Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Warplane Survivors USA: Ohio, Dayton, National Museum of the USAF (Part II), Douglas to Lockheed

National Museum of the USAF (Part II)

Douglas to Lockheed

Data current to 21 April 2020.

Dayton, National Museum of the United States Air Force (NMUSAF), 1100 Spaatz St., Wright-Patterson AFB, 45433-7102.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas O-38F, biplane (Serial No. 33-0324), C/N 1117.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The NMUSAF's O-38F was one of the first military aircraft assigned to Alaska, landing at Ladd Field near Fairbanks, Alaska, in October 1940.  This aircraft flew various missions until it crashed on 16 June 1941, due to engine failure about 70 miles southeast of Fairbanks.  Uninjured, the pilot, Lt. Milton H. Ashkins, and his mechanic, Sgt. R.A. Roberts, hiked to safety after supplies were dropped to them.  The abandoned aircraft remained in the Alaskan wilderness until the museum arranged for its recovery by helicopter in June 1968.  Despite being exposed to the Alaskan weather for 27 years, the aircraft remained in remarkable condition.  Only the wings required extensive restoration.

 (USAAC Photo)

Douglas O-46A aircraft assigned to the Maryland National Guard's 104th Observation Squadron fly over the Chesapeake Bay on 25 June 1938.  The 104th flew O-46s from February 1937 to June 1941.

 (SDA&SM Archive Photo)

Douglas O-46A (Serial No. 35-214), ca 1942.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas O-46A (Serial No. 35-179), C/N 1441.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The NMUSAF holds the only surviving O-46A.  It is currently in storage.  On 27 November 1942, this O-46A of the 81st Air Base Squadron landed downwind at Brooks Field, Harlingen, Texas, ran out of runway and overturned.  Written off, it was abandoned in place.  More than 20 years later it was discovered by the Antique Airplane Association with trees growing through its wings, and in 1967, it was rescued and hauled to Ottumwa, Iowa.  Restoration turned out to be beyond the organization's capability, and in September 1970, it was traded to the NMUSAF for a flyable Douglas C-47 Skytrain.  The (then) Air Force Museum had it restored at Purdue University, and placed it on display in 1974, the sole survivor of the 91 O-46s built.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Douglas B-18A Bolo (Serial No. 37-0469), R33, C/N 2469.  Stationed at Wright Field from 1939 to 1942, the B-18A on display intne MNUSAF was acquired and restored by the museum in 1971.  It is painted as a B-18A serving with the 38th Reconnaissance Squadron in 1939.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas C-47D Skytrain (Serial No. 43-49507), painted as (Serial No. 43-15213), L4-W, C/N 15323/26768.  D-Day markings.  The C-47D on display in the NMUSAF was the last C-47 in routine USAF use, and was flown to the museum in 1975.  It is painted and marked to represent the C-47A flown by 2nd Lt. Gerald "Bud" C. Berry of the 91st Troop Carrier Squadron, 439th Troop Carrier Group, to recover gliders used in the invasion of France on D-Day, 6 June 1944.  "Snatched" from the ground in Normandy, the gliders were towed back to England for reuse.  On 22 March 1945, Lt. Berry used that aircraft to "snatch" a glider filled with wounded soldiers at Remagen, Germany.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

Douglas A-20G Havoc (Serial No. 43-22200), R, C/N 21847, Reg. No. NL63004.  Painted as (Serial No. 43-21475), "Little Joe".  In 1961 the Bankers Life and Casualty Co. of Chicago, Illinois, donated this A-20G to the NMUSAF.  It is painted to represent "Little Joe" of the 5th Air Force, 312th Bomb Group, 389th Bomb Squadron, with 150 missions. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas SBD-4 Dauntless (BuNo. 10575), Douglas A-24B Banshee (Serial No. 42-54582), painted as (Serial No. 41-15786), C/N 17421.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas B-23 Dragon (Serial No. 39-0037), 17B-9, C/N 2723.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas C-39A (Serial No. 38-0515), 10TG-15, C/N 2072, DC-2-243 ex Reg. Nos. XA-DUF, XA-YAV and N6097C.  Donated to the NMUSAF in 1970.

 (USAF Photo)

Douglas C-54G-1-DO Skymaster (Serial No. 45-521), c/n 35974, ca 1960s. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas VC-54C Skymaster (Serial No. 42-107451), painted as (Serial No. 42-72252), President Truman`s “Sacred Cow”.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas A-26C Invader (Serial No. 44-35733), c/n 29012.  The Marauder on display in the NMUSAF was flown in combat by the Free French during the final months of the Second World War.  It was obtained from the Air France airline's training school near Paris in June 1965.  It is painted as a 9th Air Force B-26B assigned to the 387th Bomb Group in 1945.  It was flown to the museum in September 1957.  It is painted to represent a B-26C used during the Korean War by the 34th Bomb Squadron flying night intruder missions.

