Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Warplane Survivors USA: Ohio, Dayton, National Museum of the USAF (Book)

Ohio Warplanes, Dayton,

National Museum of the USAF

Data current to 29 April 2018.

Dayton, National Museum of the United States Air Force (NMUSAF), 1100 Spaatz St., Wright-Patterson AFB, 45433-7102.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Aero Commander U-4B (Serial No. 58-4647), C/N 680-315-10.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Aeronca L-3B Grasshopper (Serial No. 42-36200).  Built during the Second World War, the L-3B on display in the NMUSAF found its way into private hands as surplus after the war.  Completely restored by its previous owner, Paul Grice of Waynesville, Ohio, the airplane was flown to the museum in 1984.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

American Helicopter Co. XH-26 Jet Jeep (Serial No. 01841).  The XH-26 is a one-man, pulsejet-driven helicopter powered by two pulsejets on the end of each rotor blade tip.  American Helicopter chose the name "Jet Jeep" because the XH-26 would be used like an aerial Jeep.  When collapsed, its storage container fit on a trailer towed by the one-quarter ton Jeep.  If stripped for air drop, the Jet Jeep weighed less than 300 pounds, and it could be assembled by two men in just 20 minutes.  It could also burn the same fuel as a Jeep.  The Army and USAF evaluated five prototype Jet Jeeps, and they performed well.  Unfortunately, the pulsejets were so loud that the Army found the aircraft unsuitable, and cost considerations forced the cancellation of the program.

 (Pi3.124 Photo)

Apollo 15 Command Module Endeavour.  Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.  It was the first of what were termed "J missions", long stays on the Moon, with a greater focus on science than had been possible on previous missions.  It was also the first mission on which the Lunar Roving Vehicle was used.  The mission began on 26 July1971, and ended on 7 August.  At the time, NASA called it the most successful manned flight ever achieved.  Apollo 15 used Command/Service Module CSM-112, which was given the call sign Endeavour, named after the HMS Endeavour, and Lunar Module LM-10, call sign Falcon, named after the USAF Academy mascot. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Avro 504K, replica, Reg. No. G-CYEI, painted as 1620, D.9029.  The Royal Canadian Air Force's Aircraft Maintenance & Development Unit built the aircraft on display in 1966-1967 with a 110-hp Le Rhone J rotary engine and original parts.  It arrived at the NMUSAF in May 2003, and it is painted to represent one of the 52 Avro 504K aerobatic trainers used at the AEF No. 3 Instruction Center, Issoudun, France, in 1918.

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Avro CF-100 Canuck Mk. 4A (Serial No. 100504).  The all-weather CF-100 was the only Canadian-designed and Canadian-built fighter to go into large-scale production.  Powered by two Canadian-designed Orenda jet engines, the CF-100 entered service with the 445 Squadron in 1953.  In 1957 the two-seat CF-100 became an integral part of the newly formed U.S.-Canadian North American Air Defense (NORAD) system.  Side-by-side with USAF units, nine Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) CF-100 squadrons helped protect the continent from potential Soviet bomber attack across the North Pole.  Although RCAF fighter squadrons phased out the CF-100 in 1961-1962, it continued to serve as an electronic warfare aircraft well into the 1970s.  Placed on display in 2005, the NMUSAF's aircraft is painted to appear as a 428 Squadron CF-100 Mk. 4A in the mid-1950s.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Alvintrusty Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo )

Avro Canada VZ-9AV Avrocar (Serial No. 58-7055), AV-7055.  The Avrocar was the result of a Canadian effort to develop a supersonic, vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) fighter-bomber in the early 1950s.  However, its circular shape gave it the appearance of a “flying saucer” out of science fiction movies of the period.  A.V. Roe (Avro) Aircraft Limited (later Avro Canada) based its design concept for the Avrocar on using the exhaust from turbojet engines to drive a circular “turborotor” which produced thrust.  By directing this thrust downward, the turborotor would create a cushion of air (also known as “ground effect”) upon which the aircraft would float at low altitude.  When the thrust was directed toward the rear, the aircraft would accelerate and gain altitude.  In 1952, the Canadian government provided initial funding but dropped the project when it became too expensive.  Avro offered the project to the U.S. government, and the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force took it over in 1958.  Each service had different requirements: the Army wanted to use it as a subsonic, all-terrain troop transport and reconnaissance craft, but the USAF wanted a VTOL aircraft that could hover below enemy radar then zoom up to supersonic speed.  Avro’s designers believed they could satisfy both services, but these two sets of requirements differed too much.  Research data originally indicated that a circular wing might satisfy both the Army’s and Air Force’s requirements, and Avro built two small test vehicles to prove the concept.  Designated the VZ-9AV Avrocar (VZ stood for experimental vertical flight, 9 for the ninth concept proposal, and AV for Avro).  Tests with scale models at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, indicated that the cushion of air under the Avrocar would become unstable just a few feet off the ground.  The aircraft would be incapable of reaching supersonic speeds, but the testing went ahead to determine if a suitable aircraft could be developed for the Army.  The first prototype, the Avrocar on display in the NMUSAF, was sent to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California.  There, wind tunnel tests proved that the aircraft had insufficient control for high speed flight and was aerodynamically unstable.  The second Avrocar prototype underwent flight tests that validated the wind tunnel tests.  If it flew more than three feet above the ground, the Avrocar displayed uncontrollable pitch and roll motions, which the Avro engineers called "hubcapping."  The Avrocar could only reach a maximum speed of 35 mph, and all attempts to end the hubcapping failed.  The project was cancelled in December 1961.  The second prototype aircraft went to the U.S. Army Transportation Museum at Fort Eustis, Virginia, and the first prototype Avrocar came to the NMUSAF in 2007.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Beechcraft GB-2 (UC-43) Traveler/Staggerwing (Serial No. 44-76068), painted as 9139.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAFwas donated by Maj. Richard River, USAF (Ret), of Chillicothe, Ohio.  It was flown to the museum in May 1974.  Procured by the Army during the Second Worlfd War, it was assigned to the Navy as a GB-2.  It is painted as a UC-43 assigned to the 8th Air Force in England in 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Beechcraft C-45H Expeditor (Serial No. 41-27561), painted as (Serial No. 52-37493).

Beechcraft C-45H Expeditor (Serial No. 52-10893).

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Beechcraft AT-10 Wichita (Serial No. 127193).  The museum placed this AT-10 on display in June 1997. 

 (Stahlkocher Photo)

Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan (Serial No. 42-37493), C/N 4086.  The AT-11 on display in the NMUSAF is one of 1,582 ordered by the USAAF between 1941 and 1945, 36 of which were modified as AT-11A navigation trainers.  It was donated to the museum by the Abrams Aerial Survey Corp., Lansing, Michigan, in 1969, and is painted to represent a trainer in service during the autumn of 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Beechcraft VC-6A King Air (Serial No. 66-7943).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Beechcraft  QU-22B Pave Eagle (Serial No. 69-7699), C/N EB-7.  The NMUSAF's QU-22B went on display in 2002.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Beechcraft  T-34A Mentor (Serial No. 53-3310), TD-310, C/N G-71.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The Mentor was the standard USAF primary trainer until the introduction of the Cessna T-37 jet trainer in the late 1950s.  As they were replaced by T-37s, many T-34s were turned over to base aero clubs.  In all, the USAF acquired 450 T-34As.  350 were built in the United States and 100 more were produced in Canada under license.  The US Navy and 10 foreign militaries also used the T-34.

 (Master Sgt. David Richards, USAF Photo)

Beechcraft T-6A Texan II (Serial No. 06-3851).  The Texan II is a single-engine, two-seat primary trainer designed to train Joint Primary Pilot Training, or JPPT, students in basic flying skills common to USAF and Navy pilots.  The trainer is phasing out the aging T-37 fleet throughout Air Education and Training Command.  The T-6A in the NMUSAF was assigned to the 71st Flying Training Wing at Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma, and was received by the museum in 2010.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Bell P-39Q Airacobra (Serial No. 44-3887), 31, painted as (Serial No. 41-7073).  The NMUSAF's P-39Q is painted as a P-39D flown by Lt. Leslie Spoonts of the 57th Fighter Squadron on Adak Island during the Aleutians Campaign.  The P-39Q on display was obtained by the Air Force Museum Foundation from Hardwick Aircraft Co., El Monte, California, in 1966.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Bell P-63E Kingcobra (Serial No. 43-11728), 1L76, painted to represent an RP-63A.  The P-63E on display in the NMUSAF was donated by Bell Aircraft Corp. in 1958.  Although it lacks the armour plate and other "pinball" features, it is marked and painted in the unusual color scheme of an RP-63A.

 

Bell XP-59A, one of three prototypes.  The first prototype XP-59A flew in the fall of 1942 at Muroc Dry Lake (now Edwards Air Force Base), California.  (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Ken LaRock, USAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Bell P-59B Airacomet (Serial No. 44-74936), painted as (Serial No. 44-22650), C/N 27-58.  Bell built 50 P-59A and P-59B production aircraft, some of which were flown by the 412th Fighter Group, the USAF’s first jet fighter unit.  The P-59B on display in the NMUSAF was obtained from Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, in February 1956.

 (USAF Photo)

Bell UH-13J Sioux (Serial No. 57-2728), C/N 1575.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Bell UH-1P Iroquois (Serial No. 64-15476), C/N 7026.  The UH-1P nicknamed the "Huey" on display in the NMUSAF, served in South Vietnam with the 20th Special Operations Squadron flying dangerous, highly-classified missions inserting special operations personnel into Laos and Cambodia.  In June 1969, it was converted into a UH-1P gunship equipped with two rocket pods and two miniguns.  The museum's UH-1P is configured and painted to appear as the UH-1F flown by Captain Jim Fleming on 26 Nov 1968.  On this day, he braved intense enemy fire to rescue a small reconnaissance team that was about to be overrun by a much larger enemy force.  For his bravery, Fleming was awarded the Medal of Honor.

Bell TAH-1P Cobra (Serial No. 76-22599), C/N 24033).

 (Jaydec Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (USAF Photos)

 (Don Popp, USAF Photos)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Bell X-1B (Serial No. 48-1385).  The X-1B was one of a series of rocket-powered experimental airplanes designed to investigate supersonic flight problems.  The X-1B’s flight research primarily related to aerodynamic heating and the use of small “reaction” rockets for directional control.  The X-1B made its first powered flight in October 1954.  A few months later, the U.S. Air Force transferred the X-1B to the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), predecessor to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which conducted the heating and control tests.  The X-1B tests played an important role in developing the control systems for the later X-15.  On test missions, the X-1B was carried under a "mother" airplane and released between 25,000-35,000 feet.  After release, the rocket engine fired under full throttle for less than five minutes.  After all fuel (an alcohol-water mixture) and liquid oxygen had been consumed, the pilot glided the airplane to earth for a landing.  The X-1B made its last flight in January 1958, and it was transferred to the NMUSAF a year later.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photos)

Bell X-5 (Serial No. 50-1838).  The X-5 was the world's first high-performance airplane to vary the sweepback of its wings in flight . It investigated the characteristics of variable sweep aircraft in flight and the feasibility of producing aircraft with this feature . The X-5 was based upon the design of a Messerschmitt P. 1101 airplane discovered in Germany at the end of the Second World War (and which could vary its sweep only on the ground).  Two X-5s were built, and the first flight occurred in June 1951 . One of the X-5s was destroyed in October 1953, when it failed to recover from a spin at 60 degrees sweepback.  The other was delivered to the NMUSAF in March 1958.

 (NASA Photo)

 (Bell Helicopter Textron Photo)

 (Ken LaRock, USAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photos)

 (Alvintrusty Photo)

Bell 200 (XV-3) (Serial No. 54-0148).  The Bell XV-3 became the world's first successful Vertical Short Take Off and Landing (VSTOL) tilt-rotor aircraft.  By combining the takeoff and hovering capabilities of a helicopter with the speed and range of a fixed-wing aircraft, the XV-3 offered great military potential.  Bell completed two XV-3s and began hover tests in 1955.  The first XV-3 was damaged beyond repair, but testing continued with the second aircraft.  The first complete conversion from takeoff to horizontal flight and back,  the first ever for a tilt-rotor aircraft, took place in December 1958.  The XV-3 did not go into production, but it paved the way for the modern tilt-rotor CV-22 Osprey.  After testing ended in 1965, the surviving XV-3 went on display at Fort Rucker, Alabama, and later into storage . In 2004, the XV-3 was moved to the Bell Helicopter Textron facility at Arlington, Texas, where a group of current and retired Bell engineers restored the aircraft.  It arrived at the NMUSAF in 2007.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Bell-Boeing CV-22B Osprey, ex-USN (BuNo. 165839), USAF (Serial No. 99-0021).  The CV-22 Osprey is a tiltrotor aircraft that combines the vertical takeoff, hover and vertical landing qualities of a helicopter with the long range, fuel efficiency and speed characteristics of a turboprop aircraft.  Its mission is to conduct long-range infiltration, exfiltration and resupply missions for special operations forces.  Built by Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. and the Boeing Co., the CV-22 is a Special Operation Forces variant of the U.S. Marine Corps MV-22 Osprey.  Equipped with integrated threat countermeasures, terrain-following radar, forward-looking infrared sensor (FLIR) and other advanced avionics systems, the CV-22 can operate at low altitude, in bad weather and high-threat environments.  The first operational CV-22 was delivered to Air Force Special Operations Command's 8th Special Operations Squadron at Hurlburt Field, Florida, in November 2006.  The Osprey at the NMUSAF was originally built as a pre-production aircraft for the U.S. Navy.  In 2005 this aircraft was modified into a CV-22B and was designated an Additional Test Asset (ATA).  At Edwards AFB, California, it flew more than 200 developmental test missions.  It was transferred to the USAF in 2007, and was assigned to the 413th Flight Test Squadron, at Hurlburt Field.  Completing over 400 additional test missions, it was flown to the museum in December 2013.

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Bensen X-25A Gyrocopter (Serial No. 68-10770).  In early 1968, the U.S. Air Force ordered three X-25 type aircraft to test methods of improving the odds of a downed flyer’s escape.  At the time, the USAF was suffering heavy losses in the Rolling Thunder air campaign over North Vietnam.  The unpowered Bensen X-25 Discretionary Descent Vehicle (also called a “Gyroglider”) theoretically could be stowed in an aircraft, ejected with the pilot and deployed during descent.  Its rotary wings would be brought up to speed as it fell, and the pilot would fly it as an autogyro to a safer landing area.  The X-25A Gyrocopter on display in the NMUSAF represented a more advanced concept with a limited "fly-away" capability.  Though similar to the X-25, the X-25A had a more robust structure, and it was powered by a small engine.  The two-seat X-25B was originally used as an unpowered, towed trainer, but it was later fitted with an engine.  Tests proved that pilots could be quickly and easily trained to fly the X-25.  Even so, with the air war in Vietnam winding down, and doubts about its operational feasibility, the X-25 program ended.  The X-25A was delivered to the museum in 1969.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Blériot, 1909.  Mr. Ernest C. Hall of Warren, Ohio, built the Bleriot on display in 1911 from factory drawings.  With it, he taught himself to fly.  Mr. Hall donated the aircraft to the museum in 1969.

 

(Boeing P-12B Kelly Field USAF Photo, SDASM Archives)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Boeing P-12E (Serial No. 31-559).

 (USAAC Photos)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Boeing P-26A Peashooter, replica, (Serial No. 0001).  This P-26A is a reproduction, painted to represent the Commander's aircraft of the 19th Pursuit Squadron, 18th Pursuit Group, stationed at Wheeler Field, Hawaii, in 1938.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Boeing Stearman PT-13D Kaydet (Serial No. 42-17800).  The NMUSAF's PT-13D was donated in 1959 by Boeing, and it is painted as it looked leaving the assembly line.

 (B-17D)

 (USAAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photos)

Boeing B-17D Flying Fortress (Serial No. 40-3097), C/N 2125, the “Swoose”.  The Swoose saw extensive use in the Southwest Pacific theatre of the Second World War and survived to become the oldest B-17 still intact.  It is the only early "shark fin" B-17 known to exist, and the only surviving B-17 to have seen action in the 1941–42 Philippines Campaign, operating on the first day of the United States entry into the war.  It is on loan to the NMUSAF from the NASM.

 (USAAF Photo)

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress "The Memphis Belle" on her way back to the United States, 9 June 1943, after successfully completing 25 missions from an airbase in England.

  

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Boeing B-17F Flying Fortress (Serial No. 41-24485), DF-A, C/N 3170 "Memphis Belle".

Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress (Serial No. 42-32076), C/N 7190.

Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress (Serial No. 44-83624), VE, C/N 32265.  On loan to the Air Mobility Command, Dover AFB.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Greg Hume Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress (Serial No.), "Shoo Shoo Shoo Baby".  In March 1944 this B-17G was assigned to the 91st Bomb Group, "The Ragged Irregulars", and based at Bassingbourn, England.  There its crew named it Shoo Shoo Shoo Baby, after a popular song.  It flew 24 combat missions during the Second World War, receiving flak damage seven times.  Its first mission, to Frankfurt, Germany, was on 24 March 1944, and its last mission, to Posen, Poland, was on 29 May 29 1944, when engine problems forced it to land in neutral Sweden where the airplane and crew were interned.  In 1968 Shoo Shoo Shoo Baby was found abandoned in France, and the French government presented the airplane to the USAF.  In July 1978 the 512th Military Airlift Wing moved it to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, for restoration by the volunteers of the 512th Antique Restoration Group.  After a massive 10-year job of restoration to flying condition, the aircraft was flown to the museum in October 1988.

 (B-29, USAAF Photo)

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Serial No. 44-27297), 77, C/N 3615, "Bock’s Car".  The B-29 on display in the NMUSAF, Bockscar, dropped the Fat Man atomic bomb on Nagasaki on 9 August 1945, three days after the atomic attack against Hiroshima.  Bockscar was one of 15 specially modified "Silverplate" B-29s assigned to the 509th Composite Group.  Bockscar was flown to the museum on 26 Sep 1961.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Fat Man Atomic Bomb under Bock's Car.

Boeing B-29A Superfortress (Serial No. 44-62139), C/N 11616, fuselage only.

 (NMNA Photo)

Boeing KB-50J refueling U.S. Marine Corps North American FJ-4B Fury (BuNo. 143636) of Marine Attack Squadron VMA-214 Black Sheep, 1960.

Boeing KB-50J Superfortress (Serial No. 49-0389), painted as (Serial No. 48-0114), C/N 16165.

 (USAAF Photo)

Boeing B-50D-95-BO, (Serial No. 49- 8096), ca 1946.

 (USAF Photo)

Boeing WB-50D (Serial No._48-115), ca 1949.

 (Greg5030 Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Boeing WB-50D Superfortress (Serial No. 49-0310), C/N 16086.  In 1953 the USAF decided to replace its aging WB-29 weather reconnaissance aircraft with modified B-50Ds.  Stripped of their defensive armament, 36 B-50Ds were equipped for long-range weather reconnaissance missions with high-altitude atmospheric samplers, Doppler radar, weather radar and a bomb-bay fuel tank for extended range.  Some WB-50 aircraft also flew missions to sample the air for radioactive particles indicating that the Soviet Union had detonated a nuclear weapon.  The WB-50D aircraft accomplished special weather reconnaissance missions with SAC's 97th Bomb Wing until April 1955, when all WB-50s went to the Air Weather Service.  In 1963 the USAF started phasing out the WB-50Ds, and in 1965 the aircraft on display in the NMUSAF became the last WB-50D to be retired.  It was delivered to the museum in 1968.

 (USAF Photo)

Boeing KC-97L Stratotanker (Serial No. 53-0355) of the Texas Air National Guard refueling two Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt IIs, ca 1975.

