|Sea Battle, A Fight with a Cannon
French Téméraire-class ship of the line Mont-Blanc off Marseille, 1791. Painting by Antoine Roux.
The Mont-Blanc was armed with 28 X 36-pounder cannon, 30 X 18-pounder cannon and 16 X 8-pounder cannon. If one of the cannon broke loose during heavy seas or a battle, it could doom the ship. The crew had to be vigilant and extremely pro-active to ensure that did not happen.
Those of us with an interest in old guns and cannon generally have to sort them out by size and purpose. If the weapon can be transported by manpower alone, and if it relies on direct hits to kill, then it is classed as a gun. If it takes more than one gunner to operate and is too heavy to be transported by manpower alone, and if its main purpose is to kill via shrapnel or concussion or to destroy obstacles, then it is a cannon. Even when they are not in action against a target that can shoot back, they can be extremely dangerous, particularly when at sea. This is a story of a literal "loose cannon on deck" that may explain why.
Data current to 24 April 2020.
Cast Iron 32-pounder smoothbore muzzleloading cannon, mounted on a wood gun carriage. This cannon was recovered from Louisbourg Harbour, Nova Scotia. It is No. 1 of 2 on the grounds of the University of Toronto, King’s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario.
A FIGHT WITH A CANNON
Overton, Grand, ed. The World’s One Hundred Best Short Stories in Ten Volumes, Vol. One: Adventure. New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1927, pages 240-252.
La Vieuville was suddenly cut short by a cry of despair, and at the same time a noise was heard wholly unlike any other sound. The cry and sounds came from within the vessel.
The captain and lieutenant rushed toward the deck, but could not get down. All the gunners were pouring up in dismay. Something terrible had just happened. One of the carronades of the battery, a twenty-four pounder, had broken loose. This is the most dangerous accident that can possibly take place on shipboard. Nothing more terrible can happen to a sloop of war in open sea and under full sail.
A cannon that breaks its moorings suddenly becomes some strange, supernatural beast. It is a machine transformed, into a-monster. That short mass on wheels moves like a billiard-ball, rolls with the rolling of the ship, plunges with the pitching, goes, comes, stops, seems to meditate, starts on its course again, shoots like an arrow from one end of the vessel to the other, whirls around, slips away, dodges, rears, bangs, crashes, kills, exterminates. It is a battering ram capriciously assaulting wall. Add to this the fact that the ram is of metal, the wall of wood.
It is matter set free; one might say, this eternal slave  was avenging itself; it seems as if the total depravity concealed in what we call inanimate things has escaped, and burst forth all of a sudden; it appears to lose patience, and to take a strange mysterious revenge; nothing more relentless than this wrath of the inanimate. This enraged lump leaps like a panther, it has the clumsiness of an elephant, the nimbleness of a mouse, the obstinacy of an ox, the uncertainty of the billows, the zigzag of the lightning, the deafness of the grave. It weighs ten thousand pounds, and it rebounds like a child’s ball. It spins and then abruptly darts off at right angles.
And what is to be done? How put an end to it? A tempest ceases, a cyclone passes over, a wind dies down, a broken mast can be replaced, a leak can be stopped, a fire extinguished, but what will become of this enormous brute of bronze. How can it be captured? You can reason with a bulldog, astonish a bull, fascinate a boa, frighten a tiger, tame a lion; but you have no resource against this monster, a loose cannon. You can not kill it, it is dead; and at the same time it lives. It lives with a sinister life which comes to it from the infinite. The deck beneath it gives it full swing. It is moved by the ship, which is moved by the sea, which is moved by the wind. This destroyer is a toy. The ship, the waves, the winds, all play with it, hence its frightful animation. What is to be done with this apparatus? How fetter this stupendous engine of destruction? How anticipate its comings and goings, its returns, its stops, its shocks? Any one of its blows on the side of the ship may stave it in. How foretell its frightful meanderings? It is dealing with a projectile, which alters its mind, which seems to have ideas, and changes its direction every instant. How check  the course of what must be avoided? The horrible cannon struggles, advances, backs, strikes right, strikes left, retreats, passes by, disconcerts expectation, grinds up obstacles, crushes men like flies. All the terror of the situation is in the fluctuations of the flooring. How fight an inclined plane subject to caprices? The ship has, so to speak, in its belly, an imprisoned thunder, storm, striving to escape; something like a thunderbolt rumbling above an earthquake.