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas A-26A(K) Invader (Serial No. 64-17676), formerly A-26B, 41-39596.   Modified by On Mark Engineering, the B-26K had a rebuilt fuselage and tail, strengthened wings, improved engines, reversible propellers, wing-tip fuel tanks and other refinements.  Redesignated A-26As, Counter Invaders remained in Southeast Asia until 1969 and retired from USAF service.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was originally an A-26C converted to B-26K.  It was one of the first six to arrive at Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base in 1966.  In November 1980 it was flown to the museum.

 

Douglas A-1E Skyraider escorting a Sikorsky HH-3C rescue helicopter on a CSAR mission in 1966. (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photos)

Douglas A-1E Skyraider (Serial No. 52-132649), C/N 9506.  The A-1E on display in the NMUSAF is the aircraft flown by Maj Bernard Fisher on 10 March 1966, when he rescued a fellow pilot shot down over South Vietnam.  For this deed, Fisher received the Medal of Honor.  The A-1E was severely damaged in further combat in South Vietnam, before it came to the museum in 1968 for preservation.

 (USAF Photo)

Douglas A-1H Skyraider (BuNo. 137512) of attack squadron VA-152 Friendlies in flight in 1966.  VA-152 was assigned to Attack Carrier Air Wing 16 (CVW-16) aboard the aircraft carrier USS Oriskany (CVA-34) for a deployment to Vietnam from 26 May to 16 November 1966.

Douglas A-1H Skyraider (BuNo. 134600).

 (USAF Photo)

Douglas VC-118 Liftmaster (Serial No. 46-0505), C/N 42881/129.  President Harry S. Truman's "Independence", ca 1947.  This aircraft served as President Harry S. Truman's personal aircraft until he left office in 1953.  It later served as a VIP aircraft for other air force personnel, before being retired to the Museum in 1965.

 (USAF Photos)

Douglas XD-42A Mixmaster (Serial No. 43-50224).  The XB-42 Mixmaster was an experimental bomber, designed for a high top speed.  The unconventional approach was to mount the two engines within the fuselage driving a pair of contra-rotating propellers mounted at the tail in a pusher configuration, leaving the wing and fuselage clean and free of drag-inducing protrusions.  Two prototype aircraft were built, but the end of the Second World War changed priorities and the advent of the jet engine gave an alternative way toward achieving high speed.  The prototype was struck off charge in 1949 and was given to the NMUSAF, although it is currently in storage and has never been placed on display.  The wings were removed for transport but have since been inadvertently lost . In late 2010, the fuselage was transferred to the museum.

 (USAF Photos)

Douglas XB-43 Jetmaster (Serial No. 44-61509).  The Jetmaster was a 1940s jet-powered prototype bomber.  The XB-43 was a development of the XB-42, replacing the piston engines of the XB-42 with two General Electric J35 engines of 4,000 lbf (17.8 kN) thrust each.  Despite being the first American jet bomber to fly, it suffered stability issues and the design did not enter production.  (Serial No. 44-61509) is currently in storage in the NMUSAF awaiting restoration.

 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas X-3 Stiletto (Serial No. 49-2892).  The twin-turbojet X-3, the only one built, was designed to test sustained flight at twice the speed of sound.  It also explored the use of very short wings and titanium airframe construction.  Engine development difficulties forced the use of lower-powered engines than originally planned, prohibiting the X-3 from achieving its Mach 2 design potential.  Even so, data gained from the X-3 program greatly benefited the F-104, X-15, SR-71 and other high performance aircraft.  The X-3 made its first test flight at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in October 1952. The X-3 was transferred to the NMUSAF in 1956.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas RB-66B Destroyer (Serial No. 53-0475), JN, C/N 44356.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF flew combat missions in Southeast Asia and was delivered to the museum in 1970.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas C-124C Globemaster II (Serial No. 52-1066), painted as (Serial No. 51-0135), C/N 43975.  Most C-124s were transferred to the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard by 1970, and all were released from active service in mid-1974.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was assigned to the 165th Tactical Airlift group of the Georgia Air National Guard following its service with the USAF.  It was flown to the museum in August 1975.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Douglas C-133A Cargomaster (Serial No. 56-2008), C/N 45245, 436 Military Airlift Wing.  The C-133A on display in the NMUSAF established a world record for propeller-driven aircraft when, on 16 Dec 1958, it carried a cargo payload of 117,900 pounds to an altitude of 10,000 feet.  It was flown to the museum on March 17, 1971

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Eberhart SE-5E (Serial No. 22-325).  American-built Royal Aircraft Factory SE-5.  The NMUSAF acquired the SE-5E through a donation by the estate of Lt. Col. William C. Lambert, USAF Ret'd, a First World War ace with 21.5 victories.  Lambert flew the S.E.5A as an American member of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Air Force.  The Air Force Museum Foundation also helped to buy the aircraft.  It is painted to represent an SE-5E of the 18th Headquarters Squadron, Bolling Field, Washington, D.C., in 1925.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Excelsior Gondola.