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

 (Mike Freer - Touchdown-aviation Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Boeing KC-97L Stratofreighter (Serial No. 52-2630).  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was flown by the 160th Air Refueling Group of the Ohio Air National Guard.  It is named the "Zeppelinheim", and was flown to the museum in August 1976.

 (USAF Photo)

Boeing B-47E Stratojet (Serial No. 53-2280), c/n 450-1093.  In 2013 this aircraft was transferred to the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History in Albuquerque, New Mexico for permanent display.

 (USAF Photo)

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

Boeing RB-47H Stratojet (Serial No. 53-4299), c/n 450-1323.  During the early part of the Cold War, the U.S. Air Force needed an aircraft to gather information about Soviet air defense radar systems, including details like their location, range and coverage.  The electronic reconnaissance RB-47H, developed from the B-47E, met this requirement, and Boeing completed the first RB-47H in 1955.  Boeing produced 32 newly built RB-47Hs and converted three B-47Es into ERB-47Hs.  The RB-47H first entered service in August 1955.  Over the next decade, RB-47H crews of the 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing (SRW) flew thousands of dangerous “ferret” missions. Flying in radio silence at night along, and sometimes over, the border of the Soviet Union and other communist nations, RB-47Hs collected essential intelligence about the size and capability of Soviet air defense radar networks.  The need for this information and the relatively small number of RB-47Hs forced crews to spend much of their time deployed to places around the world, away from their homes at Forbes AFB, Kansas.  The RB-47H continued in service until the more capable RC-135 replaced it in the mid-1960s.  The NMUSAF’s RB-47H was delivered to the USAF in October 1955.  The aircraft served with the 55th SRW from 1955 until its retirement in 1966.  During this time, it deployed to several locations, including Incirlik Air Base, Turkey, and Yokota Air Base, Japan, and flew missions over the Soviet Union.  The aircraft was acquired by the museum in 1998 from the City of Salina, Kansas.  After extensive restoration by museum personnel, the aircraft went on display in 2003, marked as it appeared in 1960.

 

Boeing B-52 Stratofortress preparing to taxi on Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, 24 Aug 2016.  The B-52s have served non-stop rotations since 2006, which have been shared between the bomber squadrons from Minot AFB, North Dakota, and Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. (Staff Sgt. Benjamin Gonsier, USAF Photo)

Boeing B-52 Stratofortress (Serial No. 53-0394).

 (USAF Photo)

Boeing B-52D-40-BW Stratofortress (Serial No. 56-0695) in flight launching Quail decoy (Serial No. 061127)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Boeing B-52D Stratofortress (Serial No. 56-0665), c/n 464036.  In June 1965, B-52s entered combat in Southeast Asia.  By August 1973, they had flown 126,615 combat sorties with seventeen B-52s lost to enemy action.  The aircraft on display saw extensive service in Southeast Asia and was severely damaged by an enemy surface-to-air missile on 9 April 1972.  In December 1972, after being repaired, it flew four additional missions over North Vietnam.  Transferred from the 97th Bomb Wing at Blytheville Air Force Base, Arkansas, this aircraft was flown to the Museum in November 1978.

 (Valder137 Photo)

Boeing CIM-10 Bomarc Surface to Air Missile.

  (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Boeing NKC-135A Stratotanker (Serial No. 55-3123), C/N 17239.  Airborne Laser Laboratory (ALL).

 (Greg Hume Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Boeing EC-135E (Serial No. 60-0374), C/N 18149.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (KLaRock Photo)

Boeing VC-137C SAM 26000 (Serial No. 62-6000), C/N 18461/303.

 (USAF Photo)

Boeing Joint Strike Fighter X-32B demonstrator lifts off on its maiden flight from the company's facility in Palmdale, California, 18 Sep 2000.

 (Valder137 Photos)

Boeing X-32A Joint Strike Fighter.  CTOL version.

 (NASA Photo)

 (Sixflashphoto)

Boeing X-40A Space Maneuver Vehicle.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Boeing Bird of Prey UAV.  The Bird of Prey is a single-seat stealth technology demonstrator used to test "low-observable" stealth techniques and new methods of aircraft design and construction. The secret Bird of Prey project ran from 1992 to 1999, and the aircraft first flew in the fall of 1996. The Bird of Prey was named for its resemblance to the Klingon spacecraft from the science fiction series Star Trek.  Boeing donated the Bird of Prey to the NMUSAF in 2002.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Boeing YQM-94A Compass Cope B (Serial No. 71-1840), UAV.

 (Greg Davis Photo)

Boeing C-17A Globemaster III aircraft assigned to the 3rd Airlift Squadron, 436th Airlift Wing, unloading cargo pallets off the ramp during a combat offload training scenario 6 Nov 2013, at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware.  Combat offloading is used to prevent an aircraft from remaining on the ground in hostile areas for extended periods.

Boeing YC-17A Globemaster III (Serial No. 87-0025), ED, C/N F-2/T-1.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Boeing YCGM-121B Seek Spinner.  The BRAVE 200 was designed and built by Boeing Military Airplane Co. in the early 1980s and received the military designation YCGM-121B.  It is an unmanned aerial vehicle designed to seek out and attack the radars that control enemy anti-aircraft artillery or surface-to-air missile defenses.  Some radar antennas rotate or spin, hence the name "Seek Spinner."  It is launched from the ground with rocket assistance.  Using instructions programmed into its computer, the YCGM-121B flies to a designated target where it loiters or circles until its sensors detect the enemy radar signal.  The vehicle then follows the radar beam to its source and detonates its warhead, damaging or destroying the radar site.  The Seek Spinner underwent testing for a number of years with promising results.  However, it never became operational.  The last test flight took place in late 1989.  The program was then cancelled due to cost and the availability of alternative systems.  The museum received the Seek Spinner in late 1989.

 (Senior Master Sgt. David H. Lipp, USAF Photo)

Bombardier Aerospace Learjet C-21A , North Dakota Air National Guard (NDANG), 119th Fighter Wing (Happy Hooligans), 19 March 2007.  

Bombardier Aerospace Learjet C-21A (Serial No. 84-0064).  This aircraft arrived at the NMUSAF on 28 Aug 2013.

 (RAF Photo)

Bristol Beaufighter TF Mk. X (Serial No. NV427), EO-L, RCAF No. 404 Squadron based at Dallachy, Morayshire in the UK, breaking formation during a flight along the Scottish coast, 17 Feb 1945.

 (RCAF Photo)

Bristol Beaufighter Mk. X (Serial No. NE255), EE-H, RCAF No. 404 Squadron, RAF Davidstow Moor, UK, 21 Aug 1944.

 (USAAF Photo)

Bristol Beaufighter in service with the USAAF, 414th Night Fighter Squadron, at Grottaglie Airfield, Italy, Nov 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Dsdugan Photosa)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Bristol 156 Beaufighter Mk. 1C (Serial No. A19-43), with parts from (Serial No. KV912).  The NMUSAF's aircraft was built under license by the Fairey Aviation Co. in Stockport, England, and delivered to the Royal Australian Air Force in 1942.  Although flown in combat in the south-west Pacific by 31 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, A19-43 is painted as (Serial No. T5049), "Night Mare", a USAAF Beaufighter flown by Capt. Harold Augspurger, commander of the 415th Night Fighter Squadron, who shot down a Heinkel He 111 carrying German staff officers in September 1944.  The Beaufighter was recovered from a dump at Nhill, Australia, in 1971, where it had been abandoned in 1947.  It was acquired by the USAF Museum in 1988.  A19-43 has been on public display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Dayton, Ohio since October 2006.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Caproni Ca.36 (Serial No.).  This aircraft was restored by museum specialists.  The NMUSAFobtained the Ca. 36 on display from the Museo Aeronautica Caproni di Taliedo in Italy in 1987.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

Caquot Type R Observation Balloon.  Caquot balloons were manufactured in great numbers during the First World War; nearly 1,000 were made in the United States in 1918-1919.  During the Second World War, the British produced Caquots once again, but in limited numbers.  The balloon displayed at the museum was manufactured in 1944 in England, and is believed to be the only survivor.  The British used it for parachute testing and noncombat aerial observation and photography until 1960.  The British Ministry of Defense, Royal Aircraft Establishment, presented the Caquot to the museum after it was located with the aid of American and British Firt World War balloon veterans in 1975.  Assisted by the Goodyear Aerospace Corp. of Akron, Ohio, which had produced these balloons during the First World War, NMUSAF personnel mended and sealed the balloon fabric and prepared it for inflation.  It was placed on display in May 1979.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Cessna UC-78B Bobcat (Serial No. 42-71626).  The UC-78 on display in the NMUSAF is one of the 1,806 UC-78Bs built for the USAAF and was acquired by the museum in 1982. 

 (Greg Goebel Photo),

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Cessna O-1G Bird Dog (Serial No. 51-11917).  The USAF ordered more than 3,200 Bird Dogs, most of which were built as L-19As between 1950 and 1959.  The O-1G on display was transferred to the museum in 1971.

 (NMUSAF Photo s)

 (Greg Goebel Photo)

Cessna O-2A Super Skymaster (Serial No. 67-21331), C/N 337M-0037.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The O-2A on display was assigned to the 20th Tactical Air Support Squadron at Da Nang, South Vietnam, in the late 1960s.  It was transferred to the museum in December 1982.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Cessna U-3A Blue Canoe (Serial No. 58-2124).  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is one of several USAF U-3As that were transferred to the U.S. Army.  It was flown to the museum in September 1984.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Cessna LC-126A (Serial No. 49-1949), AR-949, C/N 7328.  Suspended from the ceiling.  Equipped with Edo floats, the LC-126A on display in the NMUSAF is marked as it appeared while serving with the 10th Rescue Squadron at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska, in 1949.

 (Valder137 Photos)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Cessna A-37A(YA) Dragonfly (Serial No. 62-5951), C/N 40719.  Mounted on pylons.  The A-37 on display in the NMUSAF was one of the two prototype YAT-37Ds evaluated by the USAF.  It was retired to the museum in December 1964.  However, it was recalled to active service in August 1966 for final design testing of the urgently needed A-37 attack aircraft.  This aircraft retired to the museum for a second time in July 1970 as the YA-37A.

Cessna T-37B Tweet (Serial No. 54-2729).

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Cessna T-37B Tweet (Serial No. 57-2289), C/N 40222.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The T-37B on display in the NMUSAF was flown to the museum on 8 Oct 1991. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Cessna T-41A Mescalero (Serial No. 65-5251), Reg. No. N5251F, C/N 17253351.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The T-41 on display was flown to the museum in April 1993. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Chance-Vought/LTV XC-142A (Serial No. 62-5924).  Five tilt-wing XC-142As were built in the 1960s to explore the suitability of Vertical/Short TakeOff and Landing (VSTOL) transports.  VSTOL transports permit rapid movement of troops and supplies into and out of unprepared areas.  XC-142As were tested extensively by the US Army, US Navy, USAF and NASA.  An XC-142A first flew conventionally in September 1964 and performed its first transitional flight (vertical takeoff, changing to forward flight, and landing vertically) in January 1965 . In tests, XC-142As were flown from airspeeds of 35 mph backwards to 400 mph forward.  Although the XC-142A did not go into production, it foreshadowed future operational VSTOL transports like the V-22 Osprey.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF, the only remaining XC-142A, was flown to the museum in 1970.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Consolidated PT-1 Trusty (Serial No. 26-233).  The PT-1 featured a welded fuselage framework of chrome-molybdenum steel tubing.  A departure from the all-wood structures found in other trainers, the structure proved so sturdy and dependable that the PT-1 earned the nickname "Trusty".  Easy to fly, the Trusty made some students overconfident, and they received a shock when they advanced to faster airplanes with more difficult handling characteristics.  The museum obtained the airplane on display from The Ohio State University in 1957. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina (Serial No. 44-6595), (BuNo. 46595), painted as OV-10 (Serial No. 44-33879), C/N 1959.  The Brazilian Air Force was one of several Allied nations that received Catalinas during the Second World War.  It operated this Catalina in a variety of roles in the Amazon Basin until 1981.  It was flown to the museum in 1984, and was restored and painted as an OA-10A assigned to the 2nd Emergency Rescue Squadron in the Pacific Theater during the Second World War.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Consolidated B-24D Liberator (Serial No. 42-72843), 24, C/N 2413, "Strawberry Bitch".  The B-24D on display in the NMUSAF flew combat missions from North Africa in 1943-1944 with the 512th Bomb Squadron.  It was flown to the museum in May 1959.  It is the same type airplane as the "Lady Be Good", the world-famous B-24D that disappeared on a mission from North Africa in April 1943 and was found in the Libyan Desert in May 1959.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Convair B-36J Peacemaker (Serial No. 52-2220), C/N 361.  The B-36 made its maiden flight in August 1946, and in June 1948 the Strategic Air Command received its first operational B-36.  Some B-36s served as photographic reconnaissance aircraft, and others were adapted to launch and retrieve specially modified RF-84F/K reconnaissance planes.  Powered by six Pratt & Whitney R-4360 engines, the B-36J cruised at 230 mph, but for additional bursts of speed its four General Electric J47s increased the maximum speed to 435 mph.  It carried 86,000 pounds of nuclear or conventional bombs.  When production ended in August 1954, more than 380 B-36s had been built for the USAF.  In 1958-1959, the USAF replaced the B-36 with the all-jet B-52.  Although never used in combat, the B-36 was a major deterrent to enemy aggression.  Making the last B-36 flight ever, the aircraft on display flew to the NMUSAF from Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona, on 30 April 1959. 

 (USAF Photo)

Convair XC-99 (Serial No. 43-52436) in flight near La Jolla, California, a prototype heavy cargo aircraft, which first flew on 23 November 1947.

 (USAF Photo)

Convair XC-99 at Kelly AFB, Texas, 1954.

 (USAF Photo)

Convair XC-99 (Serial No. 43-52436), a prototype heavy cargo aircraft, which first flew on 23 November 1947.  In 1953, an AN/APS-42 weather radar with its distinctive “thimble” radome (the black dome on the nose of the aircraft) was installed.  The spectators are looking into the cargo bay, which used a special hoist to load cargo, 31 Dec 1952.

 (Mike Freer, Touchdown Aviation Photo)

Convair XC-99 (Serial No. 43-52436).

Convair B-58 Hustler in flight.  (USAF Photo)

 (USAF Photo)

Convair RB-58A Hustler (Serial No. 58-1011), with two component pod (TCP).

 (USAF Photos)

Convair B-58A Hustler.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Convair B-58A Hustler (Serial No. 59-2458), C/N 61.  Convair built 116 B-58s: 30 test and pre-production aircraft and 86 for operational service.  Hustlers flew in the Strategic Air Command between 1960 and 1970.  Setting 19 world speed and altitude records, B-58s also won five different aviation trophies.  The B-58A on display in the NMUSAF set three speed records while flying from Los Angeles to New York and back on 5 March 1962.  For this effort, the crew received the Bendix and Mackay Trophies for 1962.  It was flown to the museum in December 1969.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Convair XF-92A (Serial No. 46-0682), (XP-92), C/N 7-002.  The XF-92A was the world's first jet aircraft to fly with the radical delta-wing configuration pioneered by Germany's Dr. Alexander Lippisch.  Convair used the knowledge learned from the XF-92 to design the delta-wing F-102, the USAF’s first operational supersonic interceptor.  The original 1945 F-92 design concept was a short-ranged, swept-wing, supersonic interceptor powered by a ramjet and several rocket engines.  In the end, this propulsion system proved impractical, and the USAF canceled the F-92 interceptor program.  The USAF, however, accepted the turbojet-powered XF-92A prototype to conduct delta-wing flight research.  The sole XF-92A was flown by Air Force and NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), predecessor to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), test pilots from 1948 until its nose gear collapsed on landing in October 1953.  The NMUSAF’s aircraft was delivered in 1969 from the University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

Convair F-102A Delta Dagger (Serial No. 56-1416), C/N 8-10-363.  The F-102A on display in the NMUSAF served the 57th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron in Iceland . On various occasions, it encountered Soviet aircraft flying reconnaissance missions over the arctic.  It was flown to the museum in 1971.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Convair F-106A Delta Dart (Serial No. 58-0787), painted as (Serial No. 59-0082), C/N 8-24-118.  49th FIS.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was involved in an unusual incident.  During a training mission from Malmstrom Air Force Base on 2 Feb 1970, it suddenly entered an uncontrollable flat spin forcing the pilot to eject.  Unpiloted, the aircraft recovered on its own, apparently due to the balance and configuration changes caused by the ejection, and miraculously made a gentle belly landing in a snow-covered field near Big Sandy, Montana.  After minor repairs, the aircraft was returned to service.  It last served with the 49th Fighter Interceptor Squadron before being brought to the museum in August 1986.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Convair C-131D Samaritan (Serial No. 55-0301), C/N 329.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Convair NC-131H TIFS (Serial No. N793VS), C/N 245.  Total In-Flight Simulator.  This one-of-a kind aircraft was an important in-flight simulator primarily used to study how an aircraft would handle before building an expensive, full-scale prototype.  It was created for the USAF in the late 1960s by the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory of Buffalo, New York (later the Calspan Corp.).  Engineers found the TIFS especially useful for studying how large aircraft would handle during takeoff and landing.  Vertical fins on the wings generated side forces to simulate crosswinds and provided test data.  The TIFS first flew in 1970, and its first research project simulated the B-1 bomber’s flying characteristics.  During its long and successful career, the TIFS simulated many military and NASA aircraft, including the X-40, Tacit Blue, Space Shuttle, B-2, YF-23 and C-17.  Civilian aircraft development projects included the Boeing Supersonic Transport (SST), MD-12X and Indonesian N-250.  It also served to train test pilots. The TIFS came to the NMUSAF in 2008. 

(NMUSAF Photo)

 (Valder137 Photos)

Culver PQ-14B Manned Aerial Target (Serial No. 44-68462).  The PQ-14B on display in the NMUSAF was donated in 1983 by Mr. Robert E. Parcell of Fort Worth, Texas.  It is painted and marked in a typical Second World War paint scheme, although some PQ-14s remained in service for several years after the war.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Curtiss 1911 Model D.  In 1911 the U.S. Army Signal Corps purchased its second airplane, a Curtiss Model D Type IV.  The military version of the Curtiss Model D could be easily disassembled and transported on Army wagons.  Like other Curtiss aircraft of the time, the Model D was a pusher, meaning the rear-mounted propeller "pushed" the aircraft.  Designated Signal Corps Airplane No. 2, it was accepted at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, on 27 April 1911, one of five airplanes ordered by the Army that year.  The control system for the Curtiss Model D operated differently than that used on Signal Corps No. 1, a Wright aircraft.  A pilot flying the Curtiss operated the ailerons with his shoulders, and the front elevator and rear rudder with the wheel mounted on a column in front of him. Also, rather than sitting next to the pilot, the observer sat behind the pilot.  The Signal Corps scrapped the original aircraft, so museum personnel constructed the reproduction on display, completing it in 1987.  They relied heavily on measurements scaled from early photographs of the original Signal Corps No. 2, because the original drawings and adequate written descriptions were not available.  Additional details were gathered from an existing factory-built Curtiss pusher and from recent drawings.  Except for the engine, which is made of wood and plastic, all materials used in the reproduction are essentially the same as those used in the original. 

 (Greg Hume Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Curtiss JN-4D Jenny (Serial No. 2805). 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photos)

 

Curtiss P-6E Hawk (Serial No. 32-0261), painted as (Serial No. 32-0240).  The NMUSAF's Hawkt is the only original P-6E still in existence.  The P-6E is painted in the colours and markings of the airplane assigned to Captain Ross G. Hoyt, Commanding Officer of the 17th Pursuit Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, based at Selfridge Field, Michigan in 1933.  Edward S. Perkins of Anniston, Alabama, donated it to the museum, and the Department of Aviation Technology at Purdue University restored it in 1963.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Curtiss P-36A Hawk (Serial No. 38-0001), 69, C/N 12415.  The P-36A on display in the NMUSAF was the first P-36A delivered to the US Army Air Corps (USAAC).  It was donated by Edward S. Perkins of Anniston, Alabama, in April 1959.  It is painted to represent the P-36A flown by Lt. Philip Rasmussen during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 Dec 1941.