In an instant the whole crew was on foot. It was the fault of the gun captain, who had neglected to fasten the screw-nut of the mooring-chain, and had insecurely clogged the four wheels of the gun carriage; this gave play to the sole and the framework, separated the two platforms, and the breeching. The tackle had given way, so that the cannon was no longer firm on its carriage. The stationary breeching, which prevents recoil, was not in use at this time. A heavy sea struck the port, the carronade, insecurely fastened, had recoiled and broken its chain, and began its terrible course over the deck.
To form an idea of this strange sliding, let one imagine a drop of water running over a glass. At the moment when the fastenings gave way, gunners were in the battery, some in scattered about, busied with the customary work sailors getting ready for a signal for action. The carronade, hurled forward by the pitching of the made a gap in this crowd of men and the first blow; then sliding back and shot out again as the ship rolled, it cut in two a fifth unfortunate, and knocked a piece of the battery against the larboard side with such force as to unship it. This caused the cry of distress just heard. All the men rushed to the companion-way  The gun-deck was vacated in a twinkling.
The enormous gun was left alone. It was given up to itself, It was its own master and master of the ship. It could do what it pleased. This whole crew, accustomed to laugh in time of battle, now trembled. To describe the terror is impossible.
Captain Boisberthelot and Lieutenant la Vieuville, although both dauntless men, stopped at the head of the companion-way and, dumb, pale, and hesitating, looked down on the deck below. Someone elbowed past and went down. It was their passenger, the peasant, the man of whom they had just been speaking a moment before...Reaching the foot of the companion-way, he stopped.
The cannon was rushing back and forth on the deck. One might have supposed-it to be the living chariot of the Apocalypse. The marine lantern swinging overhead added a dizzy shifting of light and shade to the picture. The form of the cannon disappeared in the violence of its course, and it looked now black in the light, now mysteriously white in the darkness.
It went on in its destructive work. It had already shattered four other guns and made two gaps in the side of the ship, fortunately above the water-line, but where the water would come in, in case of heavy weather, It rushed frantically against the framework; the strong timbers withstood the shock; the curved shape of the wood gave them great power of resistance; but they creaked beneath the blows of this huge dub, beating on all sides at once, with a strange sort of ubiquity. The percussions of a grain of shot shaken in a bottle are not swifter or more senseless. The four wheels passed back and forth over the dead men, cutting  them, carving them, slashing them, till the five corpses were a score of stumps rolling across the deck; the heads of the dead men seemed to cry out; streams of blood curled over the deck with the rolling of the vessel; the planks, damaged in several places, began to gape open. The whole ship was fired with the horrid noise and confusion.
The captain promptly recovered his presence of mind and ordered everything that could check and impede the cannon’s mad course to be thrown through the hatchway down on the gun-deck--mattresses, hammocks, spare sails, rolls of cordage; bags belonging to the crew, and bales of counterfeit assignats, of which the corvette carried a large quantity--a characteristic piece of English villainy regarded as legitimate warfare.
But what could these rags do? As nobody dared to go below to dispose of them properly, they were reduced to lint in a few minutes. There was just sea enough to make the accident as bad as possible. A tempest would have been desirable, for it might have upset the cannon, and with its four wheels once in the air there would be some hope of getting it under control. Meanwhile, the havoc increased.
There were splits and fractures in the masts, which are set into framework of the keel and rose above the deck of ships like great, round pillars. The damage was increasing, and the corvette was beginning to lose parts of one mast, and the gun had cut into the mainmast. The battery was being ruined. Ten pieces out thirty were disabled; the breaches in the side of the vessel were increasing, and the corvette was beginning to leak.