 (Fairchild UC-86, USAAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild 24-C8F (UC-61J), Reg. No. N16817, painted in Civil Air Patrol markings as worn during the Second World War.  The civilian production Model 24-C8F on display in th3e NMUSAF, served in the CAP at Coastal Base 2, Rehoboth, Delaware, during the Second World War.  The wartime owner of this airplane, CAP 1stLt M.M. Wilder, was awarded the Air Medal for his service at Coastal Patrol Base 2.  This aircraft has been repainted as it was while flying for the CAP.  It was donated to the museum in 1991 by Lt. Col. (Ret.) George L. Weiss, Fort Washington, Maryland. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild PT-19A Cornell (Serial No. 41-1466).

 Fairchild PT-26, ex-RCAF FH829, USAAF (Serial No. 42-14477), Bill Larkins Photo)

Fairchild PT-26 (Serial No. TBC).

 (USAF Photo)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo)

Fairchild C-82 Packet, USAF (Serial No. 44-2300), ca 1950s.

 (JustSomePics Photo)

  (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Greg Hume Photo)

Fairchild C-82A Packet (Serial No. 48-0581), CQ-581, C/N 10216, painted as (Serial No. 45-57735), CQ-735.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild C-119J Flying Boxcar (Serial No. 51-8037), C/N 10915.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild C-123K Provider (Serial No. 56-4362).  The C-123K on display in the NMUSAF was accepted by the USAF in 1957 as a C-123B, and went to South Vietnam in 1961 to fly as a low-level defoliant sprayer in a program known as "Ranch Hand".  In 1965, it was redesignated to UC-123B.  It saw extensive service during the Southeast Asia War as a dedicated insecticide sprayer to control malaria-carrying mosquitoes.  In 1968, Fairchild converted it to a UC-123K.  Ranch Hand personnel developed a strong symbolic attachment to this aircraft.  It took almost 600 hits in combat, and was named "Patches" for the damage repairs that covered it.  Moreover, seven of its crew received the Purple Heart for wounds received in battle.  Patches came back to the U.S. in 1972, and served in the Air Force Reserve as a C-123K until it was retired to the museum in 1980. 

 ( Mike Freer - Touchdown-aviation Photo)

Fairchild T-46A Eaglet (Serial No. 84-0493).  One of three built.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II (Serial No. 78-0681), MB, C/N A10-0301.  The A-10A on display in the NMUSAF was flown on 21 Jan 1991, by Capt Paul Johnson on an eight-hour rescue support mission during Operation Desert Storm, for which he was awarded the Air Force Cross, the USAF's second highest award for valor.  The aircraft was delivered to the museum in January 1992.

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II (Serial No. 78-0699).  In Storage.

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II (Serial No. 79-0223), EL, C/N A10-0487.

Fairchild Republic YA-10A Thunderbolt II (Serial No. 71-1370), C/N 2.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fieseler Fi-156C-1 Storch (Wk. Nr. TBC), 5F+YK.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is painted as the Storch used by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in North Africa.  Built in 1940, it was exported to Sweden where it remained until 1948. The last German to fly it before its acquisition by the donors in 1973 was German Second World War ace Erich Hartmann.  The aircraft was donated to the museum by Lt. Col. Perry A. Schreffler and Maj. Robert C. Van Ausdell, Santa Paula, California, and was delivered to the museum in 1974.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fisher P-75A Eagle (Serial No. 44-44553).  The Fisher Body Division of General Motors developed the P-75 Eagle to fill an urgent need for an interceptor early in the Second World War.  The original P-75 design incorporated the most powerful inline engine available and components from other aircraft as a way to expedite production.  Flight tests in late 1943 revealed unsatisfactory performance with the first two XP-75 prototypes . At the same time, the Eagle’s mission was changed to long-range escort. Ultimately, the idea of using other aircraft components had to be abandoned.  Fisher continued development of the design with the heavily-modified P-75A.  By the fall of 1944, however, the U.S. Army Air Forces already had capable escort aircraft like the P-51 Mustang and P-47 Thunderbolt, and it canceled the order for 2,500 P-75As.  Only eight XP-75s and six P-75As were built.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Sandpiper.  The Fa 330 on display in the NMUSAF is one of very few in existence of the 200 constructed.  It was bought to the United States at the end of the Second World War.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

  (Valder137 Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9 (Wk Nr. 601088), (Serial No. 9053Z01), 0324, HPS.  This Fw 190D-9 was originally assigned to the JG3 "Udet" Geschwader, one of the Luftwaffe's most famous fighter units.  JG3 was named for Ernst Udet, Germany's leading ace to survive the First World War.  The airplane, captured and brought to the United States for testing at the end of the Second World War, is on loan from the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