 (USAAC Photo)

 (Bill Larkins Photo)

Curtiss A-12 Shrike (Serial No. 42-80449).  The A-12 Shrike was the USAAC's second monoplane ground-attack aircraft, and its main attack aircraft through most of the 1930s. A-12s served with the 3rd Attack Group plus the 8th and 18th Pursuit Groups.  Surviving Shrikes were grounded just after the Japanese attack on Pearl harbor in December 1941.

 (USAAC Photo)

Curtiss P-40E Warhawk in flight. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk Mk. 1A, ex-RAF (Serial No. AK987), ex-RCAF (Serial No. 1068), USAAF (Serial No. 42-65406), 104, C/N 18731.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is a Kittyhawk (the export version of the P-40E, built for the RAF).  It is painted to represent the aircraft flown by then Colonel Bruce Holloway, a pilot in both the Flying Tigers and its successor Army Air Forces unit, the 23rd Fighter Group.  This P-40 was obtained from Charles Doyle, Rosemount, Minnisota.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Curtiss O-52 Owl (Serial No. 40-2763).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Curtiss C-46D Commando (Serial No. 44-78018), C/N 33414. The C-46D on display in the NMUSAF is painted as a C-46 flying the Hump in 1944.  This aircraft was retired from USAF service in Panama in 1968 and was flown to the museum in 1972.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Curtiss Wright AT-9A Fledgling (Jeep) (Serial No. 41-12150), built 1942-1943.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was not complete when the museum acquired it.  Some of the parts used to restore it were taken from another incomplete AT-9, while other parts had to be built from "scratch" by museum restoration specialists.

 (JFK Presidential Library and Museum Photo)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Curtiss Wright X-19.

de Havilland DH-4B,at the Dayton-Wright South Airfield, ca 1918.  (NMUSAF Photo)

de Havilland DH-4B at McCook Field in Dayton, Ohio, ca 1918.  (NMUSAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

de Havilland DH-4B (Serial No. N-489).  This reproduction DH-4B is marked as a photographic aircraft used by the 12th Aero Squadron in the early 1920's to take pictures of the US/Mexico border and potential emergency landing fields.

de Havilland DH.82A Tiger Moth (Serial No. N-390H).  This aircraft was donated to the museum by Susan and Kurt Hofschneider of Colonia, New Jersey, and J.P. Jordan of Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

de Havilland DH.89A Dominie (Serial No. NR695), C/N 6794.  Previously painted as (Serial No. X7454), modified to civil Dragon Rapide standards.  USAAF DH.89s carried RAF serial numbers.  The Dominie was built in the United Kingdom as a military version of the DH 89 Dragon Rapide, an eight-passenger civilian light transport.  The DH 89 was first flown in 1934, and by the time production ended about 10 years later, 728 of the small biplane transports had been built.  More than 530 Dominies were produced for the Royal Air Force and used in communications, transport and training roles.  Six were turned over to the USAAF's Eighth Air Force between 1942 and 1944.  They were used primarily by the 27th Transport Group.  As far as is known, all Dominies flown by Americans carried RAF serial numbers and no USAAF serial numbers were assigned.  The Dominie on display in the NMUSAF was built in 1944 and carried RAF (Serial No. NR695).  It was sold to the government of India in 1945, then sold again to a private concern in 1946.  Eventually, it came to the United States where it was modified to the civilian Dragon Rapide passenger configuration seen here.  It was obtained by the museum and flown there in November 1989.  The aircraft has been modified and painted to represent one of the six Dominies flown by the USAAF during the Second World War.

 (NACA Photo)

de Havilland Canada Mosquito B Mk. XX, flown with the U.S. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Langley Research Center, Virginia, during longitudinal stability and control studies of the aircraft in 1945. This aircraft was  the Canadian version of the Mosquito B Mk. IV bomber aircraft. 145 were built, of which 40 were converted into photo-reconnaissance aircraft for the USAAF, which designated the planes F-8.

 (USAAF Photo)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito PR Mk. XVI (Serial No. NM345), USAAC, 654th Bomb Squadron, 25th Bombardment Group, at RAF Watton, UK, 1944.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito B35 (Serial No. N9797),ex-G-MOSI, ex-G-ASKA, painted as USAAF F-8 (Serial No. NS519).   Mosquitoes were flown by several U.S. Army Air Force units as photographic and weather reconnaissance aircraft and as night fighters.  During the Second World War, the USAAF acquired 40 Canadian Mossies and flew them under the American F-8 (photo reconnaissance) designation.  In addition, the British turned over more than 100 Mosquitoes to the USAAF under Reverse Lend-Lease.  These aircraft retained their British designations.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is a British-built B. Mk. 35 manufactured in 1946 (later converted for towing targets) and is similar to the P.R. Mk. XVIs used by the USAAF.  It was flown to the museum in February 1985.  This Mosquito, serial RS709, has been restored to a Mk. XVI configuration and painted as NS519, a weather reconnaissance aircraft of the 653rd Bombardment Squadron based in England in 1944-1945.  Just before the D-Day, 6 June 1944, invasion of France, black and white stripes were applied almost overnight to a vast majority of American and British aircraft to clearly identify them during the Normandy landings.  In the rush to mark all the aircraft, masking and spraying sometimes gave way to more expeditious method of painting them by hand.  Invasion stripes, like the ones being applied by the ground crewman in the museum's exhibit, would have completely encircled the wings and fuselage.  The 25th Bombardment Group adopted a red tail for their Mosquitoes in August 1944 and removed the invasion stripes from the upper wing and upper fuselage surfaces in September 1944.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

de Havilland Canada U-6A Beaver (Serial No. 51-16501), C/N 277.  de Havilland Aircraft of Canada manufactured the U-6A (designated L-20 until 1962), delivering nearly 1,000 to the United States' armed services.  Although flown mostly by the U.S. Army, the USAF employed more than 200 U-6As, primarily for aeromedical evacuation.  However, the USAF also used the U-6A aircraft for courier service, passenger transport, light cargo, reconnaissance, rescue and aerial photography missions.  The U-6A saw USAF service in both the Korean and Southeast Asia Wars.  The museum acquired the U-6A on display in 1980.  It carries markings typical of USAF L-20/U-6 aircraft during the late 1950s and 1960s. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

de Havilland Canada C-7A Caribou (Serial No. 62-4193), KA, C/N 138.  The C-7A is a twin-engine, short takeoff and landing (STOL) utility transport built by De Havilland Aircraft of Canada, Ltd.  It was used primarily for tactical airlift missions from short, unimproved airstrips in forward battle areas.  It could carry either 26 fully equipped paratroops, 20 litter patients, or more than three tons of equipment.  In 1961 De Havilland delivered the first 22 out of a total of 159 C-7s to the Army.  Originally designated AC-1, the aircraft was redesignated CV-2 in 1962, and it retained that designation for the remainder of its Army service.  In January 1967, when responsibility for all fixed-wing tactical transports was transferred to the U.S. Air Force, the Caribou received the designation C-7. During the Southeast Asia War, the Caribou's STOL capability made it particularly suitable for delivering troops, supplies, and equipment to isolated outposts. The C-7A on display in the NMUSAF is a Southeast Asia combat veteran that later served with the Air Force Reserve.  It is painted to appear as one of the C-7As flown by Maj. Hunter Hackney on 25 Aug 1968.  On this day, he flew several aerial resupply missions at low altitude through intense enemy fire, incurring heavy damage.  For his heroism, Hackney was awarded the Air Force Cross.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas O-38F, biplane (Serial No. 33-0324), C/N 1117.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The NMUSAF's O-38F was one of the first military aircraft assigned to Alaska, landing at Ladd Field near Fairbanks, Alaska, in October 1940.  This aircraft flew various missions until it crashed on 16 June 1941, due to engine failure about 70 miles southeast of Fairbanks.  Uninjured, the pilot, Lt. Milton H. Ashkins, and his mechanic, Sgt. R.A. Roberts, hiked to safety after supplies were dropped to them.  The abandoned aircraft remained in the Alaskan wilderness until the museum arranged for its recovery by helicopter in June 1968.  Despite being exposed to the Alaskan weather for 27 years, the aircraft remained in remarkable condition.  Only the wings required extensive restoration.

 (USAAC Photo)

Douglas O-46A aircraft assigned to the Maryland National Guard's 104th Observation Squadron fly over the Chesapeake Bay on 25 June 1938.  The 104th flew O-46s from February 1937 to June 1941.

 (SDA&SM Archive Photo)

Douglas O-46A (Serial No. 35-214), ca 1942.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas O-46A (Serial No. 35-179), C/N 1441.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The NMUSAF holds the only surviving O-46A.  It is currently in storage.  On 27 November 1942, this O-46A of the 81st Air Base Squadron landed downwind at Brooks Field, Harlingen, Texas, ran out of runway and overturned.  Written off, it was abandoned in place.  More than 20 years later it was discovered by the Antique Airplane Association with trees growing through its wings, and in 1967, it was rescued and hauled to Ottumwa, Iowa.  Restoration turned out to be beyond the organization's capability, and in September 1970, it was traded to the NMUSAF for a flyable Douglas C-47 Skytrain.  The (then) Air Force Museum had it restored at Purdue University, and placed it on display in 1974, the sole survivor of the 91 O-46s built.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Douglas B-18A Bolo (Serial No. 37-0469), R33, C/N 2469.  Stationed at Wright Field from 1939 to 1942, the B-18A on display intne MNUSAF was acquired and restored by the museum in 1971.  It is painted as a B-18A serving with the 38th Reconnaissance Squadron in 1939.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas C-47D Skytrain (Serial No. 43-49507), painted as (Serial No. 43-15213), L4-W, C/N 15323/26768.  D-Day markings.  The C-47D on display in the NMUSAF was the last C-47 in routine USAF use, and was flown to the museum in 1975.  It is painted and marked to represent the C-47A flown by 2nd Lt. Gerald "Bud" C. Berry of the 91st Troop Carrier Squadron, 439th Troop Carrier Group, to recover gliders used in the invasion of France on D-Day, 6 June 1944.  "Snatched" from the ground in Normandy, the gliders were towed back to England for reuse.  On 22 March 1945, Lt. Berry used that aircraft to "snatch" a glider filled with wounded soldiers at Remagen, Germany.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

Douglas A-20G Havoc (Serial No. 43-22200), R, C/N 21847, Reg. No. NL63004.  Painted as (Serial No. 43-21475), "Little Joe".  In 1961 the Bankers Life and Casualty Co. of Chicago, Illinois, donated this A-20G to the NMUSAF.  It is painted to represent "Little Joe" of the 5th Air Force, 312th Bomb Group, 389th Bomb Squadron, with 150 missions. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas SBD-4 Dauntless (BuNo. 10575), Douglas A-24B Banshee (Serial No. 42-54582), painted as (Serial No. 41-15786), C/N 17421.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas B-23 Dragon (Serial No. 39-0037), 17B-9, C/N 2723.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas C-39A (Serial No. 38-0515), 10TG-15, C/N 2072, DC-2-243 ex Reg. Nos. XA-DUF, XA-YAV and N6097C.  Donated to the NMUSAF in 1970.

 (USAF Photo)

Douglas C-54G-1-DO Skymaster (Serial No. 45-521), c/n 35974, ca 1960s. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas VC-54C Skymaster (Serial No. 42-107451), painted as (Serial No. 42-72252), President Truman`s “Sacred Cow”.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas A-26C Invader (Serial No. 44-35733), c/n 29012.  The Marauder on display in the NMUSAF was flown in combat by the Free French during the final months of the Second World War.  It was obtained from the Air France airline's training school near Paris in June 1965.  It is painted as a 9th Air Force B-26B assigned to the 387th Bomb Group in 1945.  It was flown to the museum in September 1957.  It is painted to represent a B-26C used during the Korean War by the 34th Bomb Squadron flying night intruder missions.

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas A-26A(K) Invader (Serial No. 64-17676), formerly A-26B, 41-39596.   Modified by On Mark Engineering, the B-26K had a rebuilt fuselage and tail, strengthened wings, improved engines, reversible propellers, wing-tip fuel tanks and other refinements.  Redesignated A-26As, Counter Invaders remained in Southeast Asia until 1969 and retired from USAF service.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was originally an A-26C converted to B-26K.  It was one of the first six to arrive at Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base in 1966.  In November 1980 it was flown to the museum.

 

Douglas A-1E Skyraider escorting a Sikorsky HH-3C rescue helicopter on a CSAR mission in 1966. (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photos)

Douglas A-1E Skyraider (Serial No. 52-132649), C/N 9506.  The A-1E on display in the NMUSAF is the aircraft flown by Maj Bernard Fisher on 10 March 1966, when he rescued a fellow pilot shot down over South Vietnam.  For this deed, Fisher received the Medal of Honor.  The A-1E was severely damaged in further combat in South Vietnam, before it came to the museum in 1968 for preservation.

 (USAF Photo)

Douglas A-1H Skyraider (BuNo. 137512) of attack squadron VA-152 Friendlies in flight in 1966.  VA-152 was assigned to Attack Carrier Air Wing 16 (CVW-16) aboard the aircraft carrier USS Oriskany (CVA-34) for a deployment to Vietnam from 26 May to 16 November 1966.

Douglas A-1H Skyraider (BuNo. 134600).

 (USAF Photo)

Douglas VC-118 Liftmaster (Serial No. 46-0505), C/N 42881/129.  President Harry S. Truman's "Independence", ca 1947.  This aircraft served as President Harry S. Truman's personal aircraft until he left office in 1953.  It later served as a VIP aircraft for other air force personnel, before being retired to the Museum in 1965.

 (USAF Photos)

Douglas XD-42A Mixmaster (Serial No. 43-50224).  The XB-42 Mixmaster was an experimental bomber, designed for a high top speed.  The unconventional approach was to mount the two engines within the fuselage driving a pair of contra-rotating propellers mounted at the tail in a pusher configuration, leaving the wing and fuselage clean and free of drag-inducing protrusions.  Two prototype aircraft were built, but the end of the Second World War changed priorities and the advent of the jet engine gave an alternative way toward achieving high speed.  The prototype was struck off charge in 1949 and was given to the NMUSAF, although it is currently in storage and has never been placed on display.  The wings were removed for transport but have since been inadvertently lost . In late 2010, the fuselage was transferred to the museum.

 (USAF Photos)

Douglas XB-43 Jetmaster (Serial No. 44-61509).  The Jetmaster was a 1940s jet-powered prototype bomber.  The XB-43 was a development of the XB-42, replacing the piston engines of the XB-42 with two General Electric J35 engines of 4,000 lbf (17.8 kN) thrust each.  Despite being the first American jet bomber to fly, it suffered stability issues and the design did not enter production.  (Serial No. 44-61509) is currently in storage in the NMUSAF awaiting restoration.

 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas X-3 Stiletto (Serial No. 49-2892).  The twin-turbojet X-3, the only one built, was designed to test sustained flight at twice the speed of sound.  It also explored the use of very short wings and titanium airframe construction.  Engine development difficulties forced the use of lower-powered engines than originally planned, prohibiting the X-3 from achieving its Mach 2 design potential.  Even so, data gained from the X-3 program greatly benefited the F-104, X-15, SR-71 and other high performance aircraft.  The X-3 made its first test flight at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in October 1952. The X-3 was transferred to the NMUSAF in 1956.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Douglas RB-66B Destroyer (Serial No. 53-0475), JN, C/N 44356.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF flew combat missions in Southeast Asia and was delivered to the museum in 1970.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas C-124C Globemaster II (Serial No. 52-1066), painted as (Serial No. 51-0135), C/N 43975.  Most C-124s were transferred to the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard by 1970, and all were released from active service in mid-1974.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was assigned to the 165th Tactical Airlift group of the Georgia Air National Guard following its service with the USAF.  It was flown to the museum in August 1975.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Douglas C-133A Cargomaster (Serial No. 56-2008), C/N 45245, 436 Military Airlift Wing.  The C-133A on display in the NMUSAF established a world record for propeller-driven aircraft when, on 16 Dec 1958, it carried a cargo payload of 117,900 pounds to an altitude of 10,000 feet.  It was flown to the museum on March 17, 1971

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Eberhart SE-5E (Serial No. 22-325).  American-built Royal Aircraft Factory SE-5.  The NMUSAF acquired the SE-5E through a donation by the estate of Lt. Col. William C. Lambert, USAF Ret'd, a First World War ace with 21.5 victories.  Lambert flew the S.E.5A as an American member of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Air Force.  The Air Force Museum Foundation also helped to buy the aircraft.  It is painted to represent an SE-5E of the 18th Headquarters Squadron, Bolling Field, Washington, D.C., in 1925.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Excelsior Gondola.

 (Fairchild UC-86, USAAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild 24-C8F (UC-61J), Reg. No. N16817, painted in Civil Air Patrol markings as worn during the Second World War.  The civilian production Model 24-C8F on display in th3e NMUSAF, served in the CAP at Coastal Base 2, Rehoboth, Delaware, during the Second World War.  The wartime owner of this airplane, CAP 1stLt M.M. Wilder, was awarded the Air Medal for his service at Coastal Patrol Base 2.  This aircraft has been repainted as it was while flying for the CAP.  It was donated to the museum in 1991 by Lt. Col. (Ret.) George L. Weiss, Fort Washington, Maryland. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild PT-19A Cornell (Serial No. 41-1466).

 Fairchild PT-26, ex-RCAF FH829, USAAF (Serial No. 42-14477), Bill Larkins Photo)

Fairchild PT-26 (Serial No. TBC).

 (USAF Photo)

 (JustSomePics Photo)

  (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Greg Hume Photo)

Fairchild C-82A Packet (Serial No. 48-0581), CQ-581, C/N 10216, painted as (Serial No. 45-57735), CQ-735.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild C-119J Flying Boxcar (Serial No. 51-8037), C/N 10915.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild C-123K Provider (Serial No. 56-4362).  The C-123K on display in the NMUSAF was accepted by the USAF in 1957 as a C-123B, and went to South Vietnam in 1961 to fly as a low-level defoliant sprayer in a program known as "Ranch Hand".  In 1965, it was redesignated to UC-123B.  It saw extensive service during the Southeast Asia War as a dedicated insecticide sprayer to control malaria-carrying mosquitoes.  In 1968, Fairchild converted it to a UC-123K.  Ranch Hand personnel developed a strong symbolic attachment to this aircraft.  It took almost 600 hits in combat, and was named "Patches" for the damage repairs that covered it.  Moreover, seven of its crew received the Purple Heart for wounds received in battle.  Patches came back to the U.S. in 1972, and served in the Air Force Reserve as a C-123K until it was retired to the museum in 1980. 

 ( Mike Freer - Touchdown-aviation Photo)

Fairchild T-46A Eaglet (Serial No. 84-0493).  One of three built.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II (Serial No. 78-0681), MB, C/N A10-0301.  The A-10A on display in the NMUSAF was flown on 21 Jan 1991, by Capt Paul Johnson on an eight-hour rescue support mission during Operation Desert Storm, for which he was awarded the Air Force Cross, the USAF's second highest award for valor.  The aircraft was delivered to the museum in January 1992.

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II (Serial No. 78-0699).  In Storage.

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II (Serial No. 79-0223), EL, C/N A10-0487.

