation systems, and terrain-following and terrain-avoidance radar, the MH-53 could fly clandestine, low-level missions in any weather, day or night. This system gave the aircrew instant access to the total battlefield situation on a color, digital map screen that was compatible with night vision goggles. Using feeds from satellite links, the system displayed nearly real-time information about potential hazards along the flight route such as power lines or enemy electronic threats.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was assigned to the 20th Expeditionary Special Operations Squadron and its last flight was a combat mission in Iraq on 28 March 2008.  During its 38-year career, this helicopter participated in many important missions.  It carried the "command element" on the mission known as Operation Kingpin, to rescue American prisoners of war thought to be held at the Son Tay prison near Hanoi, North Vietnam.  It is the last among the five HH-53s that participated in that raid.  After Vietnam, it also flew in many more combat engagements including Operations Desert Storm and Iraqi Freedom before it was retired. 

 (Derek Smith Photo)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Sopwith F.1 Camel.  Although 5,490 Camels were produced, few remain in existence today.  USAF personnel built the Camel on exhibit from original First World War factory drawings, completing it in 1974.  The aircraft is painted and marked as the Camel flown by Lt. George A. Vaughn Jr. of the 17th Aero Squadron, America's second-ranking Air Service ace to survive the war.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

SPAD S.VII C.1 (Serial No. A.S. 94099).  The airplane on display was obtained from the Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois, and restored by the 1st Fighter Wing, Selfridge Air Force Base, Michigan, 1962-1966.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

SPADS XIIIC.1 (Serial No. 16594).  Built in October 1918 by the Kellner et ses Fils piano works outside of Paris, the museum's SPAD XIII did not see combat.   Shipped to the United States with 434 other SPAD XIIIs after the Armistice, this aircraft went to San Diego, California, and a smaller, 150-hp Wright-Hispano engine replaced its Hispano-Suiza engine.  The museum staff restored this SPAD XIII to its original configuration, including a 220-hp Hispano-Suiza engine.  It is painted in the markings of America's highest scoring ace of the First World War with 26 victories, Capt. Edward V. Rickenbacker of the 94th Pursuit Squadron. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Standard J-1 (Serial No. 1141).  The Standard Aircraft Co. J-1 was a two-seat primary trainer used by the U.S. Army Air Service to supplement the JN-4 Jenny.  Similar in appearance to the JN-4, the J-1 was more difficult to fly and never gained the popularity of the legendary Jenny.  Standard developed the J-1 from the earlier Sloan and Standard H-series aircraft designed by Charles Healey Day. Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body and Wright-Martin, built 1,601 J-1s.  Museum personnel completed a two-year restoration of the aircraft on display in the NMUSAF in 1981.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Standard J-1.  The second Standard J-1 on display in the NMUSAF has the fabric covering on the fuselage removed to illustrate the wire-braced wooden construction typical for aircraft of that time.  It also reveals the dual controls and relatively simple cockpit instrumentation. The black tank in front of the forward cockpit is the fuel tank.  This airplane was donated to the Air Force Museum Foundation in December 1962 by Robert Greiger, Oak Harbor, Ohio.

 (Bill Larkins Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Stinson L-1A Vigilant (Serial No. 41-19039).  The L-1 Vigilant (company designation Model 74) was a 1940s American light observation aircraft built by Stinson, a division of  the Vultee Aircraft Corporation.  The aircraft was operated by the USAAC as the O-49 until 1942.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Stinson L-5 Sentinel (Serial No. 42-98667), painted as an L-5 of the 25th Liaison Sq. serving in New Guinea in 1944.  The L-5 on display in the NMUSAF was donated by Dr. Robert R. Kundel of Rice Lake, Wisconsin.  It was restored by the "Oriole Club" 133rd Tactical Airlift Wing, Minnesota Air National Guard.  Delivered to the museum in 1977, it is marked as an L-5 of the 25th Liaison Squadron serving in New Guinea in 1944.

 (Robert Dilley Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. Vc, RAF (Serial No. MA863), HL-B, USAAF markings, representative of the "Operation Torch" landings in North Africa in 1942 as flown by the 31st Fighter Group, 308th Fighter Squadron. MA863 is an ex Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fighter, (Serial No. A58-246).  This aircraft also served with RAF No. 54 Squadron in early 1944 as the personal mount of Sqn Ldr E. M. Gibbs wearing the codes DL-A.  This Spitfire later served with RAAF No. 452 Squadron, coded QY-F.  This Spitfire Mk. Vc (Trop) was built for Supermarine under license by Vickers-Armstrong in June 1943.  The museum acquired it from the Imperial War Museum in March 2000. 