Fokker Dr. I Triplane (Serial No.1).  Suspended from the ceiling.  This reproduction is painted to represent the aircraft flown by Lt. Arthur Rahn in April 1918 when he served with Jagdstaffel 19.  Lt. Rahn is credited with six confirmed victories.  The aircraft was placed on display in the NMUSAF in April 1994.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fokker D.VII, replica (Serial No. 452).  Suspended from the ceiling.  The NMUSAF's reproduction aircraft on display is painted to represent the Fokker D. VII of Lt. Rudolph Stark, a squadron leader of Jasta(Fighter Squadron) 35b in October 1918.  It was placed on exhibit in May 1996.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Fritz X bomb.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

General Atomics YMQ-9A Reaper (Serial No. 02-4002), C/N PB-002.  UAV.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The Reaper on display in the NMUSAF is one of the two pre-production YMQ-9s sent to Afghanistan.  This aircraft was used for the initial weapons testing, flew 14 missions for the Department of Homeland Defense during October-November 2003, and it was the first Reaper to fly in Afghanistan . In four years, it flew 3,266 combat hours and 254 combat sorties.  It came to the museum in May 2009.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

General Atomics RQ-1K Predator (Serial No. 94-3009), C/N P-009.  This UAV provided military commanders with an Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform capable of flying over dangerous areas for extended periods without risk to a human pilot.  In flight, the UAV and its on-board sensors are controlled by the ground crew with a direct data link.  However, when the aircraft is flown beyond the range of a direct link, the ground crew maintains control though a satellite data link.  The equipment carried in the bottom turret can provide live video, still photographs, or radar imagery in all weather conditions, day or night.  Using satellite data links, the information gathered by a Predator can be shared instantaneously with commanders around the world.  In February 2001 the Predator successfully fired a laser-guided Lockheed Martin AGM-114 Hellfire anti-tank missile at a stationary target.  In May 2001 General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., presented the RQ-1K Predator on display in the NMUSAF.  It is painted to represent a Predator used in the early part of OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM in Afghanistan.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

General Dynamics F-111A Aardvark (Serial No. 67-0067), NA, C/N A1-112.  The F-111A on display in the NMUSAF is marked as it appeared in 1972-1973 when it was assigned to the 474th Tactical Fighter Wing during "Linebacker II", conducting very effective night strikes against North Vietnamese targets.

General Dynamics F-111F Aardvark (Serial No. 70-2390), LN, C/N E2-29/F-29.

General Dynamics F-111F Aardvark (Serial No. 72-1448), LN, C/N E2-78/F-78.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

General Dynamics EF-111A Raven (Serial No. 66-0057), CC, C/N A1-75.  EF-111A Ravens, known affectionately as "Fat Tails" and "Spark Varks," (the F-111 is known as the Aardvark), served as tactical electronic jamming aircraft in the 1980s and 1990s.  The USAF received 42 EF-111As between 1981 and 1985, and the aircraft supported several USAF operations in the 1980s and 1990s.  In the 1970s Grumman began modifying 42 F-111A fighters by adding jamming equipment to create the EF-111A.  A 16-foot-long, canoe-shaped radome on the underside for the fuselage housed high-powered transmitter antennas, and a fin-tip pod on the vertical stabilizer housed receiving antennas and other equipment, including a processor to detect hostile radar emissions.  This complex gear weighed about four tons.  Because the equipment required full-time attention in flight, the right seat crewmember, or Electronic Warfare Officer, no longer performed flight-related duties but instead monitored the jamming equipment.  In 1984 Grumman/General Dynamics Corp. began building additional modification kits for the EF-111A which enabled the aircraft to operate in three roles: standoff jamming, close in jamming and penetration/escort.  Ravens served first with the 390th Electronic Combat Squadron based at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho . Later, they were based at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico.  The USAF retired its EF-111As in June 1998, and this aircraft was placed on display in the NMUSAFin July 1998.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

General Dynamics NF-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial No. 75-0750), c/n 61-5, AFTI testbed.  The USAF used this highly modified fighter for more than 20 years to test new ideas in flight control, electronic targeting, and cockpit design.  A one-of-a-kind aircraft, the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 made more than 700 flights in 10 different research programs between 1978 and 2000.  AFTI F-16 programs developed targeting lasers and computers, and new autopilot and ground-avoidance systems which allowed pilots to fly faster and lower while seeking and attacking targets.  Other AFTI advances included digital flight controls, a voice-activated maneuvering system that allowed the pilot to "point" the aircraft in unusual flight attitudes, and touch-sensitive cockpit displays.  The aircraft's last project tested new technology that reduced the F-35 Lightning II’s weight and increased its maneuverability.  One of the AFTI program's most significant achievements was the first-ever use of all-electric "power by wire" flight controls, with no hydraulic or mechanical backups to move the aircraft's control surfaces.  This milestone won the AFTI team the 2000 Aerospace Industry Award for Engineering, Maintenance, and Modification.  In 2001 the AFTI F-16 was retired and transferred to the NMUSAF.