Fairchild Republic YA-10A Thunderbolt II (Serial No. 71-1370), C/N 2.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fieseler Fi-156C-1 Storch (Wk. Nr. TBC), 5F+YK.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is painted as the Storch used by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in North Africa.  Built in 1940, it was exported to Sweden where it remained until 1948. The last German to fly it before its acquisition by the donors in 1973 was German Second World War ace Erich Hartmann.  The aircraft was donated to the museum by Lt. Col. Perry A. Schreffler and Maj. Robert C. Van Ausdell, Santa Paula, California, and was delivered to the museum in 1974.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fisher P-75A Eagle (Serial No. 44-44553).  The Fisher Body Division of General Motors developed the P-75 Eagle to fill an urgent need for an interceptor early in the Second World War.  The original P-75 design incorporated the most powerful inline engine available and components from other aircraft as a way to expedite production.  Flight tests in late 1943 revealed unsatisfactory performance with the first two XP-75 prototypes . At the same time, the Eagle’s mission was changed to long-range escort. Ultimately, the idea of using other aircraft components had to be abandoned.  Fisher continued development of the design with the heavily-modified P-75A.  By the fall of 1944, however, the U.S. Army Air Forces already had capable escort aircraft like the P-51 Mustang and P-47 Thunderbolt, and it canceled the order for 2,500 P-75As.  Only eight XP-75s and six P-75As were built.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Sandpiper.  The Fa 330 on display in the NMUSAF is one of very few in existence of the 200 constructed.  It was bought to the United States at the end of the Second World War.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

  (Valder137 Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9 (Wk Nr. 601088), (Serial No. 9053Z01), 0324, HPS.  This Fw 190D-9 was originally assigned to the JG3 "Udet" Geschwader, one of the Luftwaffe's most famous fighter units.  JG3 was named for Ernst Udet, Germany's leading ace to survive the First World War.  The airplane, captured and brought to the United States for testing at the end of the Second World War, is on loan from the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fokker Dr. I Triplane (Serial No.1).  Suspended from the ceiling.  This reproduction is painted to represent the aircraft flown by Lt. Arthur Rahn in April 1918 when he served with Jagdstaffel 19.  Lt. Rahn is credited with six confirmed victories.  The aircraft was placed on display in the NMUSAF in April 1994.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Fokker D.VII, replica (Serial No. 452).  Suspended from the ceiling.  The NMUSAF's reproduction aircraft on display is painted to represent the Fokker D. VII of Lt. Rudolph Stark, a squadron leader of Jasta(Fighter Squadron) 35b in October 1918.  It was placed on exhibit in May 1996.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Fritz X bomb.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

General Atomics YMQ-9A Reaper (Serial No. 02-4002), C/N PB-002.  UAV.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The Reaper on display in the NMUSAF is one of the two pre-production YMQ-9s sent to Afghanistan.  This aircraft was used for the initial weapons testing, flew 14 missions for the Department of Homeland Defense during October-November 2003, and it was the first Reaper to fly in Afghanistan . In four years, it flew 3,266 combat hours and 254 combat sorties.  It came to the museum in May 2009.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

General Atomics RQ-1K Predator (Serial No. 94-3009), C/N P-009.  This UAV provided military commanders with an Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform capable of flying over dangerous areas for extended periods without risk to a human pilot.  In flight, the UAV and its on-board sensors are controlled by the ground crew with a direct data link.  However, when the aircraft is flown beyond the range of a direct link, the ground crew maintains control though a satellite data link.  The equipment carried in the bottom turret can provide live video, still photographs, or radar imagery in all weather conditions, day or night.  Using satellite data links, the information gathered by a Predator can be shared instantaneously with commanders around the world.  In February 2001 the Predator successfully fired a laser-guided Lockheed Martin AGM-114 Hellfire anti-tank missile at a stationary target.  In May 2001 General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., presented the RQ-1K Predator on display in the NMUSAF.  It is painted to represent a Predator used in the early part of OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM in Afghanistan.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

General Dynamics F-111A Aardvark (Serial No. 67-0067), NA, C/N A1-112.  The F-111A on display in the NMUSAF is marked as it appeared in 1972-1973 when it was assigned to the 474th Tactical Fighter Wing during "Linebacker II", conducting very effective night strikes against North Vietnamese targets.

General Dynamics F-111F Aardvark (Serial No. 70-2390), LN, C/N E2-29/F-29.

General Dynamics F-111F Aardvark (Serial No. 72-1448), LN, C/N E2-78/F-78.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

General Dynamics EF-111A Raven (Serial No. 66-0057), CC, C/N A1-75.  EF-111A Ravens, known affectionately as "Fat Tails" and "Spark Varks," (the F-111 is known as the Aardvark), served as tactical electronic jamming aircraft in the 1980s and 1990s.  The USAF received 42 EF-111As between 1981 and 1985, and the aircraft supported several USAF operations in the 1980s and 1990s.  In the 1970s Grumman began modifying 42 F-111A fighters by adding jamming equipment to create the EF-111A.  A 16-foot-long, canoe-shaped radome on the underside for the fuselage housed high-powered transmitter antennas, and a fin-tip pod on the vertical stabilizer housed receiving antennas and other equipment, including a processor to detect hostile radar emissions.  This complex gear weighed about four tons.  Because the equipment required full-time attention in flight, the right seat crewmember, or Electronic Warfare Officer, no longer performed flight-related duties but instead monitored the jamming equipment.  In 1984 Grumman/General Dynamics Corp. began building additional modification kits for the EF-111A which enabled the aircraft to operate in three roles: standoff jamming, close in jamming and penetration/escort.  Ravens served first with the 390th Electronic Combat Squadron based at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho . Later, they were based at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico.  The USAF retired its EF-111As in June 1998, and this aircraft was placed on display in the NMUSAFin July 1998.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo, right)

General Dynamics NF-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial No. 75-0750), c/n 61-5, AFTI testbed.  The USAF used this highly modified fighter for more than 20 years to test new ideas in flight control, electronic targeting, and cockpit design.  A one-of-a-kind aircraft, the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 made more than 700 flights in 10 different research programs between 1978 and 2000.  AFTI F-16 programs developed targeting lasers and computers, and new autopilot and ground-avoidance systems which allowed pilots to fly faster and lower while seeking and attacking targets.  Other AFTI advances included digital flight controls, a voice-activated maneuvering system that allowed the pilot to "point" the aircraft in unusual flight attitudes, and touch-sensitive cockpit displays.  The aircraft's last project tested new technology that reduced the F-35 Lightning II’s weight and increased its maneuverability.  One of the AFTI program's most significant achievements was the first-ever use of all-electric "power by wire" flight controls, with no hydraulic or mechanical backups to move the aircraft's control surfaces.  This milestone won the AFTI team the 2000 Aerospace Industry Award for Engineering, Maintenance, and Modification.  In 2001 the AFTI F-16 was retired and transferred to the NMUSAF.

 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

General Dynamics F-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial No. 81-0663), 1, C/N 61-344, Thunderbirds markings.  The F-16 on display in the NMUSAF was one of the first F-16s to be received by the Thunderbirds in 1982 when they transitioned from T-38s to F-16s.  The Thunderbirds continued to fly this aircraft until 1992 when they converted to F-16Cs.  It was then modified to operational condition and assigned to the Air Education and Training Command to train pilots at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona.  In 1996 the Thunderbirds repainted it in Thunderbird colours at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.  The museum placed it on display in October 1996. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Grumman OA-12 Duck, Reg. No. N67790,  (Serial No. 33587), painted as 48-0563.  The OA-12 Duck was the USAF version of the Navy J2F-6 amphibian.  After the Second World War, the USAF' Air Rescue Service needed special aircraft for overwater missions, and in 1948 the USAF acquired eight surplus Navy J2F-6s.  Designated the OA-12, five of these aircraft went to Alaska for duty with the 10th Air Rescue Squadron.  The Columbia Aircraft Corp. of Valley Stream, New York, built the Grumman-designed J2F-6 Duck on display in the NMUSAF.  it was delivered to the U.S. Coast Guard on 9 June1945, and became surplus in 1946. It served with a series of civilian owners and "starred" in several films, including "Murphy's War" of the early 1970s.  This aircraft is painted to represent one of the rescue OA-12s the USAF acquired in 1948. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Grumman HU-16B Albatross (Serial No. 51-5282), C/N G-163.  The HU-16 on display in the NMUSAF was one of the last operational USAF Albatrosses.  The aircraft established a world altitude record for twin-engine amphibians when it reached 32,883 feet on 4 July 1973.  Two weeks later, the aircraft was retired and flown to the museum.

 (USAF Photos)

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Grumman X-29A (Serial No. 82-0003).  In 1985 the X-29A on display became the world's first forward-swept aircraft to fly supersonically.  The X-29A program explored cutting-edge aircraft design features, including forward-swept wings, advanced materials, a forward-mounted elevator (or canard) and a computerized flight control system.  It was managed by the USAF and funded by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), the USAF and NASA.  During the Second World War, Germany and the United States experimented with forward-swept wings, but both encountered problems with the metal wings bending dangerously at higher speeds.  As stronger composite materials became available in the 1970s, however, wing structures could be both lightweight and very rigid.  The NMUSAF’s aircraft is the first of two X-29As built by Grumman, and it made its first flight in December 1984.  The second X-29A first flew in 1989 and continued to perform test flights into the early 1990s.  After successfully completing the test program, the X-29A on display was retired to the museum in late 1994.

 (USAF Photo)

Grumman X-29 (Serial No. 82-0049).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Halberstadt CL IV.  The museum acquired the Halberstadt CL IV on display in 1984. Badly deteriorated at the time, its restoration was a joint international cooperative venture by the Museum fur Verkehr und Technik in Berlin, Germany, the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum and the National Museum of the United States Air Force.  It is marked as the CL IV of the squadron leader of the Schlachtstaffel 21, which is known to have engaged elements of the U.S. Army's 94th and 95th Aero Squadrons in mid-July 1918 during the battle of Chateau Thierry. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIa (Serial No. Z3174), XR-B.  This aircraft was built in Canada.  It is painted to represent an aircraft of RAF No. 71 (Eagle) Squadron, which was composed of American pilots that had volunteered to join the RCAF or the RAF beginning in September 1940 prior to US entry into the Second World War in Dec 1941.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Hawker-Siddeley XV-6A Kestrel (Serial No. 64-18262).  The British-built Kestrel was a prototype Vertical/Short Take Off and Landing (VSTOL) aircraft successfully tested in the 1960s.  An improved version, known as the Harrier, became the world's first operational VSTOL fighter when it entered Royal Air Force (RAF) service in 1969.  The first Kestrel began flight trials in 1961 in Britain.  The next year, the United Kingdom, US, and the Federal Republic of Germany ordered nine aircraft for combined testing by those countries' representatives.  A joint evaluation squadron, which included USAF pilots, conducted Kestrel trials in 1965.  Six of these trial aircraft came to the United States where the US armed forces conducted additional testing. Although the USAF did not order it, the US Marine Corps and RAF operated the follow-on Harrier for several decades.  The Kestrel on display was delivered to the NMUSAF from Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1970.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Helio U-10D Super Courier (Serial No. 66-14360).  The U-10D on display in the NMUSAF is painted and marked as an aircraft assigned to the 5th Air Commando Squadron in Southeast Asia in 1968.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Interstate L-6A Cadet (Serial No. 43-2680).

 (Greg Goebel Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Junkers Ju-52/3M (CASA 352L) Trimotor (Serial No. T2B-244), 901-20, C/N 135.

 (Greg Goebel Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Junkers Ju 88 D-1/Trop (Serial No. 0880430650), F6-Al, 105, C/N 430650.  Ex-RAF (Serial No. HK959).  ThisJu 88D-1/Trop (later designated Ju 88D-3), is a long-range photographic reconnaissance version modified for tropical use.  Known as the "Baksheesh", it was the best known Ju 88 of the 15,000 built.  Completed in June 1943, this aircraft was delivered to Romania, an ally of Germany during the Second World War.  In July 1943, a disillusioned Romanian pilot flew the aircraft to Cyprus to defect to British forces there.  The Royal Air Force turned over Baksheesh to the US Army Air Forces.  Test pilots at Wright Field flew the aircraft extensively.  At the end of the war, the USAAF stored it in the Arizona desert, until Jan 1960, when it was moved to the NMUSAF.  Baksheesh is painted in the Romanian Air Force markings it carried in July 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Stahlkocher Photo)

Kaman HH-43B Huskie (Serial No. 60-0263), C/N 87.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The HH-43B on display in the NMUSAF established seven world records in 1961-1962 for helicopters in its class for rate of climb, altitude, and distance traveled.  It was assigned to rescue duty with Detachment 3, 42nd Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, prior to its retirement and flight to the museum in April 1973.

 (USN Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photos)

Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai (Serial No. 5312).  The NMUSAF's N1K2-Ja is a fighter-bomber variant of the Shiden Kai equipped with wing mounts to carry bombs.  It is painted as an aircraft in the Yokosuka Kokutai, an evaluation and test unit similar in function to the USAAF's flight test unit at Wright Field.  As a result of Japanese forces being pushed back on the battlefront, by the spring of 1945 Yokosuka Kokutai test pilots entered combat in a desperate defence against overwhelming Allied air attacks.  This aircraft is one of only three surviving restored examples in the world.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Kellett K2/K3 Autogyro.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF, a modified K-2, was the first autogiro tested by the Army Air Corps at Wright Field in 1931.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Kettering Aerial Torpedo "Bug".  In 1917 Charles F. Kettering of Dayton, Ohio, invented the unmanned Kettering Aerial Torpedo, nicknamed the "Bug."  Launched from a four-wheeled dolly that ran down a portable track, the Bug's system of internal pre-set pneumatic and electrical controls stabilized and guided it toward a target.  After a predetermined length of time, a control closed an electrical circuit, which shut off the engine.  Then, the wings were released, causing the Bug to plunge to earth, where its 180 pounds of explosive detonated on impact.  The Dayton-Wright Airplane Co. built fewer than 50 Bugs before the Armistice, and the Bug never saw combat.  After the war, the U.S. Army Air Service conducted additional tests, but the scarcity of funds in the 1920s halted further development.  Museum personnel built this full-size reproduction of the Bug, and it went on display in 1964.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Laister-Kauffmann TG-4A Glider.  The TG-4A suspended from the ceiling of the Second World War Gallery in the NMUSAFm was donated to the museum in 1980 by Frederick A. Tietzel and placed on display in 2003.

 (USAAF Photo)

Lockheed P-38J Lightnings (Serial Nos. 42-67183 and 42-67332), ca 1944.

  (Valder137 Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed P-38L Lightning (Serial No. 44-53232), painted as (Serial No. 42-67855), a P-38J of the 55th Fighter Squadron, based in England in 1944.  The P-38L was donated to the museum in 1961 by the Kaufmann Foundation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The top hats on the left side of the aircraft represent the nine bomber escort missions flown by its pilot, 2nd Lt. Royal D. Frey, with the yellow hat signifying five and the white hats one each.

 (Greg Hume Photo)

Lockheed C-60A Lodestar (Serial No. 43-16445), C/N 18-2605.

 

 

 (Author Photos)

Lockheed RB-34A Vega (Serial No. AJ311), C/N 137-4449, ex-RAF Ventura III.  Previously on display with the Pueblo-Wiesbrod Aviation Museum, Colorado.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed EC-121D Constellation (Serial No. 53-0555).  The EC-121, originally designated RC-121, was a radar-picket version of the USAF's C-121 passenger aircraft.  The EC-121 provided early warning by detecting and tracking enemy aircraft with the electronic gear in the large radomes above and below its fuselage.  The Air Force ordered 82 EC-121s between 1951 and 1955, 72 of which were EC-121Ds.  The EC-121 entered service with the Air Defense Command in 1953, flying patrols off the U.S. coasts as an aerial extension of the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line.  EC-121s remained in service until they were replaced by more capable E-3 Sentry AWACS (Airborne Warning And Control System).  The last EC-121 was retired from the U.S. Air Force Reserve in 1978.  In Southeast Asia, these unarmed radar aircraft aided in downing enemy aircraft, directed U.S. aircraft to aerial refueling tankers, and guided rescue planes to downed pilots.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was nicknamed "Triple Nickel" because of its serial number (53-0555).  On 24 Oct 1967, it guided a U.S. fighter into position to destroy a MiG-21 over the Gulf of Tonkin.  This action marked the first time a weapons controller aboard an airborne radar aircraft had ever directed a successful attack on an enemy aircraft.  Triple Nickel came to the museum in 1971.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed VC-121E Constellation (Serial No. 53-7885), C/N 4151, (BuNo. 131650), Columbine III.

 (Lockheed P-80A-1-LO Shooting Star (Serial No. 44-85004), USAF Photo)

Lockheed XP-80B Shooting Star (Serial No. 44-85200).

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed P-80R Shooting Star (Serial No. 44-85200).  

Col. Albert Boyd flew this P-80R to a new world's speed record of 623.753 mph, returning the record to the United States after nearly 24 years, on 19 June 1947, at Muroc Army Air Field (now Edwards Air Force Base), California.  The Army Air Force's quest to capture the world's speed record, then held by a British Gloster Meteor, after the Second World War, led to the creation of the specialized P-80R.  A high-speed variant of the standard P-80A Shooting Star, it had a smaller canopy, redesigned air intakes and a shorter wing with an extended leading edge.  In addition, the engine was modified, armament removed and replaced by a fuel tank, and all drag-producing openings sealed.  The P-80R on display in the NMUSAF is the only one built.  It was shipped to the museum from Griffiss Air Force Base, New York, in October 1954.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed F-80C Shooting Star (Serial No. 49-0696), FT-696, C/N 080-2444.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed T-33A Shooting Star (Serial No. 53-5974), TR-974, C/N 580-9456.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The T-33 is one of the world's best-known aircraft, having served with the air forces of more than 20 different nations over several decades. The T-33A on display in the NMUSAF was flown to the museum in 1962. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed NT-33A Shooting Star (Serial No. 51-4120).  The NT-33A was an in-flight simulator operated for decades in support of numerous Department of Defense projects.  The NT-33A was used to study flying qualities, cockpit displays, control sticks, and flight control design of many, widely-varied aircraft, including the X-15, A-10, F-15, F-16, F-18, F-117, and F-22.  It also trained hundreds of U.S. Air Force and Navy test pilots.  Modified from a standard T-33 trainer in the late 1950s, the NT-33A could be programmed to simulate the flight of a completely different aircraft.  It also had an “artificial feel” system that replicated the characteristics of the stick and rudder controls of the aircraft being simulated.  A civilian contractor, the Calspan Corp. (formerly the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory), modified, operated and maintained the aircraft.  During the NT-33A's 40 years of distinguished service, Calspan performed numerous research programs around the country.  The NT-33A conducted its last research project in April 1997, and it was placed on display at the NMUSAF in August 1997. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Federal Government of the United States - Nevada Test Site Guide, DOE/NV-715 Photo)

Lockheed XF-90 (Serial No. 46-688), c/n 090-1002.  The Lockheed XF-90 was built in response to a USAF requirement for a long-range penetration fighter and bomber escort. The same requirement produced the McDonnell XF-88 Voodoo.  Lockheed received a contract for two prototype XP-90s (redesignated XF-90 in 1948).  The design was developed by Willis Hawkins and the Skunk Works team under Kelly Johnson.  Two prototypes were built (Serial Nos 46-0687 and 46-0688).  Developmental and political difficulties delayed the first flight until 3 June 1949, with Chief Test Pilot Tony LeVier at the controls.  The XF-90 was the first USAF jet with an afterburner and the first Lockheed jet to fly supersonic, albeit in a dive . It also incorporated an unusual vertical stabilizer that could be moved fore and aft for horizontal stabilizer adjustment.  Partly because Lockheed's design proved underpowered, it placed second to McDonnell's XF-88 Voodoo which won the production contract in September 1950, before the penetration fighter project was abandoned altogether.  Upon Lockheed losing the production contract, the two prototypes were retired to other testing roles.  The first aircraft (Serial No. 46-0687) was shipped to the NACA Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio in 1953 for structural tests.  It was no longer flyable, and its extremely strong airframe was tested to destruction.  The second aircraft (Serial No. 46-688) survived three atomic blasts at Frenchmen Flat within the Nevada Test Site in 1952.  In 2003, the heavily damaged hulk was recovered from the Nevada test site and moved to the NMUSAF, where it is currently undergoing minor restoration in one of the Museum's restoration facility hangars.  Its wings have been removed, and its nose is mangled from the nuclear blasts.  During the decontamination process, all the rivets had to be removed to remove radioactive sand.  At present, the museum plans to display the XF-90 in its damaged, mostly unrestored condition, to demonstrate the effects of nuclear weaponry.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Lockheed F-94A Starfire (Serial No. 49-2498).  The F-94A on exhibit in the NMUSAF was transferred from the active inventory to the museum in May 1957.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed F-94C Starfire (Serial No. 50-0980), FA-054, painted as (Serial No. 50-1054), FA-054, C/N 880-8025.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF has been painted to represent an F-94C assigned to the 60th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Otis Air Force Base, Massachusettts, during the late 1950s. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed F-104C Starfighter (Serial No. 56-0914).