 (Goshimini Photo)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire PR Mk. XI, RAF (Serial No. PA908).  This aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is painted in an overall photo-reconnaissance (PR) Blue colour scheme marked to represent one of the U.S. Army Air Forces' 14th Photographic Squadron of the 8th Air Force which operated Spitfire Mark XIs from November 1943 to April 1945, flying hazardous long-range reconnaissance missions over mainland Europe from Mount Farm airfield in England..  It was placed on display in the NMUSAF in 1993.  

This Spitfire was flown by RCAF Flt Lt John "Brick" Bradford operating in India during the Second World War.  The aircraft was discovered 40 years later as a derelict in India, when it was purchased and shipped to Canada.  The Canadian company that bought this Spitfire sold it to the NMUSAF in 1986.

Supermarine Spitfire LF Mk. XVIe, RAF (Serial No. TE330).  This aircraft was held in the NMUSAF from 1961 to 1995.  It went through several owners, was restored in New Zealand and is now in China, marked HT-B.

 (USAF Photo)

S-75 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline) Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defense system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Taylorcraft L-2M Grasshopper (Serial No. 43-26592).  The L-2M on display in the NMUSAF, was built in 1944 by the Taylorcraft Airplane Co. in Alliance, Ohio.  The U.S. Army Air Forces used it for liaison pilot training at the McFarland Flying Service Contract Pilot School at the Atkinson Municipal Airport in Pittsburg, Kansas.  It is painted to represent another L 2M flown at the Atkinson Municipal Airport (Serial No. 43-26588) during the Second World War.  In September 2011, Richard Valladao donated the restored aircraft to the museum in memory of U.S. Army Private 1st Class Richard Jerome Conway, who was killed in combat while serving with the 45th Infantry Division in France in 1944.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Teledyne-Ryan AQM-34L Firebee (Serial No. L-174).  Suspended from the ceiling.  The AQM-34L remotely piloted aircraft flew low-level photo-reconnaissance missions over North Vietnam.  The AQM-34 series was developed from the unmanned BQM-34A target aircraft.  The AQM-34L on display flew more than 30 missions over North Vietnam.  On 6 Aug 1972, it was damaged by an SA-2 surface-to-air missile (SAM) and landed by parachute in the South China Sea off the North Vietnamese coas t. Although recovered by a U.S. Navy ship, it was further damaged by salt water beyond economical repair.  This AQM-34L's nickname, M.R. Ling, was a pun on the last name of LCol. Edwin Emerling, who was involved with its early combat missions.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Teledyne-Ryan AQM-34Q Firebee (Serial No.).  Firebee drones flew many types of missions, including photographic reconnaissance, electronic intelligence gathering, and radio communications monitoring.  From February 1970 to June 1973, AQM-34Q unmanned aircraft flew 268 missions near North Korea monitoring voice communications (known as communication intelligence or COMINT).  Code-named "Combat Dawn," the AQM-34Q was developed after North Korean MiGs shot down a U.S. Navy EC-121 reconnaissance aircraft in international airspace with the loss of all 31 crewmembers.  Teledyne-Ryan built a total of four prototypes and 15 production AQM-34Qs.  Launched in mid-air from a modified Lockheed C-130 Hercules, the AQM-34Q flew a pre-programmed course or was manually flown by a remote operator.  It intercepted radio signals from as far as 300 miles away and relayed them in real time to a ground control van.  After returning to a safe area over water, the AQM-34Q deployed a parachute.  A modified helicopter then hooked the parachute to catch the drone in mid-air.  If the operation failed, the drone was retrieved from the ocean's surface.   The museum's AQM-34Q was nicknamed the "Flying Submarine" because of the many times it dropped into the ocean. Water recoveries are represented by dolphins and airborne retrievals are represented by parachutes.  Placed on display in 2006, it is marked as it appeared in May 1973.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Teledyne Ryan AQM-91A Compass Arrow.  Compass Arrow was a high-flying, unmanned photo reconnaissance aircraft designed to cruise at nearly 15 miles altitude while taking photos showing ground details as small as one foot in size.  After air-launching from a Lockheed DC-130E Hercules aircraft, Compass Arrow navigated automatically, but it also could be flown manually by an operator in the launch aircraft.  To present a small radar image and avoid surface-to-air missiles, Compass Arrow's vertical surfaces are canted inward, and its body uses radar-absorbing materials.  The engine is mounted on top to reduce its heat signature from below, and the aircraft also carries anti-radar electronics.   The AQM-91A never became operational.  However, lessons learned from its development contributed to later stealth fighters, bombers and unmanned aerial vehicles. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Thomas-Morse S-4C Scout (Serial No. 1SC38944).  The S-4C on display in the NMUSAF was donated to the museum in March 1965 by Capt. R.W. Duff, Miami, Florida, and restored by Aero Mechanics High School, Detroit, Michigan.