 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

General Dynamics F-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial No. 81-0663), 1, C/N 61-344, Thunderbirds markings.  The F-16 on display in the NMUSAF was one of the first F-16s to be received by the Thunderbirds in 1982 when they transitioned from T-38s to F-16s.  The Thunderbirds continued to fly this aircraft until 1992 when they converted to F-16Cs.  It was then modified to operational condition and assigned to the Air Education and Training Command to train pilots at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona.  In 1996 the Thunderbirds repainted it in Thunderbird colours at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.  The museum placed it on display in October 1996. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Grumman OA-12 Duck, Reg. No. N67790,  (Serial No. 33587), painted as 48-0563.  The OA-12 Duck was the USAF version of the Navy J2F-6 amphibian.  After the Second World War, the USAF' Air Rescue Service needed special aircraft for overwater missions, and in 1948 the USAF acquired eight surplus Navy J2F-6s.  Designated the OA-12, five of these aircraft went to Alaska for duty with the 10th Air Rescue Squadron.  The Columbia Aircraft Corp. of Valley Stream, New York, built the Grumman-designed J2F-6 Duck on display in the NMUSAF.  it was delivered to the U.S. Coast Guard on 9 June1945, and became surplus in 1946. It served with a series of civilian owners and "starred" in several films, including "Murphy's War" of the early 1970s.  This aircraft is painted to represent one of the rescue OA-12s the USAF acquired in 1948. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Grumman HU-16B Albatross (Serial No. 51-5282), C/N G-163.  The HU-16 on display in the NMUSAF was one of the last operational USAF Albatrosses.  The aircraft established a world altitude record for twin-engine amphibians when it reached 32,883 feet on 4 July 1973.  Two weeks later, the aircraft was retired and flown to the museum.

 (USAF Photos)

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Grumman X-29A (Serial No. 82-0003).  In 1985 the X-29A on display became the world's first forward-swept aircraft to fly supersonically.  The X-29A program explored cutting-edge aircraft design features, including forward-swept wings, advanced materials, a forward-mounted elevator (or canard) and a computerized flight control system.  It was managed by the USAF and funded by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), the USAF and NASA.  During the Second World War, Germany and the United States experimented with forward-swept wings, but both encountered problems with the metal wings bending dangerously at higher speeds.  As stronger composite materials became available in the 1970s, however, wing structures could be both lightweight and very rigid.  The NMUSAF’s aircraft is the first of two X-29As built by Grumman, and it made its first flight in December 1984.  The second X-29A first flew in 1989 and continued to perform test flights into the early 1990s.  After successfully completing the test program, the X-29A on display was retired to the museum in late 1994.

 (USAF Photo)

Grumman X-29 (Serial No. 82-0049).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Halberstadt CL IV.  The museum acquired the Halberstadt CL IV on display in 1984. Badly deteriorated at the time, its restoration was a joint international cooperative venture by the Museum fur Verkehr und Technik in Berlin, Germany, the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum and the National Museum of the United States Air Force.  It is marked as the CL IV of the squadron leader of the Schlachtstaffel 21, which is known to have engaged elements of the U.S. Army's 94th and 95th Aero Squadrons in mid-July 1918 during the battle of Chateau Thierry. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIa (Serial No. Z3174), XR-B.  This aircraft was built in Canada.  It is painted to represent an aircraft of RAF No. 71 (Eagle) Squadron, which was composed of American pilots that had volunteered to join the RCAF or the RAF beginning in September 1940 prior to US entry into the Second World War in Dec 1941.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Hawker-Siddeley XV-6A Kestrel (Serial No. 64-18262).  The British-built Kestrel was a prototype Vertical/Short Take Off and Landing (VSTOL) aircraft successfully tested in the 1960s.  An improved version, known as the Harrier, became the world's first operational VSTOL fighter when it entered Royal Air Force (RAF) service in 1969.  The first Kestrel began flight trials in 1961 in Britain.  The next year, the United Kingdom, US, and the Federal Republic of Germany ordered nine aircraft for combined testing by those countries' representatives.  A joint evaluation squadron, which included USAF pilots, conducted Kestrel trials in 1965.  Six of these trial aircraft came to the United States where the US armed forces conducted additional testing. Although the USAF did not order it, the US Marine Corps and RAF operated the follow-on Harrier for several decades.  The Kestrel on display was delivered to the NMUSAF from Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1970.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Helio U-10D Super Courier (Serial No. 66-14360).  The U-10D on display in the NMUSAF is painted and marked as an aircraft assigned to the 5th Air Commando Squadron in Southeast Asia in 1968.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Interstate L-6A Cadet (Serial No. 43-2680).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Junkers Ju-52/3M (CASA 352L) Trimotor (Serial No. T2B-244), 901-20, C/N 135.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Junkers Ju 88 D-1/Trop (Serial No. 0880430650), F6-Al, 105, C/N 430650.  Ex-RAF (Serial No. HK959).  ThisJu 88D-1/Trop (later designated Ju 88D-3), is a long-range photographic reconnaissance version modified for tropical use.  Known as the "Baksheesh", it was the best known Ju 88 of the 15,000 built.  Completed in June 1943, this aircraft was delivered to Romania, an ally of Germany during the Second World War.  In July 1943, a disillusioned Romanian pilot flew the aircraft to Cyprus to defect to British forces there.  The Royal Air Force turned over Baksheesh to the US Army Air Forces.  Test pilots at Wright Field flew the aircraft extensively.  At the end of the war, the USAAF stored it in the Arizona desert, until Jan 1960, when it was moved to the NMUSAF.  Baksheesh is painted in the Romanian Air Force markings it carried in July 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Kaman HH-43B Huskie (Serial No. 60-0263), C/N 87.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The HH-43B on display in the NMUSAF established seven world records in 1961-1962 for helicopters in its class for rate of climb, altitude, and distance traveled.  It was assigned to rescue duty with Detachment 3, 42nd Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, prior to its retirement and flight to the museum in April 1973.