Lockheed F-104C Starfighter (Serial No. 56-0754), painted as (Serial No. 56-0879), /FG-879, c/n 183-1042.  This aircraft is mounted on a pylon in front of the museum.  It was suffering from storm damage and corrosion, but has been restored and remounted.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

  (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed YF-12A Blackbird (Serial No. 60-6935).  The YF-12 was developed in the 1960s as a high-altitude, Mach 3 interceptor to defend against supersonic bombers . Based on the A-12 reconnaissance aircraft, the YF-12A became the forerunner of the highly-sophisticated SR-71 strategic reconnaissance aircraft.  The first of three YF-12s flew in August 1963.  In May 1965, the first and third YF-12s set several records, including a speed record of 2,070.101 mph and an altitude record of 80,257.65 feet.  For their speed record flight, Col. Robert L. "Fox" Stephens (pilot) and LCol. Daniel Andre (fire control officer) received the 1965 Thompson Trophy.  Though the aircraft performed well, the F-12 interceptor program ended in early 1968.  High costs, the ongoing war in Southeast Asia, and a lower priority on air defense of the US all contributed to the cancellation.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was the second one built.  It was recalled from storage in 1969 for a joint USAF/NASA investigation of supersonic cruise technology.  It was flown to the museum in 1979, and it is the only remaining YF-12A in existence (the first YF-12A was damaged beyond repair after a landing mishap, and the third YF-12A was destroyed after the crew ejected to escape an inflight fire).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird (Serial No. 61-7976), C/N 2027.  Throughout its nearly 24-year career, the SR-71 remained the world's fastest and highest-flying operational aircraft.  From 80,000 feet, it could survey 100,000 square miles of Earth's surface per hour.  On 28 July 1976, an SR-71 set two world records for its class, an absolute speed record of 2,193.167 mph and an absolute altitude record of 85,068.997 feet.  On 21 March 1968, the aircraft on display in the NMUSAF made the first operational SR-71 sortie.  During its career, this aircraft accumulated 2,981 flying hours and flew 942 total sorties (more than any other SR-71), including 257 operational missions, from Beale Air Force Base, California, Palmdale, California, Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, and RAF (Base), Mildenhall, England.  The aircraft was flown to the museum in March 1990.

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed D-21B UAV, C/N 535.

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed U-2A Dragon Lady (Serial No. 56-6722), C/N 389.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is the last U-2A built.  During the 1960s, it made 285 flights to gather data on high-altitude, clear-air turbulence and in the 1970s it flight tested reconnaissance systems.  Delivered to the museum in May 1980, it is painted as a typical reconnaissance U-2.

Lockheed AC-130A Spectre (Serial No. 54-1626), C/N 182-3013.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed AC-130A Spectre (Serial No. 54-1630), C/N 182-3017.  Named Azrael for the angel of death in Islam who severs the soul from the body.  This aircraft figured prominently in the closing hours of Operation Desert Storm.  On 26 February 1991, Coalition ground forces were driving the Iraqi Army out of Kuwait. With an Air Force Reserve crew called to active duty, Azrael was sent to the Al Jahra highway (Highway 80) between Kuwait City and Basra, Iraq, to intercept the convoys of tanks, trucks, buses, and cars fleeing the battle.  Facing SA-6 and SA-8 surface-to-air missiles and 37 mm and 57 mm radar-guided anti-aircraft artillery the crew attacked and destroyed or disabled most of the convoys. Azrael was also assigned to the 919th Special Operations Wing and retired to the NMUSAF in October 1995.

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

Lockheed C-130E Hercules (Serial No. 62-1787), C/N 382-3732.

  (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed C-130 Hercules.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

Lockheed VC-140B Jet Star (Serial No. 61-2492), C/N 5031.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Lockheed C-141C Starlifter (Serial No. 66-0177), C/N 300-6203, "Hanoi Taxi".

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

Lockheed YF-117A Nighthawk (Serial No. 79-10781), ED, C/N A.4006.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is the second F-117A built and was specially modified for systems testing.  The USAF retired it to the museum in 1991 after its test program was completed.  It is marked as it appeared during tests conducted for the Air Force Systems Command between 1981 and 1991. 

Lockheed YF-22A Raptor (Serial No. 87-0700).  This aircraft was transferred to the Air Force Flight Test Center Museum at Edwards AFB, California.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor (Serial No. 91-4003), FF, C/N 645-4003.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Loening OA-1A (Serial No. 26-431).

LTV A-7C Corsair II (Serial No.)

LTV A-7D Corsair II (Serial No. 69-6192).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

LTV A-7D Corsair II (Serial No. 70-0970), MB, C/N D-116.  The A-7D on display in the NMUSAF was flown on 18 Nov 1972, by Maj Colin A. Clarke on a nine-hour rescue support mission in Southeast Asia for which he received the Air Force Cross, the USAF's second highest award for valor in combat.  It was delivered to the museum on 31 Jan 1992.

 

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

LTV XC-142A (Serial No. 65-5924).

 (Greg Goebel Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Macchi MC-200 Saetta (Serial No. MM8146), 372-5.  The NMUSAF's MC.200 was transferred from the Regia Aeronautica's 372nd Squadron in Italy to the 165th Squadron in North Africa in Nov 1942.  It was abandoned at Banghazi airfield following the battle of El Alamein.  It appears that it retained its 372nd markings.  Captured by British forces, it was subsequently shipped to the USA where it was exhibited around the country to sell war bonds. it was later obtained by the New England Air Museum.  In 1989 it was purchased by a private owner who had it restored in Italy by a team from Aermacchi, the original builder, before its acquisition by the NMUSAF.  It is displayed in the markings of the 372nd Squadron of the Regia Aeronautica that it carried at the time of its capture. 

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Mk. 41 Nuclear Bomb.

 

Martin MB-2, ca 1930s.  (USAAC Photos)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Martin MB-2 (Serial No. AS 6419).  The MB-2 became the Air Service's primary multi-engine bomber until replaced by the Keystone bombers of the late 1920s.  Today, no original MB-2 exists.  The reproduction on display at the museum was built using original Martin drawings and completed in 2002. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Greg Goebel Photo)

Martin B-10 (Serial No. 146).  When the B-10 design was released for export in 1936, several countries purchased the export version of the bomber, the 139W, for their armed forces.  Argentina bought 35 Martin 139Ws, including 12 for the Argentine Navy.  After many years of service, the obsolete bombers were used for various types of training.  The aircraft on display at the museum was last used as a ground-training tool for Argentine engineering students at the "Jorge Newberry" National School of Technical Education, No. 1, in Buenos Aires.  When museum staff learned that the only known surviving B-10 was in Argentina, discussions began with Argentine officials to obtain this historic American aircraft for the museum.  As a magnificent gesture of friendship between Argentina and the United States, and in recognition of the tremendous historical value of the B-10 to the U.S. Air Force, the Argentine Navy presented this aircraft as a gift to the United States on behalf of the Argentine nation on 21 Aug 1970.  The gift was accepted by the U.S. Ambassador to Argentina, John Davis Lodge.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Martin B-26G Marauder (Serial No. 43-34581), C/N 8701 "Shootin In".  It is painted as (Serial No. 42-95857) a 9th Air Force B-26B assigned to the 387th Bombardment Group in 1945.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (Clemens Vaster Photo)

Martin-Marietta X-24A.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Martin-Marietta X-24B (Serial No. 66-13551), actually SV-5Y, displayed as X-24A.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Martin EB-57B Canberra/Night Intruder (Serial No. 52-1499), c/n 082.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was assigned to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, as a test aircraft in the early 1960s.  It was returned to combat configuration to replace combat losses in Southeast Asia.  Assigned to the 8th Bomb Squadron at Phan Rang, South Vietnam, in 1967, it flew in combat there for 2-1/2 years.  After returning to the United States, it was converted to an electronic countermeasures EB-57B.  It was flown to the museum in August 1981, and restored back to its Southeast Asia War bomber configuration in 2010.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Martin RB-57D Canberra (Serial No. 53-3982), C/N 006.  The RB-57D differed significantly from the earlier B-57 bomber.  The RB-57D's much longer wings had a lightweight, honeycomb internal structure, and its more powerful engines provided a total of 6,000 pounds more thrust.  Martin built 20 RB-57Ds in three variants: 13 single-seat photoreconnaissance aircraft (seven of which could be refueled in mid-air), one single-seat radar mapping aircraft, and six two-seat electronic reconnaissance aircraft.  The RB-57D on display in the NMUSAF is one of the 13 photoreconnaissance RB-57Ds.  It is painted as it appeared in the late 1950s while it served in the 4025th SRS(L), and went on display in the museum in 2004.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

McDonnell XF-85 Goblin (Serial No. 46-0523), C/N 1.  The McDonnell Aircraft Corp. developed the XF-85 Goblin "parasite" fighter to protect B-36 bombers flying far beyond the range of conventional escort fighters.  The "parent" B-36 would carry the XF-85 within a bomb bay, then if enemy fighters appeared, the Goblin would be lowered on a trapeze and released to combat the attackers.  Once the enemy had been driven away, the Goblin would return to the B-36, reattach to the trapeze, and be lifted back into the bomb bay.  Two test aircraft were ordered in October 1945, and flight testing with a modified B-29 began in 1948.  Test pilots could successfully launch the XF-85, but the turbulent air under the B-29 made recovery difficult and hazardous.  About half of the Goblin flights ended with emergency ground landings after the test pilot could not hook up to the B-29.  No XF-85s were ever launched or carried by a B-36.  The program ended in late 1949 when aerial refueling of conventional fighter aircraft showed greater promise.  The XF-85 was transferred to the NMUSAF in 1950.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

McDonnell XH-20 (Serial No. 46-0689).  The XH-20 was essentially a test stand built to research ramjet-propelled helicopter rotor blades.  The XH-20 first flew in May 1947, but its fuel was delivered through a flexible line from tanks on the ground.  In May 1948, it made its first flight with self-contained fuel tanks.  Being a test stand, Little Henry was never intended to fly at any appreciable altitudes or distances.  While the XH-20 proved that a helicopter could use ramjet-propelled rotor blades, it was very loud and consumed fuel at a high rate.  The XH-20 on display in the NMUSAF, the only one built and flown, was obtained by the museum in 1953.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Clemens Vasters Photos)

McDonnell F-101B Voodoo (Serial No. 58-0325), 13, C/N 697.  The F-101B on display in the NMUSAF served with the 18th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota, and with the 142nd Fighter Interceptor Group, Oregon National Guard.  It was flown to the museum in February 1981. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

McDonnell RF-101C Voodoo (Serial No. 56-0166), AH, C/N 127.  The RF-101C on display in the NMUSAF participated in Operation Sun Run in 1957.  This Voodoo also flew vital low-altitude reconnaissance during the Cuban Missile Crisis and helped confirm that offensive missile sites in Cuba were being dismantled.  It also served in Southeast Asia with the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron.  It was flown from the 153rd Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Mississippi Air National Guard at Key Field, Mississippi, to the museum on 27 Oct 1978.

AV-8B Harrier, jet aircraft, assigned to Marine Attack Squadron Two-Eleven (VMA-211), embarked onboard the forward-deployed amphibious assault ship USS Essex (LHD 2), lands on the flight deck as a part of a deck landing qualification evolution.  (Petty Officer 3rd Class Mark Alvarez, US Navy Photo)

McDonnell AV-8 Harrier (Serial No. 64-18262).

McDonnell Douglas F-4B Phantom II (BuNo. 151424).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Martin McGuire Photo)

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 64-0829), SA, c/n 1169.  "SCAT XXVII", 149 TFG, two MiG kills.  The USAF sent its first F-4Cs to Southeast Asia in 1965, where they flew air-to-air missions against North Vietnamese fighters as well as attacking ground targets.  The first USAF pilot to score four combat victories with F-4s in Southeast Asia was Colonel Robin Olds, a Second World War ace.  The aircraft on display is the one in which Col. Olds, the pilot, and Lt. Stephen Croker, the weapons system officer, destroyed two MiG-17s in a single day, on 20 May 1967.  In its air-to-ground role, the F-4C could carry twice the normal load of a Second World War Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber.  The armament loaded on the aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is a typical configuration for an F-4C in 1967.  It consists of four AIM-7E and four AIM-9B air-to-air missiles, and eight 750-pound Mk 117 bombs.  The aircraft also carries two external fuel tanks on the outboard pylons and one ALQ-87 electronic countermeasures (ECM) pod on the right inboard pylon.

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 64-0763), SL, C/N 1059.  On loan to Air Heritage Inc, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania.

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 66-7554), "City of Fairborn I".

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 64-0683), C/N 917.  On display at the Newark AFB Museum.

McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II (BuNo. 151424), painted as (Serial No. 66-7660).

 (NMUSAF Photo)

McDonnell Douglas RF-4C Phantom II (Serial No. 64-1047), BH, C/N 943.

McDonnell Douglas F-4D Phantom II (Serial No. 66-7626), DO, C/N 2195, “City of Dayton III”.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

McDonnell Douglas YF-4E Phantom II (Serial No. 62-12200), C/N 266.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

McDonnell Douglas F-4G Phantom II (Serial No. 69-7263), "Wild Weasel", WW, C/N 3947.  F-4G Wild Weasels were modified F-4E fighters with their cannon replaced by AN/APR-47 electronic warfare equipment.  Their mission was to attack enemy air defenses, including surface-to-air missile (SAM) air defense radars.  One hundred sixteen F-4Es were rebuilt as F-4Gs for this special purpose.  Carrying AGM-88A/B/C High Speed Anti-Radiation Missiles (HARM), the F-4G worked in concert with other F-4Gs or as a hunter aircraft directing fighter-bombers, such as the F-16, against SAM sites.  The F-4G carried a pilot and an Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO), who navigated, assisted with communications and coordinated attacks on the SAM sites.  The F-4G Wild Weasel first flew in 1975 and was retired in 1996.  The NMUSAF's F-4G was placed on display in September 1996.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

McDonnell Douglas F-15A Eagle (Serial No. 72-0119), C/N 19/A017.

McDonnell Douglas F-15A Eagle (Serial No. 76-0027), FF, C/N 207/A179.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Messerschmitt Bf 109G-10/U4 Gustav (Wk Nr. 610824), 11/JG52, "Black 2".  This aircraft was captured at Neubiberg, near Munich, Germany in May 1945.  It was one of three Bf 109s taken to the US by Capt Fred McIntosh, in charge of collecting piston-engined aircraft for “Watson’s Whizzers”.  After test flying, it was found not to be airworthy and made its journey to Cherbourg by truck.  It was then shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper and landed at New York Harbor, from where it was then trucked to Newark, New Jersey, finally arriving at Freeman Field near Seymour, Indiana on 17 May 1946.  The aircraft was given a rather spurious paint scheme and coded USA FE-124, this was changed later to T2-124, when the Air Technical Service Command underwent re-organization and the Technical Data Laboratory Branch became part of T-2 Intelligence. 610824 was not used for research, but instead became a display aircraft in the early post war era touring various airbases.  In 1947, T2-124 was donated to the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta.  It later passed through several private owners, with Reg. No. N109MS.  The NMUSAF's Bf 109G-10 is painted to represent an aircraft from Jagdgeschwader 300, a unit that defended Germany against Allied bombers.  JG 300 was originally formed as a Wilde Sau (or Wild Boar) night fighter unit in 1943 but converted to the day fighter role as US bomber attacks intensified.  In the many pitched battles with the U.S. Army Air Forces, the Bf 109G-10s of JG 300 often provided top cover for the more heavily armed Focke Wulf Fw 190s attacking the bomber formations.  This unit also had the distinction of being the last command of the war for Maj. Gunther Rall, who with 275 victories, was the third-highest scoring ace in history.  "Black 2" has been on display at the NMUSAF since 1 Apr 1999, painted as “Blue 4” of JG 300, “Wild Sau.”  

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Messerschmitt Me 163B-1a Komet, (Wk. Nr. 191095), was flown by JG 400.  It was surrendered at Husum in Germany and shipped to the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), in the UK, where it was designated RAF AM 211.  It was despatched from Farnborough to No. 6 MU, Brize Norton, on 25 July 1945.  AM 211 was sent to No. 47 MU, Sealand on 26 June and prepared for shipment to Canada, leaving Salford Docks on board the SS Manchester Commerce on 28 August, and arriving at Montréal on 9 September 1945.  Subsequently, it was used as a gate guardian at RCAF Station St Jean, Québec, until it was taken over by the Canadian War Museum (CWM) in Ottawa.  This aircraft passed to the Canadian National Aeronautical Collection (CNAC), now the Canada Air and Space Museum (CA&SM), at Rockcliffe, near Ottawa, Ontario, in 1964.  AM 211 was restored to display standard in the CNAC workshops and loaned to the NMUSAF from 1978-1985.  It was made a gift from the CA&SM to the NMUSAF in 1999.  During the aircraft's restoration in Canada it was discovered that the aircraft had been assembled by French “forced labourers” who had deliberately sabotaged it by placing stones between the rocket's fuel tanks and its supporting straps.  There are also indications that the wing was assembled with contaminated glue.  Patriotic French writing was found inside the fuselage.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a "Schwalbe" (Wk. Nr. 501232), "Yellow 5", 3./KG(J)6.  This aircraft was designated Watson's Whizzers No. 111, and was painted as "Beverly Anne", later "Screamin Meemie".  "Yellow 5" was shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper,  with inventory control No. 20.  This aircraft was sent to the USN Armament Test Division at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland in Dec 1945 where it was designated USN (BuNo. 121442) and test flown, before coming to the NMUSAF.