 (NACA Photo)

Verville-Sperry M-1 Messenger, NACA, 1926.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Verville-Sperry M-1 Messenger (Serial No 68533), P306.  The Sperry Messenger was a single-seat biplane designated the M-1 and MAT by the USAAS.  Sperry produced approximately 50 Messengers and the civilian two-seat version, the Sport Plane, between 1920 and 1926.  The aircraft was the first to make contact between an airplane and an airship while in flight.  The Messenger's small size, simple construction, and inexpensive cost made it ideal for testing and experimentation. As well as the original communications duties, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) used one in its pioneering aerodynamic research programs from 1923 to 1929.  Sperry modified twelve into the radio-controlled Messenger Aerial Torpedo, an early flying bomb, and developed the apparatus for a Messenger to make the first successful airship hook on and release in December 1924.  On 15 Dec, at Scott Field, Illinois, Lt. Clyde Finter hooked on to a trapeze attached to a non-rigid airship, the TC-3.  In the Messenger, Finter remained attached briefly while the airship made a turn, then he unhooked and landed the aircraft on the ground.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Vultee BT-13B Valiant (Serial No. 42-90629).  The BT-13B on display in the NMUSAF, one of 1,775 Bs built, was acquired from Raymond Brandly of West Carrollton, Ohio, in 1965.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

V-2 Rocket, Mittelwerk A-4 V-2 with Meillerwagen.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Waco CG-4A Hadrian glider (Serial No. 45-27548).  Fifteen companies manufactured over 12,000 CG-4As, with 1,074 built by the Waco Aircraft Co. of Troy, Ohio.  The glider on display in the NMUSAF was built by the Gibson Refrigerator Co. in Greenville, Michigan, and accepted by the U.S. Army Air Forces in July 1945.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Wright Modified B Flyer.  This airplane is a modified version of the Wright “B” Flyer, the first model produced in quantity by the Wright brothers.  It is representative of the Signal Corps Airplanes No. 3 and No. 4 purchased by the US Army in 1911, and it was used for training pilots and conducting aerial experiments.  At College Park, Md., in October 1911, a Wright “B” was used for the first military trials of a bombsight and bomb-dropping device.  The major modifications of the airplane on exhibit in the NMUSAF include the replacement of the original four-cylinder Wright engine with an eight-cylinder Rausenberger engine, the addition of ailerons on the trailing edges of the wings in place of the wing-warping feature used by the Wright brothers, and the use of a wheel control system instead of the Wright’s lever control system.  The NMUSAF aircraft was used for flight instruction by Howard Rinehart at Mineola, New York, in 1916.  It appears in the museum almost exactly as it did when it was last flown by Lt John A. Macready during the International Air Races at Dayton, Ohio, in October 1924.  It was acquired by the Air Force Museum Foundation, Inc. and donated to the museum.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Wright 1909 Military Flyer.  The aircraft on display is an exacting reproduction constructed by museum personnel in 1955.  It is equipped with an engine donated by Orville Wright and chains, sprockets and propellers donated by the heirs of the Wright estate.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Yokosuka MXY7-K1 Ohka Trainer.  The Dai-ichi Kaigun Koku Gijitsusho (1st Naval Air Technical Arsenal) at Yokosuka, Japan, designed the MXY7-K1 to teach less experienced pilots to fly the Model 11 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) kamikaze suicide rocket bomb.  The Ohka was carried to the target under a G4M Betty bomber.  When the Betty/Ohka combination reaching Allied shipping, the Ohka pilot would detach, ignite the rocket motor, and dive into a ship.  This trainer version was carried aloft and then released for practice flights. Unlike the Ohka, the MXY7-K1 had a landing skid and flaps.  In place of the warhead and rocket motors of the Ohka, the MXY7-K1 used water ballast that was expelled before landing. Even so, it challenged novice pilots with its high, 130 mph landing speed.  A total of 45 MXY7-K1 trainers were completed by the end of the Second World War.