 (USN Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai (Serial No. 5312).  The NMUSAF's N1K2-Ja is a fighter-bomber variant of the Shiden Kai equipped with wing mounts to carry bombs.  It is painted as an aircraft in the Yokosuka Kokutai, an evaluation and test unit similar in function to the USAAF's flight test unit at Wright Field.  As a result of Japanese forces being pushed back on the battlefront, by the spring of 1945 Yokosuka Kokutai test pilots entered combat in a desperate defence against overwhelming Allied air attacks.  This aircraft is one of only three surviving restored examples in the world.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Kellett K2/K3 Autogyro.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF, a modified K-2, was the first autogiro tested by the Army Air Corps at Wright Field in 1931.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Kettering Aerial Torpedo "Bug".  In 1917 Charles F. Kettering of Dayton, Ohio, invented the unmanned Kettering Aerial Torpedo, nicknamed the "Bug."  Launched from a four-wheeled dolly that ran down a portable track, the Bug's system of internal pre-set pneumatic and electrical controls stabilized and guided it toward a target.  After a predetermined length of time, a control closed an electrical circuit, which shut off the engine.  Then, the wings were released, causing the Bug to plunge to earth, where its 180 pounds of explosive detonated on impact.  The Dayton-Wright Airplane Co. built fewer than 50 Bugs before the Armistice, and the Bug never saw combat.  After the war, the U.S. Army Air Service conducted additional tests, but the scarcity of funds in the 1920s halted further development.  Museum personnel built this full-size reproduction of the Bug, and it went on display in 1964.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Laister-Kauffmann TG-4A Glider.  The TG-4A suspended from the ceiling of the Second World War Gallery in the NMUSAFm was donated to the museum in 1980 by Frederick A. Tietzel and placed on display in 2003.

 (USAAF Photo)

Lockheed P-38J Lightnings (Serial Nos. 42-67183 and 42-67332), ca 1944.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed P-38L Lightning (Serial No. 44-53232), painted as (Serial No. 42-67855), a P-38J of the 55th Fighter Squadron, based in England in 1944.  The P-38L was donated to the museum in 1961 by the Kaufmann Foundation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The top hats on the left side of the aircraft represent the nine bomber escort missions flown by its pilot, 2nd Lt. Royal D. Frey, with the yellow hat signifying five and the white hats one each.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed C-60A Lodestar (Serial No. 43-16445), C/N 18-2605.

 (Author Photos)

Lockheed RB-34A Vega (Serial No. AJ311), C/N 137-4449, ex-RAF Ventura III.  Previously on display with the Pueblo-Wiesbrod Aviation Museum, Colorado.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed EC-121D Constellation (Serial No. 53-0555).  The EC-121, originally designated RC-121, was a radar-picket version of the USAF's C-121 passenger aircraft.  The EC-121 provided early warning by detecting and tracking enemy aircraft with the electronic gear in the large radomes above and below its fuselage.  The Air Force ordered 82 EC-121s between 1951 and 1955, 72 of which were EC-121Ds.  The EC-121 entered service with the Air Defense Command in 1953, flying patrols off the U.S. coasts as an aerial extension of the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line.  EC-121s remained in service until they were replaced by more capable E-3 Sentry AWACS (Airborne Warning And Control System).  The last EC-121 was retired from the U.S. Air Force Reserve in 1978.  In Southeast Asia, these unarmed radar aircraft aided in downing enemy aircraft, directed U.S. aircraft to aerial refueling tankers, and guided rescue planes to downed pilots.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was nicknamed "Triple Nickel" because of its serial number (53-0555).  On 24 Oct 1967, it guided a U.S. fighter into position to destroy a MiG-21 over the Gulf of Tonkin.  This action marked the first time a weapons controller aboard an airborne radar aircraft had ever directed a successful attack on an enemy aircraft.  Triple Nickel came to the museum in 1971.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed VC-121E Constellation (Serial No. 53-7885), C/N 4151, (BuNo. 131650), Columbine III.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed P-80R Shooting Star (Serial No. 44-85200).  