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

Messerschmitt Me 262, Junkers Jumo jet engine.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 Fagot (Serial No. 2015357).  The MiG-15 on display in the NMUSAF was flown by a defecting North Korean pilot to Kimpo Air Base in South Korea on 21 Sep 1953.  The airplane provided important intelligence data, especially since it was the advanced version of the MiG-15.  After considerable flight-testing, the USA offered to return the airplane to its "rightful owners."  The offer was ignored, and in November 1957 it was transferred to the museum for public exhibition.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17F Fresco C (Serial N. 3020), C/N 799.  Egyptian Air Force.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was presented to the museum by the Egyptian Air Force in 1986 as a symbol of friendship and cooperation between the two nations.  It is painted to represent a North Vietnamese Air Force (VPAF) MiG-17. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19S Farmer C (Serial No. 0138), Vietnam Air Force.  The first Soviet production fighter capable of supersonic speeds in level flight, the prototype MiG-19 (NATO code-name "Farmer") made its first flight in September 1953.  Entering production in 1955, it became the Soviet Union's primary fighter during the last half of the 1950s.  Possibly as many as 10,000 MiG-19s, in various versions, were built by the Soviet Union, China, Poland and Czechoslovakia.  Many other countries used the MiG-19, including Cuba, North Vietnam, North Korea, Iraq and most of the Warsaw Pact nations.  The Soviet Union phased out the MiG-19 in the early 1960s in favor of the more advanced MiG-21, but other nations continued to use the MiG-19 for many more years.  The NMUSAF's MiG-19S came from the 457th Technical Evaluation Squadron based at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.  It went on display in October 1994. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Robert Dilley Photo)

 (Greg Goebel Photo)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21F-13 Fishbed (Serial No. 5063), C/N 506301, 60, 4128, Vietnam Air Force.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21D (MiG-21PF Fishbed (Serial No. 4128).  In the Southeast Asia War, the MiG-21 was a dangerous adversary. Fast as US jets, it was more agile than the F-4 Phantom, its main opponent.  Although American forces lost about 50 aircraft to North Vietnamese MiG-21s, the USAF shot down 68 MiG-21s in air combat.  North Vietnam had more than 200 MiG-21s.  The aircraft on display, a MiG-21PF, carried air-to-air missiles but no guns . It is painted to represent a plane from North Vietnam's elite 921st Fighter Regiment.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23MLD Flogger K (Serial No. 44), ex-Soviet Air Force.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23MS Flogger E (Serial No. 39).  The MiG-23MS was designed for foreign export and was less capable than domestic Soviet versions.  It was equipped with a less sophisticated radar housed in a smaller radome.  First delivered in 1973, it was given the NATO code-name “Flogger-E.”  More than 5,000 MiG-23s of all types were built.  The US Air Force’s 4477th Test Squadron, the “Red Eagles,” flew this aircraft during Project Constant Peg.  This highly classified program provided USAF, Navy, and Marine Corps fighter pilots with realistic combat training against then state-of-the-art Soviet technology.  The MiG-23MS “Flogger-E” on display was declassified and transferred to the Museum in February 2017. 

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25RB Foxbat (Serial No. 25108), ex-Iraqi Air Force.

 (Ken LaRock, USAF Photos)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29A Fulcrum (Serial No. 2960516761), "Blue 08".  The MiG-29 presented a formidable threat to Western pilots.  The radars used on earlier Soviet fighters had been unable to distinguish aircraft flying below them from ground clutter, and low-flying aircraft could avoid detection.  With the Phazotron NIIR N019 Doppler radar (NATO designation "Slot Back") capable of detecting a target more than 60 miles away, infrared tracking sensors, and a laser rangefinder carried on the MiG-29, a pilot could track and shoot at aircraft flying below him.  Also, the pilot's Shchel-3UM-1 helmet-mounted aiming device turned the MiG-29 into a very dangerous threat once opponents came within visual range.  No longer did a pilot have to turn his aircraft toward a target and wait for his missiles' sensors to "lock-on" before firing.  Now, the pilot simply turned his head toward a target, and the helmet aimed the missile's sensors toward the target.  This "off boresight" procedure gave the MiG-29 pilot a great advantage at close range.  The aircraft on display  in the NMUSAF is an early model Soviet Air Force MiG-29A that had been assigned to the 234th Gvardeiskii Istrebitelnii Aviatsionnii Polk (234th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment) stationed at Kubinka Air Base near Moscow.   It was one of the six MiG-29s that made a good will visit to Kuopio-Rissala, Finland, in July 1986.  This event marked the first public display of the MiG-29. 

 (IJN Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 22, flown by Japanese ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa over the Solomon Islands, 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Mitsubishi A6M2 Reisen (Zero), (Serial No. 11593).  This Nakajima-built A6M2 was found in Papua New Guinea, near the city of Kavieng on New Ireland, and was probably one of the aircraft delivered to Rabaul and operated at Kavieng by the 6th Kokutai (Squadron) and later by the 253rd Kokutai.  It is painted to represent a section leader's aircraft from the aircraft carrier Zuiho during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, March 1943.  It was placed on display in the NMUSAF in 2004.

 (Valder137 Photos)

Nieuport 27 replica, Reg. No. NX27XZ.

Nieuport 28C-1, replica (Serial No. 1), Reg. No. N6301.  Constructed from original parts, 95th Aero Squadron.  This reproduction was rebuilt by museum personnel.  It contains wood and hardware from an original Nieuport 28.  The aircraft is painted and marked to represent a Nieuport of the 95th Aero Squadron, Third Flight, as it appeared in July 1918.  It was placed on display in May 1994.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Noorduyn UC-64A Norseman (Serial No. 44-70296), painted as (Serial No. 44-70534), C/N 561.  The Norseman on display in the NMUSAF was acquired by the museum in March 1981. It is marked as a Norseman based in Alaska late in the Second World War.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American O-47B (Serial No. 39-112).  The NMUSAF acquired the O-47B on display in 1978 from Loren L. Florey Jr., of Eden Prairie, Minnisota.  The 179th Consolidated Aircraft Maintenance Squadron, Ohio Air National Guard, Mansfield, Ohio, restored the aircraft in the markings of an O-47A of the 112th Observation Squadron of the Ohio National Guard.

 (BT-9A at Langley, NASA Photo)

North American BT-9B Yale (Serial No. TBC). 

  (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

North American BT-14 (Serial No. 737).  Ex-RCAF North American NA-64 Yale painted to represent a USAAC BT-14, in a diorama.  Very similar to the BT-14, this North American NA-64 is one of a group of aircraft originally built for the French. When Germany defeated France in 1940, undelivered NA-64s were diverted to the Royal Canadian Air Force where they served as Yale I flight and radio operator trainers.  In 1974 the aircraft on display was extensively restored, after which it flew in air shows and conducted aerial photography.  In 1978 Challenge Publications Inc. (Air Classics, Air Combat, Air Progress), Mr. Edwin Schnepf, president, donated it to the National Museum of the United States Air Force. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American T-6D Mosquito (Serial No. 42-84216), TA-216, C/N 88-15997.  The T-6D on display in the NMUSAF flew as an early Mosquito with the 6147th Tactical Air Control Group during the first two years of the Korean War.  Ironically, it was converted to a mosquito spraying aircraft in 1952.  Two years later, the USAF transferred it to the fledgling Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF).  After retiring this aircraft, the ROKAF placed it on display outside for several years.  The National Museum of the United States Air Force acquired it in 1995, and after restoration it went on display in 2001.

North American T-6G Texan (Serial No. 50-1279), painted as (Serial No. 41279).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American B-25B Mitchell (Serial No. 43-3374).  The airplane on display was built as an RB-25D.  It was removed from storage at Tucson, Arizona, and rebuilt by North American Aviation at Inglewood, California, to the configuration of the lead B-25B flown by Lt. Col. Doolittle on the Tokyo Raid.  It was then flown to the museum, arriving in April 1958.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

North American A-36A Apache (Serial No. 42-83665), C/N 97-15883.  The NMUSAF’s A-36A was donated by Charles P. Doyle of Rosemount, Minnesota and was restored by members of the Minnesota Air National Guard.  It is marked to represent the A-36A flown by Capt Lawrence Dye, a pilot of the 522nd Fighter-Bomber Squadron, during combat in North Africa and Italy.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

North American P-51D Mustang (Serial No. 44-74936), 52, C/N 122-41476, "Shimmy IV".  The NMUSAF P-51D on display was the last Mustang assigned to a USAF tactical unit.  It is painted as the P-51D flown by Col. C.L. Sluder, Commander of the 325th Fighter Group in Italy in 1944.  The name of this aircraft, Shimmy IV, is derived from the names of his daughter, Sharon, and his wife, Zimmy. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American F-82B Twin Mustang (Serial No. 44-65168), C/N 123-43754.  “Betty Joe”.  The F-82 was the last propeller-driven fighter acquired in quantity by the USAF.  The Twin Mustang carried a pilot and co-pilot/navigator to reduce fatigue on long-range bomber escort missions.  It was produced in time to take part in the Second World War, but after the war, Air Defense Command flew radar-equipped F-82Gs as replacements for the P-61 night fighter.  During the Korean War, Japan-based F-82Gs were among the first USAF aircraft to operate over Korea.   On 27 June 1950, all-weather F-82Gs shot down the first three North Korean airplanes destroyed by U.S. forces.  Of a total of 273 F-82s produced, 20 were F-82Bs.  The F-82B on display, Betty-Jo, flew from Hawaii to New York on 27-28 Feb 1947, a distance of 5,051 miles, the longest non-stop flight ever made by a propeller-driven fighter.  Betty-Jo came to the NMUSAF in 1957.

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

North American F-82B Twin Mustang (Serial No. 44-65162), C/N 123-43748.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is an F-82B, modified and marked as the F-82G crewed by Lts. Charles Moran, pilot, and Fred Larkins, radar observer, 68th F(AW)S, when they shot down a North Korean La-7 on 27 June 1950, near Kimpo Air Base, South Korea.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American/Ryan L-17A Navion (Serial No. 47-1347), painted as 8928.  All L-17s were re-designated U-18s in 1962.  The L-17A on display was flown to the museum on 7 April 1986.  It is marked as a Ryan-built L-17B used by the Air Force ROTC program at Bradley University, Peoria, Illinois, in the spring of 1959.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American F-86A Sabre (Serial No. 49-1067), C/N 161-61, painted as (Serial No. 49-1236).  The F-86A on display in the NMUSAF was flown to the museum in 1961.  It is marked as the 4th Fighter Group F-86A flown by LCol Bruce Hinton on 17 Dec 1950, when he became the first F-86 pilot to shoot down a MiG.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American RF-86F Sabre (Serial No. 52-4492), previously located at Bergstrom AFB, Texas.   The Sabre, originally built as a day fighter, was first modified for reconnaissance during the Korean War.  USAF personnel custom-fitted cameras to about a dozen F-86 fighters (known as "Honeybuckets" or "Ashtrays") to replace the slower RF-80 for missions in northwestern North Korea, "MiG Alley", and into Manchuria.  After the Korean War, a handful of F-86Fs received more capable cameras under Project Haymaker.  In order to fit the film magazines for the vertically mounted cameras, the aircraft acquired a distinctive bulge on both sides of the forward fuselage.  The armament was removed to allow for the cameras, and the RF-86F "Haymakers" had painted-on gun ports to appear as if they were armed.  In March 1954 the 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron deployed to Komaki Air Base, Japan, receiving eight newly-modified "Haymakers."  With these aircraft, they secretly overflew Soviet, North Korean and communist Chinese territory in the mid-1950s.  The RF-86F "Haymaker" on display in the NMUSAF participated in these critical overflight missions.  It was transferred to the South Korean air force (ROKAF) in 1958, which flew it into the 1980s.  Arriving at the museum in 1998 for restoration, it was placed on display in 2005.  It is marked as it appeared while assigned to the 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

North American F-86D Sabre Dog (Serial No. 50-0477), FU-863, C/N 165-23, painted as (Serial No. 52-3863).  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF came to the museum in August 1957.  It is marked as an F-86D assigned to the 97th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, during the mid-1950s.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American F-86H Sabre (Serial No. 53-1352), C/N 203-124.  Cutaway.  The NMUSAF obtained the F-86H on display from the New Jersey Air National Guard in November 1964.  It is exhibited with part of its stressed skin removed to show the internal structure and placement of equipment.

North American F-100C Super Sabre (Serial No. 54-1753)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American F-100D Super Sabre (Serial No. 55-3754), 6, C/N 223-436, Thunderbirds markings.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was used by the Thunderbirds, the official USAF Flight Demonstration Team, from 1964 until 1968.  During that period, the team toured the Caribbean, Europe, Latin America and nearly every state in the United States.  This F-100D was retired from service with the 114th Tactical Fighter Group, South Dakota Air National Guard, in 1977.  It was restored by Thunderbird maintenance personnel at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, to its original appearance as a team aircraft.  It was flown to the museum by the Air National Guard, and the Thunderbirds presented the aircraft to the museum on 22 July 1977. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

North American F-100F Super Sabre (Serial No. 56-3837), HE, C/N 243-113.  When F-100 units deployed to Southeast Asia, they included a mix of one- and two-seat F-100s, and both types participated in traditional bombing missions in support of ground forces.  As tactics developed, the two-seat F-100F became an important aircraft for two new missions, surface to air missile (SAM) suppression, known as "Iron Hand," and high-speed forward air control (FAC), known as "Misty FAC."  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was a Misty FAC aircraft assigned to the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing at Phu Cat Air Base, Vietnam.  It was flown in combat by several notable USAF figures, including Gen Merrill McPeak and Gen Ronald Fogleman (former USAF chiefs of staff), and Col Richard Rutan (the chief pilot of the first around-the-world unrefueled flight).  It is painted as it appeared in March 1968, and went on display in 2003.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

North American B-45C Tornado (Serial No. 48-0010), 10, C/N 153-38486.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was returned to the USAF by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division, where it had been on loan for engine testing.  It was flown to the museum in 1971, and is painted in the markings of the 47th Bomb Wing (Light).

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American YF-107A (Serial No. 55-5119), C/N 212-2.  The F-107A was a mid-1950s development of the successful F-100 Super Sabre . Special features of the F-107A included an engine air intake above the cockpit, an all-moving vertical fin, and a system (called a Variable Area Inlet Duct) that automatically controlled the amount of air fed to the jet engine.  The first of three prototype F-107As flew in September 1956, attaining Mach 1 (Mach 1 is the speed of sound).  A few months later, an F-107 flew at Mach 2 (twice the speed of sound).  The following year, after seriously considering the production of the F-107, the USAF instead chose to buy the F-105 Thunderchief.  The first and third F-107A prototypes were then leased to the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), predecessor to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), for high-speed flight research.  The F-107A on display in the NMUSAF is the second prototype, which was used for weapons testing with both conventional and atomic bombs.  It was flown to the museum when the program ended in 1957.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American X-10 (Serial No. 51-9307), C/N GM19307.

  (USAF Photo)

  (USAF Photo)

X-15 attached to its B-52 mother ship with a T-38 Talon escort.

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

North American X-15A-2 (Serial No. 56-6671), C/N 240-2.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American XB-70A Valkyrie (Serial No. 62-0001), C/N 278-1.  The futuristic XB-70A was originally conceived in the 1950s as a high-altitude, nuclear strike bomber that could fly at Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound).  At that time, any potential enemy would have been unable to defend against such a bomber.  By the early 1960s, however, new Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) threatened the survivability of high-speed, high-altitude bombers.  Less costly, nuclear-armed ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) were also entering service.  As a result, in 1961, the expensive B-70 bomber program was canceled before any Valkyries had been completed or flown.  Even so, the USAF bought two XB-70As to test aerodynamics, propulsion and other characteristics of large supersonic aircraft.  The first XB-70A, on display in the NMUSAF, flew in September 1964, and it achieved Mach 3 flight in October 1965.  The second Valkyrie first flew in July 1965, but in June 1966, it was destroyed following an accidental mid-air collision.  The third Valkyrie was not completed.  The first XB-70A airplane continued to fly and generate valuable test data in the research program until it came to the museum in 1969.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American T-28A Trojan (Serial No. 49-1494).  The T-28A on display in the NMUSAF is painted as a typical Air Training Command T-28A in the mid-1950s and was transferred to the museum in September 1965.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American T-28B Trojan (BuNo. 140048), painted as 38365.  The T-28B on display in the NMUSAF is painted as a VNAF T-28B assigned to Bien Hoa Air Base in 1962, where USAF pilots trained and flew combat missions with VNAF crews in Operation Farm Gate.  It was flown to the museum in March 1987.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

North American T-39A Sabreliner (Serial No. 62-4478), C/N 276-31.

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

North American Rockwell OV-10A Bronco (Serial No. 68-3787), C/N 321-113.  The first USAF OV-10As destined for combat arrived in Vietnam in July 1968.  A total of 157 OV-10As were delivered to the USAF before production ended in April 1969.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF came to the museum in October 1991 and is painted as it appeared when it served in Southeast Asia.

 (USAF Photos)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Rogerd Photo)

Northrop P-61C Black Widow (Serial No. 43-8353), C/N N1399.  The Black Widow on display in the NMUSAF was presented to the museum by the Tecumseh Council, Boy Scouts of America, Springfield, Ohio, in 1958.  It is painted and marked as a P-61B assigned to the 550th Night Fighter Squadron serving in the Pacific in 1945. 

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop A-17A (Serial No. 36-0207).  The aircraft on display, Air Corps serial number 36-207, is the only A-17 series aircraft known to exist.  It was delivered to the Air Corps and assigned to Barksdale Field, Louisiana on 25 June 1937.  Following a brief stay at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas, the aircraft was assigned in April 1940 to Bolling Field, Washington, D.C., and also served as a support aircraft for U.S. Military attaches in Honduras, Guatemala and Haiti.  The aircraft was dropped from Army Air Forces records in January 1945.  The aircraft is marked in the colors of the 90th Attack Squadron, 3rd Attack Group, at Barksdale Field in June 1938. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (YoSam Photo)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Northrop YC-125B Raider (Serial No. 48-0626), painted as (Serial No. 48-0622), C/N 2510.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop F-89J Scorpion (Serial No. 52-1911), FV-509, C/N N405.  The Maine Air National Guard transferred the Scorpion on display in the NMUSAF to the museum from  in July 1969.  This aircraft was the last F-89 in service with an operational unit.  It is painted to represent an F-89J (Serial No. 53-2509) assigned to the 449th Fighter Interceptor Squadron in the late 1950s.  Based at Ladd Air Force Base, near Fairbanks, Alaska, it carries insignia red arctic markings.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop X-4 Bantam (Serial No. 46-0677), C/N 3238.  During the Second World War, engineers in the USA and UK studied semi-tailless aircraft, and the German Luftwaffe fielded the semi-tailless Me 163 Komet.  After the war ended, Northrop built two X-4s to test if this configuration could perform at transonic (near-supersonic) speeds better than conventional aircraft.  Flight testing of the X-4 began in 1948, and in 1950 both X-4s were turned over to the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), predecessor to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).  The first X-4 was grounded after only 10 flights, and only the second X-4 (on display at the museum) was used in the joint USAF/NACA program.  Instability of the X-4 at high speed led to the conclusion that semi-tailless aircraft were not suitable for transonic flight (with the technology then available).  The X-4 on display in the NMUSAF was transferred to the museum shortly after the program ended in 1953.  It was restored by the Western Museum of Flight, Hawthorne, California.

 (YF-5A Prototype, USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Northrop YF-5A Freedom Fighter (Serial No. 59-4989), FA-989.  Painted as (Serial No. 64-13332).  The YF-5A on display in the NMUSAF, one of three prototypes ordered, was delivered to the museum in 1970.  It is painted as a "Shoski Tiger" of the 4503rd Tactical Fighter Squadron TFS), which combat tested the F-5 in Vietnam in 1965-1967.  The 4503rd TFS later was redesignated the 10th Fighter (Commando) Squadron in March 1966.  In October 1966 the 10th F(C)S began training South Vietnamese pilots to fly F-5s and later turned its aircraft over to the South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) in June 1967.

Northrop T-38A Talon (Serial No. 60-0566).

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Northrop T-38A Talon (Serial No. 65-10441).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop AT-38B Talon (Serial No. 63-8172), HM, C/N N5519.  The NMUSAF’s AT-38B flew as a lead-in-fighter trainer until its retirement in 1991.  It came to the museum in 1999 and was placed on display in 2004.