The old passenger having gone down to the gun-deck  stood like a man of stone at the foot of the steps. He cast a stern glance over this scene of devastation. He did not move. It seemed impossible to take a step forward. Every movement of the loose carronade threatened the ship’s destruction. A few moments more and shipwreck would be inevitable. They must perish or put a speedy end to the disaster; some course must be decided on; but what? What an opponent was this carronade? Something must be done to stop this terrible madness--to capture this lightning--to overthrow this thunderbolt.
Boisherthelot said to La Vieuville: “Do .you believe in God, chevalier?” La Vieuville replied: “Yes.--no. Sometimes.”
“During a tempest?”
“Yes, and in moments like this.”
“God alone can save us from this,” said Boisberthelot.
Everybody was silent, letting the carronade continue its horrible din.
Outside, the waves beating against the ship responded with their blows to the shocks of the cannon. It was like two hammers alternating.
Suddenly, in the midst of this inaccessible ring, where the escaped cannon was leaping, a man was seen to appear, with an iron bar in his hand. He was the author of the catastrophe, the captain of the gun, guilty of criminal carelessness, and the cause of the accident, the master of the carronade. Having done the mischief, he was anxious to repair it. He had seized the iron bar in one hand, a tiller-rope with a slip-noose in the other, and jumped down the hatchway to the gun-deck.
Then began an awful sight; a Titanic scene; the contest  between gun and gunner; the battle of matter and intelligence; the duel between man and the inanimate.
The man stationed himself in a corner, and with bar and rope in his two hands, he leaned against one of the riders, braced himself on his legs, which seemed two steel posts, and livid, calm, tragic, as if rooted to the deck, he waited. He waited for the cannon to pass by him.
The gunner knew his gun, and it seemed to him as if the gun ought to know him. He had lived long with it. How many times he had thrust his hand into its mouth! It was his own familiar monster. He began to speak to it as if it were his dog.
“Come!” he said. Perhaps he loved it. He seemed to wish it to come to him. But to come to him was to come upon him. And then he would be lost. How could he avoid being crushed? That was the question. All looked on in terror. Not a breast breathed freely, unless perhaps that of the old man, who was alone in the battery with the two contestants, a stern witness. He might be crushed himself by the cannon. He did not stir. Beneath them the sea blindly directed the contest. At the moment when the gunner, accepting this frightful hand-to-hand conflict, challenged the cannon, some chance rocking of the sea caused the carronade to remain tor an instant motionless and as if stupified.
“Come, now!” said the man. It seemed to listen. Suddenly it leaped toward him. The man dodged the blow. The battle began. Battle unprecedented. Frailty struggling against the invulnerable. The gladiator of the flesh attacking the beast of brass. On one side, brute force; on the other, a human soul. All was taking place in semi-darkness; It was like the shadowy vision of a miracle. A soul--strange to say, one would have thought the cannon also had a soul; but a soul full of hatred and rage. This sightless thing seemed to have eyes. The monster appeared to lie in wait for the man. One would have at least believed that there was craft in this mass. It also chose its time. It was a strange, gigantic insect of metal, having or seeming to have the will of a demon. For a moment this colossal locust would beat against the low ceiling overhead, then it would come down on its four wheels like a tiger on its four paws, and begin to run at the man. He, supple, nimble, expert, writhed away like an adder from all these lightning movements. He avoided a collision, but the blows which he parried fell against the vessel, and continued their work of destruction.
An end of broken, chain was left hanging to the carronade. This chain had in some strange way become twisted about the screw of the cascabel. One end of the chain was fastened to the gun-carriage. The other, left loose, whirled desperately about making all its blows more dangerous. The screw held it in a firm grip, adding a thong to a battering-ram, making a terrible whirlwind around the cannon, an iron lash in a brazen hand. This chain complicated the contest.
However, the man went on fighting. Occasionally, it was the man who attacked the cannon; he would creep along the side of the vessel, bar and, rope in hand; and the cannon, as if it understood, and as though suspecting some snare, would flee away. The man, bent on victory, pursued it.