Col. Albert Boyd flew this P-80R to a new world's speed record of 623.753 mph, returning the record to the United States after nearly 24 years, on 19 June 1947, at Muroc Army Air Field (now Edwards Air Force Base), California.  The Army Air Force's quest to capture the world's speed record, then held by a British Gloster Meteor, after the Second World War, led to the creation of the specialized P-80R.  A high-speed variant of the standard P-80A Shooting Star, it had a smaller canopy, redesigned air intakes and a shorter wing with an extended leading edge.  In addition, the engine was modified, armament removed and replaced by a fuel tank, and all drag-producing openings sealed.  The P-80R on display in the NMUSAF is the only one built.  It was shipped to the museum from Griffiss Air Force Base, New York, in October 1954.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed F-80C Shooting Star (Serial No. 49-0696), FT-696, C/N 080-2444.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed T-33A Shooting Star (Serial No. 53-5974), TR-974, C/N 580-9456.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The T-33 is one of the world's best-known aircraft, having served with the air forces of more than 20 different nations over several decades. The T-33A on display in the NMUSAF was flown to the museum in 1962. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed NT-33A Shooting Star (Serial No. 51-4120).  The NT-33A was an in-flight simulator operated for decades in support of numerous Department of Defense projects.  The NT-33A was used to study flying qualities, cockpit displays, control sticks, and flight control design of many, widely-varied aircraft, including the X-15, A-10, F-15, F-16, F-18, F-117, and F-22.  It also trained hundreds of U.S. Air Force and Navy test pilots.  Modified from a standard T-33 trainer in the late 1950s, the NT-33A could be programmed to simulate the flight of a completely different aircraft.  It also had an “artificial feel” system that replicated the characteristics of the stick and rudder controls of the aircraft being simulated.  A civilian contractor, the Calspan Corp. (formerly the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory), modified, operated and maintained the aircraft.  During the NT-33A's 40 years of distinguished service, Calspan performed numerous research programs around the country.  The NT-33A conducted its last research project in April 1997, and it was placed on display at the NMUSAF in August 1997. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Federal Government of the United States - Nevada Test Site Guide, DOE/NV-715 Photo)

Lockheed XF-90 (Serial No. 46-688), c/n 090-1002.  The Lockheed XF-90 was built in response to a USAF requirement for a long-range penetration fighter and bomber escort. The same requirement produced the McDonnell XF-88 Voodoo.  Lockheed received a contract for two prototype XP-90s (redesignated XF-90 in 1948).  The design was developed by Willis Hawkins and the Skunk Works team under Kelly Johnson.  Two prototypes were built (Serial Nos 46-0687 and 46-0688).  Developmental and political difficulties delayed the first flight until 3 June 1949, with Chief Test Pilot Tony LeVier at the controls.  The XF-90 was the first USAF jet with an afterburner and the first Lockheed jet to fly supersonic, albeit in a dive . It also incorporated an unusual vertical stabilizer that could be moved fore and aft for horizontal stabilizer adjustment.  Partly because Lockheed's design proved underpowered, it placed second to McDonnell's XF-88 Voodoo which won the production contract in September 1950, before the penetration fighter project was abandoned altogether.  Upon Lockheed losing the production contract, the two prototypes were retired to other testing roles.  The first aircraft (Serial No. 46-0687) was shipped to the NACA Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio in 1953 for structural tests.  It was no longer flyable, and its extremely strong airframe was tested to destruction.  The second aircraft (Serial No. 46-688) survived three atomic blasts at Frenchmen Flat within the Nevada Test Site in 1952.  In 2003, the heavily damaged hulk was recovered from the Nevada test site and moved to the NMUSAF, where it is currently undergoing minor restoration in one of the Museum's restoration facility hangars.  Its wings have been removed, and its nose is mangled from the nuclear blasts.  During the decontamination process, all the rivets had to be removed to remove radioactive sand.  At present, the museum plans to display the XF-90 in its damaged, mostly unrestored condition, to demonstrate the effects of nuclear weaponry.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed F-94A Starfire (Serial No. 49-2498).  The F-94A on exhibit in the NMUSAF was transferred from the active inventory to the museum in May 1957.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed F-94C Starfire (Serial No. 50-0980), FA-054, painted as (Serial No. 50-1054), FA-054, C/N 880-8025.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF has been painted to represent an F-94C assigned to the 60th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Otis Air Force Base, Massachusettts, during the late 1950s.