 (Greg Hume Photo)

Northrop SM-62 Snark, early intercontinental cruise missile.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop YF-117D Tacit Blue.  Built in the early 1980s in great secrecy, the revolutionary Tacit Blue aircraft tested advanced radar sensors and new ideas in stealth technology.  Tacit Blue proved that a stealthy aircraft could have curved surfaces, unlike the faceted surfaces of the F-117 Nighthawk, which greatly influenced later aircraft like the B-2.  Tacit Blue’s design also minimized the heat signature emitted from the engines, further masking its presence.  Tacit Blue was aerodynamically unstable, but it had a digital fly-by-wire system to help control it.  With its low, “all-aspect” radar signature, Tacit Blue demonstrated that such an aircraft could loiter over and behind the battlefield without fear of being discovered by enemy radar.  Using advanced sensors, it could also continuously monitor enemy forces (even through clouds) and provide timely information through data links to a ground command center.  Moreover, these sensors functioned without giving away the location of the aircraft.  The Tacit Blue aircraft flew 135 times before the program ended in 1985.  The aircraft was declassified and placed on display at the NMUSAF in 1996.

 (Bobbi Zapka, USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop Grumman RQ-4A Global Hawk (Serial No. 98-2003), BB, c/n AV-3.   The Global Hawk on display in the NMUSAF was the third prototype built.  Designated Air Vehicle-3 (AV-3), it was officially designated an YRQ-4A.  However, AV-3 had anything but a normal career for a prototype.  After the terrorist attacks of 11 Sep 2001, the USAF deployed AV-3 to Afghanistan in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.  Because it still showed some of the "crankiness" of a prototype, AV-3 was nicknamed "Grumpy."  Nevertheless, it also flew reconnaissance missions in support of Operations Southern Watch (OSW), Iraqi Freedom (OEF), Enduring Freedom (OEF) and the Combined Task Force-Horn of Africa.  During Operation Iraqi Freedom, AV-3's sensors successfully tracked Iraqi Republican Guard forces during a fierce sandstorm in March 2003.  While the dust blinded AV-3's optical and infrared sensors, its radar provided information accurate enough for fighters and bombers to attack the enemy successfully with Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) weapons.  In February 2006, it made another spectacular flight by flying autonomously and non-stop from Australia to Edwards Air Force Base, California.  Over its career, AV-3 completed 251 flights for 4,891.3 total hours flying time.  This total included 195 combat sorties and 4,152.7 combat hours.  A remarkable aircraft, AV-3 went on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in 2008. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop Grumman B-2A Spirit (Serial No. 82-1070), WM, C/N 1005/AV-5.  This the static test article used for structural stress tests during B-2 development. The airframe has no flight deck or engines.  It is named "Spirit of Freedom".   In 1993 the Spirit of Ohio (endured more than 1,000 hours of extensive temperature testing at the McKinley Climatic Laboratory at Eglin Air Force Base, Floriad.  It withstood temperatures ranging from -65 to 120 degrees Fahrenheit, rain and high humidity.  To verify the test results outside the laboratory, the Spirit of Ohio deployed to Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, in March 1996 for further cold climate testing.  To signify these tests, the technicians painted the "Fire and Ice" artwork on the nose landing gear panel and signed it.  Presented to the museum in 1999, that nose panel was installed on the NMUSAF's B-2 during restoration.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Northrop McDonnell Douglas YF-23A Black Widow (Serial No. 87-0800).  The YF-23A competed in the late 1980s/early 1990s against the YF-22A in the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) program.  During the late 1970s, a new generation of Soviet fighters and Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) prompted the USAF to find a replacement for the F-15 Eagle air superiority fighter.  In 1986, the USAF awarded demonstration contracts to two competing industry teams, Lockheed-Boeing-General Dynamics (YF-22A) versus Northrop-McDonnell Douglas (YF-23A).  The Northrop YF-23A, unofficially named the Black Widow II, emphasized stealth characteristics.  To lessen weight and increase stealth, Northrop decided against using thrust vectoring for aerodynamic control as was used on the Lockheed YF-22A.  Northrop built two YF-23A prototypes.  In 1991, after extensive flight testing, the USAF announced that the Lockheed YF-22A had won the airframe competition.  Northrop ended its ATF program, and the YF-23A on display came to the NMUSAF in 2000.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Northrop BQM-74C, devloped o simulate subsonic aircraft, including cruise missiles, for the US Navy in the late 1970s.  Prior to the beginning of Operation Desert Storm in 1991, the US Air Force acquired 44 BQM-74Cs and reconfigured them from aerial targets into decoys.  The BQM-74C's ability to fool Iraqi air defenses significantly reduced US and coalition aircraft losses

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Packard Lepere LUSAC 11 biplane (Serial No. SC42133).  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is the only LUSAC 11 in existence.  It originally went to France just before the end of the First World War.  In 1989 the museum acquired it from the Musee de l'Air in Paris, France.  After extensive restoration by museum personnel, it went on display in 1992.  It is marked as it appeared while at the Allied test facility in Orly, France, in late 1918.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Panavia Tornado GR1 (Serial No. ZA374), CN, C/N 178/BS056/3088.  During the 1991 Gulf War, military planners made the elimination of Iraq's air defenses a top priority.  At the start of Operation Desert Storm (called Operation Granby by the British), Royal Air Force (RAF) Tornado GR1 aircraft attacked Iraqi air bases at low-level with Hunting JP233 anti-runway weapons and suppressed enemy air defenses.  Afterward, GR1 aircrews flew medium-level missions using 1,000-pound bombs.  At the end of the conflict, they used Paveway II laser-guided bombs against other strategic targets.  Flying more than 1,500 operational sorties, mostly at night, RAF GR1 aircrews played an important role in forcing the Iraqis out of Kuwait, and the RAF lost six GR1s in combat.  Tornados could carry a wide range of weapons, including the Air-Launched Anti-Radar Missile (ALARM) for the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) and the Paveway II and III laser-guided bombs (LGB).  The RAF also modified a number of Tornados to carry the Sea Eagle anti-shipping missile.  This variant became the GR1B.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF flew with the RAF's 17 Squadron from Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, where it sported desert camouflage and the name Miss Behavin'.  The aircraft is currently painted as an aircraft assigned to 617 Squadron.  It came to the museum in October 2002 as a donation from the RAF. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Piasecki H-21B Workhorse (Serial No. 51-15857), C/N B.4.  Designed by helicopter pioneer Frank Piasecki, the Vertol H-21 first flew in April 1952.  With two main rotors, its long fuselage could hold large numbers of people or heavy cargo loads.  Later adaptations allowed the aircraft to perform rescue and assault operations under combat conditions.  In addition to the pilot and copilot, the H-21 could carry either 20 fully-equipped troops or 12 litter patients and two medical attendants.  Originally called the "flying banana," the H-21 served with the USAF, the U.S. Army, the French Navy, the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and the West German Air Force.  The NMUSAF obtained the CH-21B on display from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in January 1965. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Piper J-3 Cub (Serial No. 42-36446), c/n 8570, Reg. No. NC42050.  This Piper J-3 represents the contributions of the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) to the U.S. Air Force. The J-3 on display is further identified as a J-3C-65-8 indicating it is a J-3 aircraft powered by a Model 8 Continental A-65 engine of 65 horsepower.  It is painted in the widely known Piper "Cub yellow".  The aircraft on display was donated in 1971 by the Greene County Composite Squadron, Civil Air Patrol, of Xenia, Ohio.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Piper L-4A Grasshopper (Serial No. 42-36790), painted as (Serial No. 42-36389).  The L-4 on display in the NMUSAF is painted and marked to represent an L-4 that flew in support of the Allied invasion of North Africa in November 1942.  It was placed on display in April 1995. 

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Piper PA-48 Enforcer (Serial No. 48-8301001), Reg. No. N481PE.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Radioplane OQ-19D.  In response to the USAAF's requirement for fast aerial targets with which to train anti-aircraft gunners, Radioplane (a division of Northrop Aircraft Co.) developed a 200 mph class airplane in 1945 . Evolved from earlier designs, such as the OQ-2A, the OQ-19 was first flight tested in 1946.  It was capable of catapult launches, rotary launches from a circular runway, and air launches from a B-26C.  When hit or out of fuel, the target was recovered under a 32-foot diameter parachute. Some OQ-19Ds were fitted integral flotation material to permit water recoveries.  Four men were needed to launch this target, whether by catapult or by the rotary method.  A fifth man flew the target from the ground or from another aircraft.  At a range of 200 yards, the OQ-19 appeared to gunners like a single-engine fighter at 500 yards.  Over 10,000 OQ-19s were built for the USAF between 1955-1958. Of the four models, the OQ-19D was the largest and fastest.  The OQ-19D on display in the NMUSAF was donated in 1960 by C.E. Manning of Sidney, Ohio, and it was prepared for display by the Naval Air Reserve Detachment in Columbus, Ohio. 

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Radioplane OQ-2A.  Although Radioplane developed the OQ-2A, other companies shared in production contracts. The target on display in the NMUSAF was the last in the 1943 production run by the Frankfort Sailplane Co. of Joliet, Illinois.  It was donated in 1970 by John C. Smith of Massillon, Ohio. 

 (USAAF Photo)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolt (Serial No. 42-76248), 406th Fighter Group prepares for take off, England, 1943.

 (IWM Photo)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolts of the 78th Fighter Group at Duxford, England, 1943.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (S. Kaiser Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolt (Serial No. 42-23278), "Fiery Ginger IV".  The P-47D "Razorback" Thunderbolt on display in the NMUSAF is an early version of the "D", nicknamed for the ridge behind the cockpit (later P-47Ds had a bubble canopy).  It is painted to appear as the Thunderbolt flown by Colonel Neel Kearby on his last mission.  Colonel Kearby named all of his aircraft Fiery Ginger after his red-headed wife Virginia.  Recovered from the crash site and obtained by the museum, the actual vertical fin of Fiery Ginger IV is also on display.  This aircraft was donated by Republic Aviation Corp. in November 1964.

 (USAAF Photo)

Republic P-47N Thunderbolt formation, Pacific Theatre, ca 1945.  

 (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolt (Serial No. 45-49167), A, painted as (Serial No. 44-32718), C/N 399-55706, "Five by Five".

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Greg Hume Photo)

 (Valder137 Photos)

Republic P-47D Thunderbolt (Serial No. 44-33287), B8-A.  The P-47-40 on display in the NMUSAF was built at the Republic plant in Evansville, Indiana.  In the late 1940s, it was transferred to the Peruvian air force . The aircraft later came to the museum in 1981.  It is painted as the P-47D-30 "Five by Five" flown by Colonlel Joseph Laughlin, commander of the 362nd Fighter Group, 9th Air Force, in early 1945.

Republic F-84E-15-RE Thunderjet (Serial No. 49-2424), from the 9th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 49th Fighter-Bomber Wing/Group, taking off for a mission in Korea.  This aircraft was shot down by flak on 29 August 1952. (USAF Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic F-84E Thunderjet (Serial No. 50-1143), FS-454.  The F-84E on display in the NMUSAF arrived in 1963.  It is marked to represent the F-84G flown by Col. Joseph Davis Jr., commander of the 58th Fighter-Bomber Wing in 1953.

 (USAF Photo)

Republic F-84F-50-RE Thunderstreak (Serial No. 52-6852) of the 91st Fighter-Bomber Squadron, RAF Bentwaters, UK, Dec 1956.

 (USAF Photo)

Republic F-84F-55-RE Thunderstreak (Serial No. 52-6936), Ohio Air National Guard, ca 1950s.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic F-84F Thunderstreak (Serial No. 52-6526).  Evolved from the straight-wing F-84, the F-84F prototype first flew in June 1950.  Deliveries began in 1954, with most of the aircraft going to the Tactical Air Command as a ground support fighter bomber.  Republic built 2,112 F-84Fs while General Motors fabricated 599 more.  Of these, 1,301 were delivered to NATO air forces.  Production of a reconnaissance version, the RF-84F, totaled 715 aircraft, including 386 for allied countries.  To accommodate cameras in the nose, Republic moved the RF-84F's air intakes to the wing roots.  Through the late 1950s, the USAF replaced its F-84Fs with supersonic F-100s, and the Thunderstreaks went to Air National Guard units.  However, some F-84Fs temporarily returned to USAF service in the early 1960s due to the Berlin crisis.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was flown to the museum in 1970 following its assignment to the Ohio Air National Guard.  During its career, it served in England, Greece, Alaska and the continental United States.  In 1961 it participated in the mass deployment of 200 fighters across the Atlantic Ocean to Europe in response to the Berlin situation. 

 

 (USAF Photos)

Republic RF-84F Thunderflash (Serial No. 51-1847).

  (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic YRF-84F Thunderflash FICON (Serial No. 49-2430), Fighter Conveyor.  The NMUSAF’s YRF-84F participated in two USAF experimental programs, the development of the F-84F fighter-bomber and later testing of the “parasite” fighter concept.  This YRF-84F was the prototype of the F-84F Thunderstreak, which became a standard USAF fighter-bomber in the 1950s.  Consisting of an F-84E Thunderjet fuselage with swept-back wings and tail, it made its initial flight in June 1950.  In 1951 it was modified into the YRF-84F FICON (FIghter CONveyor), and first flew in this configuration in March 1953.  The concept envisioned carrying a “parasite” aircraft under (and partially enclosed within) a B-36 as a way to extend fighter range.  When needed, the fighter was lowered on a boom and released to protect the bomber or to conduct reconnaissance or bombing missions on its own.  After completing its mission, the fighter would return to the Convair B-36 Peacemaker.  The USAF employed FICON aircraft operationally for a brief period in the mid-1950s with RF-84Ks.  By the late 1950s, however, the successful development of mid-air refueling ended the use of parasite fighters.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic RF-84K Thunderflash (Serial No. 52-7259), c/n 215.  The RF-84K was a reconnaissance and nuclear strike fighter that was intended to be carried toward a target as a "parasite" underneath the Convair GRB-36 Peacemaker bomber.  At the time, jet aircraft possessed relatively short range and aerial refueling was not yet proven, so this provided a method to extend their range.  The U.S. Air Force applied this parasite concept to the FICON (FIghter CONveyer) project, which became the RF-84K.  The mission profile called for the recon aircraft or attack fighter to leave the carrier aircraft (a modified strategic bomber) upon reaching hostile territory, make a dash to the target and perform its mission.  The aircraft then returned to the waiting carrier, hooked up underneath it and was carried back to a base.  In 1952, as it tested two F-84 FICON prototypes, the USAF ordered 25 RF-84Ks and began modifying 10 B-36s into GRB-36 FICON carriers.  The RF-84K design was a modification of the RF-84F, the USAF's most numerous and advanced tactical reconnaissance aircraft at the time.  The only major differences were the RF-84K's retractable hook in the upper part of the nose, rods on either side behind the cockpit, and downward angled horizontal stabilizers (to fit inside the GRB-36's bomb bay).  The RF-84K entered service with the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (SRS) in 1955.  For the next year, pilots of the 91st SRS successfully flew their RF-84Ks, but they experienced many near disasters while separating or hooking back up to the GRB-36 carrier aircraft.  By 1957, the development of more capable strategic reconnaissance aircraft, along with greater range provided by dependable aerial refueling, made the parasite aircraft concept obsolete.  The 91st SRS's RF-84Ks were transferred to other units flying RF-84Fs and thereafter flew conventional missions from runways.  The NMUSAF's aircraft is marked as it appeared while serving in the 91st SRS in the mid-1950s.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic XF-84H Thunderscreech (Serial No. 51-1760).  The turboprop-driven XF-84H was a joint Air Force/Navy project designed to combine the speed of jet aircraft with the long range, low fuel consumption, and low landing speed of propeller-driven aircraft.  The XF-84H’s modified F-84F airframe included a T-tail and a triangular fin behind the cockpit to reduce the effect of torque from the propellers.  Between July 1955 and October 1956, two XF-84Hs made 12 test flights.  11 of these flights ended with emergency landings.  Although the XF-84H was one of the fastest single-engine, propeller-driven aircraft ever built, it never approached supersonic speed.  Due to poor performance and high maintenance requirements, the XF-84H never became operational.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was the first of the two prototypes produced by Republic, and it flew 8 of the 12 test flights.  The museum obtained the aircraft from Kern County, California, in 1999.

 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor (Serial No. 46-0680).  The XF-91 was America’s first rocket-powered fighter to fly faster than the speed of sound. It was originally conceived in the mid-1940s as an interceptor.  The Thunderceptor’s rocket engine supplemented its main turbojet engine, greatly increasing the aircraft’s speed and climb rate.  With its afterburning turbojet and rocket engine in operation, the XF-91 possessed a remarkable climb rate of nearly 30,000 feet per minute.  Republic built two prototype XF-91s, the NMUSAF’s aircraft was the first one built, and it first flew in May 1949.  Although the F-91 fighter program was canceled due to lack of funding, the prototypes were extensively tested and modified.  The Museum’s XF-91, the only remaining example, was transferred from Edwards AFB, California, in 1955.

Republic F-105B Thunderchief (Serial No. 57-5793).

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic F-105D Thunderchief (Serial No. 60-0504), "Memphis Belle".  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is painted and marked as it appeared while serving in the 357th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 355th Tactical Fighter Wing, based at Takhli Royal Thai Air Base in Thailand.  The nickname "Memphis Belle II" refers to the B-17F that carried the same artwork during the Second World War.  The two red stars under the cockpit represent the two MiG kills it claimed during the Southeast Asia War. It arrived at the museum in April 1990.

 (Dsdugan Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Republic F-105G Thunderchief (Serial No. 63-8320), WW, C/N F97.   The F-105G on display in the NMUSAF began operational service in 1964 as a standard F-105F.  In 1967 it joined the 355th Tactical Fighter Wing in Thailand, where it flew combat missions for nearly three years.  During this time, it became one of a select few USAF aircraft to claim three MiG kills.  In 1970 it was fitted with electronic counter-measure equipment and joined the 388th TFW for "Wild Weasel" duty, attacking enemy surface-to-air missile sites.  In 1972 the aircraft was modified to the improved F-105G "Wild Weasel" configuration.  After another year in Thailand, it was assigned to the 35th TFW at George Air Force Base, California.  It remained there until February 1980 when it was flown to the museum.  It is marked as it appeared while assigned to the 561st Tactical Fighter Squadron based at Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand, in 1972-1973.