Such things cannot long continue. The cannon seemed to say to itself, all of a sudden, “Come, now! Make an end of it!” and it stopped. One felt that the crisis was at hand. The cannon, as if in suspense, seemed to have, or really had--for to all it was a living being--a ferocious malice prepense. It made a sudden, quick dash at the gunner. The gunner sprang out of the way, let it pass by, and cried out to it with a laugh, “Try it again!” The cannon, as if enraged, smashed a carronade on the port side; then, again seized by the invisible sling which controlled it, it was hurled to the starboard side at the man, who made his escape. Three carronades gave way under the blows of the cannon; then, as if blind and not knowing what more to do, it turned its back on the man, rolled from stern to bow, injured the stern and made a breach in the planking of the prow. The man took refuge at the foot of the steps, not far from the old man who was looking on. The gunner held his iron bar in rest. The cannon seemed to notice it, and without taking the trouble to turn around, slid back on the man, swift as the blow of an axe. The man, driven against the side of the ship, was lost. The whole crew cried, out with horror.
But the old passenger, till this moment motionless, darted forth more quickly than any of this wildly swift rapidity. He seized a package of counterfeit assignates, and, at the risk of being crushed, succeeded in throwing it between the wheels of the carronade. This decisive and perilous movement could not have been made with more exactness and precision by a man trained in all the exercises described in Durosel’s “Manual of Gun Practise at Sea.”
The package had the effect of a clog. A pebble may stop a log, the branch of a tree turn aside an avalanche. The carronade stumbled. The gunner, taking advantage of this critical opportunity, plunged his iron bar between the spokes of one of the hind wheels. It leaned forward. The man, using the bar as a lever, held it in equilibrium. The heavy mass was overthrown, with the crash of a falling bell, and the man, rushing with all his might, dripping with perspiration, passed the slipnoose around the bronze neck of the subdued monster.
It was ended. The man had conquered. The hunter has control over the mastodon; the pygmy had taken the thunderbolt prisoner.
The mariners and sailors clapped their hands. The gunner saluted the passenger.
“Sir,” he said, you have saved my life.” The old man had resumed his impassive attitude, and made no reply.
The man had conquered, but the cannon might be said to have conquered as well. Immediate shipwreck had been avoided, but the corvette was not saved. The damage to the vessel seemed beyond repair. There were five breaches in her sides, one, very large, in the bow; twenty of the thirty carronades lay useless in their frames. The one which had just been captured and chained again was disabled; the screw of the cascabel was sprung, and consequently levelling the gun made impossible. The battery was reduced to nine pieces. The ship was leaking. It was necessary to repair the damages at once, and to work the pumps.
The gun-deck, now that one could look over it, was frightful to behold. The inside of an infuriated elephant’s cage would not be more completely demolished. However great might be the necessity of escaping observation, the necessity of immediate safety was still more imperative to the corvette. They had been obliged to light up the deck with lanterns hung here there on the sides.
However, all the while this tragic play was going on, the crew were absorbed by a question of life and death, and they were wholly ignorant of what was outside the vessel. The fog had grown thicker: the weather had changed; the wind had worked its pleasure with the ship; they were out of their course, with Jersey and Guernsey close at hand, further to the south than they ought to have been, and in the midst of a heavy sea. Great billows kissed the gaping wounds of the vessel--kisses full of danger. The rocking of the sea threatened destruction. The breeze had become a gale. A squall, a tempest, perhaps, was brewing. It was impossible to see four waves ahead.
While the crew were hastily repairing the damages to the gun-deck, stopping the leaks, and putting in place the guns which had been uninjured in the disaster, the old passenger had gone on deck again. He stood with his back against the mainmast. He had not noticed a proceeding which had taken place on the vessel. The Chevalier de la Vieuville had drawn up the marines in line on both sides of the mainmast, and at the sound of the boatswain’s whistle the sailors formed in line, standing on the yards.
The Count de Boisberthelot approached the passenger. Behind the captain walked a man, haggard, out of breath, his dress disordered, but still with a look of satisfaction on his face.
It was the gunner who had just shown himself so skilful in subduing monsters, and who had gained the mastery over the cannon. The count gave the military salute to the old man in peasant’s dress, and said to him: “General, there is the man.”