 (USAF Photo)

Lockheed F-104A-25-LO Starfighter (Serial No. 56-857), 56th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, May 1958.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed F-104C Starfighter (Serial No. 56-0914).

Lockheed F-104C Starfighter (Serial No. 56-0754), painted as (Serial No. 56-0879), /FG-879, c/n 183-1042.  This aircraft is mounted on a pylon in front of the museum.  It was suffering from storm damage and corrosion, but has been restored and remounted.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed YF-12A Blackbird (Serial No. 60-6935).  The YF-12 was developed in the 1960s as a high-altitude, Mach 3 interceptor to defend against supersonic bombers . Based on the A-12 reconnaissance aircraft, the YF-12A became the forerunner of the highly-sophisticated SR-71 strategic reconnaissance aircraft.  The first of three YF-12s flew in August 1963.  In May 1965, the first and third YF-12s set several records, including a speed record of 2,070.101 mph and an altitude record of 80,257.65 feet.  For their speed record flight, Col. Robert L. "Fox" Stephens (pilot) and LCol. Daniel Andre (fire control officer) received the 1965 Thompson Trophy.  Though the aircraft performed well, the F-12 interceptor program ended in early 1968.  High costs, the ongoing war in Southeast Asia, and a lower priority on air defense of the US all contributed to the cancellation.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was the second one built.  It was recalled from storage in 1969 for a joint USAF/NASA investigation of supersonic cruise technology.  It was flown to the museum in 1979, and it is the only remaining YF-12A in existence (the first YF-12A was damaged beyond repair after a landing mishap, and the third YF-12A was destroyed after the crew ejected to escape an inflight fire).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird (Serial No. 61-7976), C/N 2027.  Throughout its nearly 24-year career, the SR-71 remained the world's fastest and highest-flying operational aircraft.  From 80,000 feet, it could survey 100,000 square miles of Earth's surface per hour.  On 28 July 1976, an SR-71 set two world records for its class, an absolute speed record of 2,193.167 mph and an absolute altitude record of 85,068.997 feet.  On 21 March 1968, the aircraft on display in the NMUSAF made the first operational SR-71 sortie.  During its career, this aircraft accumulated 2,981 flying hours and flew 942 total sorties (more than any other SR-71), including 257 operational missions, from Beale Air Force Base, California, Palmdale, California, Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, and RAF (Base), Mildenhall, England.  The aircraft was flown to the museum in March 1990.

Lockheed D-21B UAV, C/N 535.

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed U-2A Dragon Lady (Serial No. 56-6722), C/N 389.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is the last U-2A built.  During the 1960s, it made 285 flights to gather data on high-altitude, clear-air turbulence and in the 1970s it flight tested reconnaissance systems.  Delivered to the museum in May 1980, it is painted as a typical reconnaissance U-2.

Lockheed AC-130A Spectre (Serial No. 54-1626), C/N 182-3013.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed AC-130A Spectre (Serial No. 54-1630), C/N 182-3017.  Named Azrael for the angel of death in Islam who severs the soul from the body.  This aircraft figured prominently in the closing hours of Operation Desert Storm.  On 26 February 1991, Coalition ground forces were driving the Iraqi Army out of Kuwait. With an Air Force Reserve crew called to active duty, Azrael was sent to the Al Jahra highway (Highway 80) between Kuwait City and Basra, Iraq, to intercept the convoys of tanks, trucks, buses, and cars fleeing the battle.  Facing SA-6 and SA-8 surface-to-air missiles and 37 mm and 57 mm radar-guided anti-aircraft artillery the crew attacked and destroyed or disabled most of the convoys. Azrael was also assigned to the 919th Special Operations Wing and retired to the NMUSAF in October 1995.

Lockheed C-130E Hercules (Serial No. 62-1787), C/N 382-3732.

 (Dsdugan Photo)

Lockheed VC-140B Jet Star (Serial No. 61-2492), C/N 5031.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed C-141C Starlifter (Serial No. 66-0177), C/N 300-6203, "Hanoi Taxi".

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed YF-117A Nighthawk (Serial No. 79-10781), ED, C/N A.4006.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is the second F-117A built and was specially modified for systems testing.  The USAF retired it to the museum in 1991 after its test program was completed.  It is marked as it appeared during tests conducted for the Air Force Systems Command between 1981 and 1991. 

Lockheed YF-22A Raptor (Serial No. 87-0700).  This aircraft was transferred to the Air Force Flight Test Center Museum at Edwards AFB, California.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor (Serial No. 91-4003), FF, C/N 645-4003.