Rockwell B-1A Lancer (Serial No. 76-0174).  This aircraft has been moved to the Strategic Air & Space Museum, Nebraska.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Rockwell B-1B Lancer (Serial No. 84-0051).  First used in combat against Iraq during Operation Desert Fox in 1998, the B-1B has also been employed in Kosovo and Afghanistan.  Starting in 2002, the U.S. Air Force began reducing the number of B-1Bs as a cost-saving measure.  The aircraft on display arrived at the NMUSAF from the 7th Bomb Wing at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, on 10 Sep 2002.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Ryan PT-22 Recruit (Serial No. 41-15721).  The PT-22 on display in the NMUSAF was donated by Mrs. Nickolas A. Romano Jr. and her son, Nicky, of Hampton, Virginia, in 1969 in memory of her husband who lost his life in Vietnam on 1 July 1968.  Chief Warrant Officer Romano had served as an enlisted man in the USAF for 22 years prior to retiring.  He then enlisted in the U.S. Army to attend flight school and become a pilot.  The airplane was restored by the Department of Aviation Technology, Purdue University.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Ryan YPT-16 STA (Serial No. NC 18922), C/N 312.  Suspended from the ceiling.  Acquired by the museum in 1986, the aircraft on display is a Ryan STA withdrawn from the YPT-16 production run.  Never owned by the Air Corps, it flew under civilian registration.  However, the logbook shows that the aircraft participated in demonstrations to Air Corps officials at Wright Field, Ohio, in July 1939.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Ryan X-13A Vertijet (Serial No. 54-1620).  Suspended from its launch and recovery tower.  The X-13 was built to prove the concept that a jet could take off vertically, transition to horizontal flight, and return to vertical flight for landing.  Equipped with a temporary tricycle landing gear, the first of two X-13s flew conventionally in December 1955 to test its overall aerodynamic characteristics.  It was then fitted with a temporary "tail sitting" rig, and in May 1956 this X-13 flew vertically to test its hovering qualities.  The second X-13, on display in the NMUSAF, made history in April 1957, when it completed the first full-cycle flight at Edwards Air Force Base, California.  It took off vertically from its mobile trailer, rose into the air, nosed over into a level attitude and flew for several minutes.  Then, it reversed the procedure to vertical flight and slowly descended to its trailer for a safe landing.  This X-13 also made demonstration flights in the Washington, D.C., area later that year.  Even though the X-13 successfully proved the original concept, its design had limited operational potential, and a lack of funding shut down the program in 1958.  The X-13 was transferred to the museum in 1959.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Ryan BQM-34 Firebee.  The Firebee, originally designated the Q-2, was a high-speed target drone for both surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles.  It was used primarily for the testing of newly-developed missiles and for the training of fighter-interceptor pilots whose aircraft were armed with missiles.  Capable of being launched from the ground or from an airplane in flight, the Firebee is radio-controlled during its mission by an operator on the ground.  Upon being hit by a missile and disabled, or upon completing its mission undamaged, the Firebee is lowered safely to earth by a self-contained parachute.  The Firebee on display inthe NMUSAF was the first XQ-2C built and flown.  It established a record of 25 flights at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, from 1958 to 1960.  It was obtained from Ryan in May 1960.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Scaled Composites Long-EZ Borelis.  In January 2008, this modified Scaled Composites Long-EZ completed the first manned flight of an aircraft powered by a pulsed detonation engine (PDE).  The flight was the result of a five-year cooperative effort between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Innovative Scientific Solutions Incorporated (ISSI).  The project used the popular homebuilt Long-EZ designed by Burt Rutan as a platform.  Engines normally burn fuel and air at subsonic speeds to provide propulsion. Pulsed detonation engines detonate the fuel-air mixture to produce repeated, controlled explosions.  The resulting supersonic shockwaves create thrust. In this PDE, the thrust is expelled through four tubes out the back of the aircraft. Remarkably, the PDE engine in this aircraft was made in part from off-the-shelf automotive parts.  Pulsed detonation engines are much less complicated and promise to be less expensive to operate than jet engines. Moreover, they offer a fuel savings of between 5-20 percent over traditional turbojet engines. Although still in development, PDEs may become more common as the technology matures.  This aircraft was delivered to the NMUSAF in 2008.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Schweizer TG-3A Glider (Serial No. 42-52988).  The TG-3A on display in the NMUSAF was donated by Henry A. Shevchuk.  It was restored by the Spartan School of Aeronautics, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and delivered to the museum in December 1980.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Schneider Schulgleiter SG 38.  This SG 38 came to the museum in 2010, and is marked as a glider used to train Luftwaffe pilots.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Seversky P-35A (Serial No. 36-0404), PA70.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is the only known surviving P-35.  It served with the 94th Pursuit Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group.  The aircraft was restored by the 133rd Tactical Airlift Wing, Minnesota Air National Guard, with assistance from students of the Minneapolis Vocational Institute.  It is marked as the P-35A flown by the 17th Pursuit Squadron commander, 1st Lt. Buzz Wagner, in the Philippines in the spring of 1941.

 (NACA Photo)

Sikorsky YR-4B Hoverfly, USAAF (Serial No. 43-28229), at the NACA Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory at Hampton, Virginia.  It was transferred to the U.S. Navy and designated HNS-1 (BuNo. 39034).  It was test flown at Langley in March 1945. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Sikorsky R-4B Hoverfly (Serial No. 43-46506), 16, C/N 39.  Suspended from the ceiling.  The R-4B on display was donated to the museum by the University of Illinois in 1967. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Sikorsky R-6A Hoverfly II (Serial No. 43-45379).  The helicopter on display in the NMUSAF was acquired by the museum in 1986. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Sikorsky YH-5A Dragonfly (Serial No. 43-46620).  The YH-5A on display in the NMUSAF was obtained from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in March 1955.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Sikorsky UH-19B Chickasaw (Serial No. 52-7587).  The UH-19B on display in the NMUSAF is painted and marked as an H-19A known as Hopalong, one of two H-19s to make the first transatlantic helicopter flight, traveling during the summer of 1952 from Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts, to Scotland in five stages.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Sikorsky CH-3E Jolly Green Giant (Serial No. 63-9676), C/N 61508.

Sikorsky HH-3E being refueled by a Lockheed HC-130 Hercules.  Aerial refueling enabled the helicopters to rescue downed aircrew from any location in the Southeast Asia theater of operations. (USAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Ken LaRock, USAF Photo)

Sikorsky HH-3E Jolly Green Giant (Serial No. ----709).  The USAF developed the HH-3E helicopter, nicknamed the "Jolly Green Giant," to perform combat search and rescue (CSAR) to recover downed Airmen during the Southeast Asia War.  A highly modified version of Sikorsky's CH-3 transport helicopter, the HH-3E carried both armour plating and armament to protect it from hostile forces during rescues of aircrews in a combat area.  Fifty CH-3Es were converted to HH-3Es with the addition of armor, defensive armament, self-sealing fuel tanks and a rescue hoist.  With a watertight hull, the HH-3E could land on water, and its large rear door and ramp permitted easy loading and unloading.  The first air-refuelable helicopter to be produced, the HH-3E's retractable fuel probe and external fuel tanks gave it a range limited only by the endurance of the aircrew.  In fact, in 1967, two aerial refueled HH-3Es set the long-distance record for helicopters by flying non-stop from New York to Paris, France.  This long-range capability allowed HH-3Es to conduct CSAR operations anywhere in the Southeast Asia theater of operations, and they participated in the attempt to rescue American prisoners of war from the Son Tay prison camp in 1970.  The first USAF HH-3Es arrived in Vietnam in 1967, and they operated out of Udorn Air Base, Thailand, and Da Nang Air Base, South Vietnam.  During the Southeast Asia War, HH-3 crewmen were awarded one Medal of Honor, twenty-four Air Force Crosses, and over 190 Silver Stars.  A quarter of a century later, HH-3Es participated in OPERATION DESERT STORM, and they provided rescue support in the early years of the Space Shuttle program.  The USAF retired its last HH-3Es by 1995.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Valder137 Photo)

Sikorsky MH-53M Pave Low IV Helicopter (Serial No. 80357).  Air Force special operations forces used the Sikorsky MH-53M to covertly enter enemy territory.  Capable of operating at day or night or in bad weather, these helicopters conducted long-range, low-level missions to insert, extract, and resupply special operations forces.  Equipped with forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensors, inertial global positioning systems (GPS), Doppler radar navigation systems, and terrain-following and terrain-avoidance radar, the MH-53 could fly clandestine, low-level missions in any weather, day or night. This system gave the aircrew instant access to the total battlefield situation on a color, digital map screen that was compatible with night vision goggles. Using feeds from satellite links, the system displayed nearly real-time information about potential hazards along the flight route such as power lines or enemy electronic threats.  The aircraft on display in the NMUSAF was assigned to the 20th Expeditionary Special Operations Squadron and its last flight was a combat mission in Iraq on 28 March 2008.  During its 38-year career, this helicopter participated in many important missions.  It carried the "command element" on the mission known as Operation Kingpin, to rescue American prisoners of war thought to be held at the Son Tay prison near Hanoi, North Vietnam.  It is the last among the five HH-53s that participated in that raid.  After Vietnam, it also flew in many more combat engagements including Operations Desert Storm and Iraqi Freedom before it was retired. 

 (Derek Smith Photo)

 (Dsdugan Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Sopwith F.1 Camel.  Although 5,490 Camels were produced, few remain in existence today.  USAF personnel built the Camel on exhibit from original First World War factory drawings, completing it in 1974.  The aircraft is painted and marked as the Camel flown by Lt. George A. Vaughn Jr. of the 17th Aero Squadron, America's second-ranking Air Service ace to survive the war.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

SPAD S.VII C.1 (Serial No. A.S. 94099).  The airplane on display was obtained from the Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois, and restored by the 1st Fighter Wing, Selfridge Air Force Base, Michigan, 1962-1966.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

SPADS XIIIC.1 (Serial No. 16594).  Built in October 1918 by the Kellner et ses Fils piano works outside of Paris, the museum's SPAD XIII did not see combat.   Shipped to the United States with 434 other SPAD XIIIs after the Armistice, this aircraft went to San Diego, California, and a smaller, 150-hp Wright-Hispano engine replaced its Hispano-Suiza engine.  The museum staff restored this SPAD XIII to its original configuration, including a 220-hp Hispano-Suiza engine.  It is painted in the markings of America's highest scoring ace of the First World War with 26 victories, Capt. Edward V. Rickenbacker of the 94th Pursuit Squadron. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Standard J-1 (Serial No. 1141).  The Standard Aircraft Co. J-1 was a two-seat primary trainer used by the U.S. Army Air Service to supplement the JN-4 Jenny.  Similar in appearance to the JN-4, the J-1 was more difficult to fly and never gained the popularity of the legendary Jenny.  Standard developed the J-1 from the earlier Sloan and Standard H-series aircraft designed by Charles Healey Day. Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body and Wright-Martin, built 1,601 J-1s.  Museum personnel completed a two-year restoration of the aircraft on display in the NMUSAF in 1981.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Standard J-1.  The second Standard J-1 on display in the NMUSAF has the fabric covering on the fuselage removed to illustrate the wire-braced wooden construction typical for aircraft of that time.  It also reveals the dual controls and relatively simple cockpit instrumentation. The black tank in front of the forward cockpit is the fuel tank.  This airplane was donated to the Air Force Museum Foundation in December 1962 by Robert Greiger, Oak Harbor, Ohio.

 (Bill Larkins Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Stinson L-1A Vigilant (Serial No. 41-19039).  The L-1 Vigilant (company designation Model 74) was a 1940s American light observation aircraft built by Stinson, a division of  the Vultee Aircraft Corporation.  The aircraft was operated by the USAAC as the O-49 until 1942.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Stinson L-5 Sentinel (Serial No. 42-98667), painted as an L-5 of the 25th Liaison Sq. serving in New Guinea in 1944.  The L-5 on display in the NMUSAF was donated by Dr. Robert R. Kundel of Rice Lake, Wisconsin.  It was restored by the "Oriole Club" 133rd Tactical Airlift Wing, Minnesota Air National Guard.  Delivered to the museum in 1977, it is marked as an L-5 of the 25th Liaison Squadron serving in New Guinea in 1944.

 (Robert Dilley Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photos)

 (Goshimini Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. Vc, RAF (Serial No. MA863), HL-B, USAAF markings, representative of the "Operation Torch" landings in North Africa in 1942 as flown by the 31st Fighter Group, 308th Fighter Squadron. MA863 is an ex Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fighter, (Serial No. A58-246).  This aircraft also served with RAF No. 54 Squadron in early 1944 as the personal mount of Sqn Ldr E. M. Gibbs wearing the codes DL-A.  This Spitfire later served with RAAF No. 452 Squadron, coded QY-F.  This Spitfire Mk. Vc (Trop) was built for Supermarine under license by Vickers-Armstrong in June 1943.  The museum acquired it from the Imperial War Museum in March 2000. 

 (Goshimini Photo)

 (Valder137 Photo)

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire PR Mk. XI, RAF (Serial No. PA908).  This aircraft on display in the NMUSAF is painted in an overall photo-reconnaissance (PR) Blue colour scheme marked to represent one of the U.S. Army Air Forces' 14th Photographic Squadron of the 8th Air Force which operated Spitfire Mark XIs from November 1943 to April 1945, flying hazardous long-range reconnaissance missions over mainland Europe from Mount Farm airfield in England..  It was placed on display in the NMUSAF in 1993.  

This Spitfire was flown by RCAF Flt Lt John "Brick" Bradford operating in India during the Second World War.  The aircraft was discovered 40 years later as a derelict in India, when it was purchased and shipped to Canada.  The Canadian company that bought this Spitfire sold it to the NMUSAF in 1986.

Supermarine Spitfire LF Mk. XVIe, RAF (Serial No. TE330).  This aircraft was held in the NMUSAF from 1961 to 1995.  It went through several owners, was restored in New Zealand and is now in China, marked HT-B.

 (Valder137 Photo)

S-75 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline) Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defense system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Taylorcraft L-2M Grasshopper (Serial No. 43-26592).  The L-2M on display in the NMUSAF, was built in 1944 by the Taylorcraft Airplane Co. in Alliance, Ohio.  The U.S. Army Air Forces used it for liaison pilot training at the McFarland Flying Service Contract Pilot School at the Atkinson Municipal Airport in Pittsburg, Kansas.  It is painted to represent another L 2M flown at the Atkinson Municipal Airport (Serial No. 43-26588) during the Second World War.  In September 2011, Richard Valladao donated the restored aircraft to the museum in memory of U.S. Army Private 1st Class Richard Jerome Conway, who was killed in combat while serving with the 45th Infantry Division in France in 1944.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Teledyne-Ryan AQM-34L Firebee (Serial No. L-174).  Suspended from the ceiling.  The AQM-34L remotely piloted aircraft flew low-level photo-reconnaissance missions over North Vietnam.  The AQM-34 series was developed from the unmanned BQM-34A target aircraft.  The AQM-34L on display flew more than 30 missions over North Vietnam.  On 6 Aug 1972, it was damaged by an SA-2 surface-to-air missile (SAM) and landed by parachute in the South China Sea off the North Vietnamese coas t. Although recovered by a U.S. Navy ship, it was further damaged by salt water beyond economical repair.  This AQM-34L's nickname, M.R. Ling, was a pun on the last name of LCol. Edwin Emerling, who was involved with its early combat missions.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Teledyne-Ryan AQM-34Q Firebee (Serial No.).  Firebee drones flew many types of missions, including photographic reconnaissance, electronic intelligence gathering, and radio communications monitoring.  From February 1970 to June 1973, AQM-34Q unmanned aircraft flew 268 missions near North Korea monitoring voice communications (known as communication intelligence or COMINT).  Code-named "Combat Dawn," the AQM-34Q was developed after North Korean MiGs shot down a U.S. Navy EC-121 reconnaissance aircraft in international airspace with the loss of all 31 crewmembers.  Teledyne-Ryan built a total of four prototypes and 15 production AQM-34Qs.  Launched in mid-air from a modified Lockheed C-130 Hercules, the AQM-34Q flew a pre-programmed course or was manually flown by a remote operator.  It intercepted radio signals from as far as 300 miles away and relayed them in real time to a ground control van.  After returning to a safe area over water, the AQM-34Q deployed a parachute.  A modified helicopter then hooked the parachute to catch the drone in mid-air.  If the operation failed, the drone was retrieved from the ocean's surface.   The museum's AQM-34Q was nicknamed the "Flying Submarine" because of the many times it dropped into the ocean. Water recoveries are represented by dolphins and airborne retrievals are represented by parachutes.  Placed on display in 2006, it is marked as it appeared in May 1973.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Teledyne Ryan AQM-91A Compass Arrow.  Compass Arrow was a high-flying, unmanned photo reconnaissance aircraft designed to cruise at nearly 15 miles altitude while taking photos showing ground details as small as one foot in size.  After air-launching from a Lockheed DC-130E Hercules aircraft, Compass Arrow navigated automatically, but it also could be flown manually by an operator in the launch aircraft.  To present a small radar image and avoid surface-to-air missiles, Compass Arrow's vertical surfaces are canted inward, and its body uses radar-absorbing materials.  The engine is mounted on top to reduce its heat signature from below, and the aircraft also carries anti-radar electronics.   The AQM-91A never became operational.  However, lessons learned from its development contributed to later stealth fighters, bombers and unmanned aerial vehicles. 

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Thomas-Morse S-4C Scout (Serial No. 1SC38944).  The S-4C on display in the NMUSAF was donated to the museum in March 1965 by Capt. R.W. Duff, Miami, Florida, and restored by Aero Mechanics High School, Detroit, Michigan.

 (NACA Photo)

Verville-Sperry M-1 Messenger, NACA, 1926.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Verville-Sperry M-1 Messenger (Serial No 68533), P306.  The Sperry Messenger was a single-seat biplane designated the M-1 and MAT by the USAAS.  Sperry produced approximately 50 Messengers and the civilian two-seat version, the Sport Plane, between 1920 and 1926.  The aircraft was the first to make contact between an airplane and an airship while in flight.  The Messenger's small size, simple construction, and inexpensive cost made it ideal for testing and experimentation. As well as the original communications duties, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) used one in its pioneering aerodynamic research programs from 1923 to 1929.  Sperry modified twelve into the radio-controlled Messenger Aerial Torpedo, an early flying bomb, and developed the apparatus for a Messenger to make the first successful airship hook on and release in December 1924.  On 15 Dec, at Scott Field, Illinois, Lt. Clyde Finter hooked on to a trapeze attached to a non-rigid airship, the TC-3.  In the Messenger, Finter remained attached briefly while the airship made a turn, then he unhooked and landed the aircraft on the ground.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Vultee BT-13B Valiant (Serial No. 42-90629).  The BT-13B on display in the NMUSAF, one of 1,775 Bs built, was acquired from Raymond Brandly of West Carrollton, Ohio, in 1965.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

 (Clemens Vasters Photo)

 (Goshimini Photo)

V-2 Rocket, Mittelwerk A-4 V-2 with Meillerwagen.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Waco CG-4A Hadrian glider (Serial No. 45-27548).  Fifteen companies manufactured over 12,000 CG-4As, with 1,074 built by the Waco Aircraft Co. of Troy, Ohio.  The glider on display in the NMUSAF was built by the Gibson Refrigerator Co. in Greenville, Michigan, and accepted by the U.S. Army Air Forces in July 1945.

 (NMUSAF Photo)

Wright Modified B Flyer.  This airplane is a modified version of the Wright “B” Flyer, the first model produced in quantity by the Wright brothers.  It is representative of the Signal Corps Airplanes No. 3 and No. 4 purchased by the US Army in 1911, and it was used for training pilots and conducting aerial experiments.  At College Park, Md., in October 1911, a Wright “B” was used for the first military trials of a bombsight and bomb-dropping device.  The major modifications of the airplane on exhibit in the NMUSAF include the replacement of the original four-cylinder Wright engine with an eight-cylinder Rausenberger engine, the addition of ailerons on the trailing edges of the wings in place of the wing-warping feature used by the Wright brothers, and the use of a wheel control system instead of the Wright’s lever control system.  The NMUSAF aircraft was used for flight instruction by Howard Rinehart at Mineola, New York, in 1916.  It appears in the museum almost exactly as it did when it was last flown by Lt John A. Macready during the International Air Races at Dayton, Ohio, in October 1924.  It was acquired by the Air Force Museum Foundation, Inc. and donated to the museum.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Wright 1909 Military Flyer.  The aircraft on display is an exacting reproduction constructed by museum personnel in 1955.  It is equipped with an engine donated by Orville Wright and chains, sprockets and propellers donated by the heirs of the Wright estate.

 (NMUSAF Photos)

Yokosuka MXY7-K1 Ohka Trainer.  The Dai-ichi Kaigun Koku Gijitsusho (1st Naval Air Technical Arsenal) at Yokosuka, Japan, designed the MXY7-K1 to teach less experienced pilots to fly the Model 11 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) kamikaze suicide rocket bomb.  The Ohka was carried to the target under a G4M Betty bomber.  When the Betty/Ohka combination reaching Allied shipping, the Ohka pilot would detach, ignite the rocket motor, and dive into a ship.  This trainer version was carried aloft and then released for practice flights. Unlike the Ohka, the MXY7-K1 had a landing skid and flaps.  In place of the warhead and rocket motors of the Ohka, the MXY7-K1 used water ballast that was expelled before landing. Even so, it challenged novice pilots with its high, 130 mph landing speed.  A total of 45 MXY7-K1 trainers were completed by the end of the Second World War.