The gunner remained standing, with downcast eyes, in military attitude. The Count de Boisberthelot continued: “General, in consideration of what this man has done, do you not think there is something due him from his commander?”
“I think so,” said the old man.
“Please give your orders,” replied Boisberthelot.
“It is for you to give them, you are the captain.”
“But you are the general,” replied Boisberthelot.
The old man looked at the gunner. “Come forward,” he said. The gunner approached.
The old man turned toward the Count de Boisberthelot, took off the cross of Saint-Louis from the captain’s coat and fastened it on the gunner’s jacket.
“Hurrah!” cried the sailors. The mariners presented arms. And the old passenger, pointing to the dazzled gunner, added: “Now, have this man shot.”
Dismay succeeded the cheering. Then in the midst of the death-like stillness, the old man raised his voice and said: “Carelessness has compromised this vessel. At this very hour it is perhaps lost. To be at sea is to be in front of the enemy. A ship making a voyage is an army waging war. The tempest is concealed, but it is at hand. The whole sea is an ambuscade. Death the penalty of any misdemeanour committed in the face of the enemy. No fault is reparable. Courage should be rewarded, and negligence punished.”
These words fell one after another, slowly, solemnly, in a sort of inexorable meter, like the blows of an axe upon an oak. And the man, looking at the soldiers, added: “Let it be done.”
The man on whose jacket hung the shining cross Saint-Louis bowed his head. At a signal from Count de Boisberthelot two sailors went below and came back bringing the hammock-shroud; the chaplain, who since they sailed had been at prayer in the officers’ quarters, accompanied the two sailors; a sergeant detached twelve marines from the line and arranged them in two files, six by six; the gunner, without uttering a word, placed himself between the two files. The chaplain, crucifix in hand, advanced and stood beside him. “March,” said the sergeant. The platoon marched with slow steps to the bow of the vessel. The two sailors, carrying the shroud, followed. A gloomy silence fell over the vessel. A hurricane howled in the distance.
A few moments later, a light flashed, a report sounded through the darkness, then all the sound of a body falling into the sea was heard.
The old passenger, still leaning against the, mainmast, had crossed his arms, and was buried in thought. Boisberthelot pointed to him with the forefinger of his left hand, and said to La Vieuville in a low voice: “La Vendée has a head.”
Cast Iron 32-pounder smoothbore muzzleloading cannon, mounted on a wood gun carriage. This cannon was recovered from Louisbourg Harbour, Nova Scotia. It is No. 2 of 2 on the grounds of the University of Toronto, King’s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario.
French Cast Iron 12-livre smoothbore muzzleloading cannon with a 5-inch bore (12.6-cm), with fleur-de-lys on the barrel and a large letter P on the cascable. This cannon was salvaged from the 1760 wreck of the French Frigate Machault in the Restigouche River. It is mounted on a British 24-pounder iron garrison carriage, and is placed in the No. 1 position (far right as you stand behind the guns), at Campbellton, New Brunswick.
French Cast Iron 12-livre smoothbore muzzleloading cannon, 5-1/2-inch bore (14-cm), with anchors on the barrel, F on both trunnions, mounted on a British 24-pounder iron carriage, in the No. 3 position, Campbellton, New Brunswick.
Cast iron smoothbore muzzle-loading 12-pounder cannon, heavily corroded, mounted on a 24-pounder iron garrison carriage and has a cannon ball embedded in its muzzle. The cannon was recovered from the wreck of the French warship Prudent, which was captured and burned by the British in June 1758 during the siege of Louisbourg, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Twenty cannons like this one from Prudent and other French ships sunk during the siege, were raised in 1899.
A pair of French cast iron smoothbore muzzle-loading 12-pounder cannon, heavily corroded, and with broken parts and the trunnions missing, flank the West Entrance to the Whitney Block on Queen's Park Circle in Toronto, Ontario. The cannons were on the French naval ship Prudent, captured and burned by the British in June 1758 during the siege of Louisbourg. Twenty guns, from Prudent and other French ships sunk during the siege, were raised in 1899, two of which were acquired by the Government of Ontario.