Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) Warships (HMCS) Commissioned 1931–1949

Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) Warships (HMCS) Commissioned 1931–1949

Data currrent to 25 May 2019.

During the Second World War, the RCN expanded from a fleet of 13 warships to a force of some 450, the majority of which were engaged in the Battle of the Atlantic.  When Canada officially declared war on Germany on 10 September 1939, the Royal Canadian Navy consisted of six destroyers, five minesweepers, two training ships and a mobilized strength of 366 officers and 3,477 ratings including reservists

Battle of the Atlantic

The RCN played a significant role in the Battle of the Atlantic.  Although the RCN was very small at the start of the war, by 1942 it was carrying out a major share of the defence of North American waters while escorting trans-oceanic convoy of merchant ships and fighting German U-boats.  By 1944, the RCN and RCAF had grown to the point where they were providing a significant contribution to our Allies in other theatres of the war.  At the same time, Canada’s Merchant Navy Veterans sailed at tremendous risk, often in highly inflammable tankers or in freighters loaded with ammunition. More than 25,000 merchant ship voyages were made from North America to Britain under RCN escort delivering roughly 165 million tonnes of cargo to sustain the UK.

 (USN Photo)

A convoy moving eastward across the Atlantic, ca. November 1942.

The Germans failed to stop the flow of strategic supplies to Britain. This failure resulted in the build-up of troops and supplies needed for the D-Day landings in Normandy.  The defeat of the U-boat was a necessary pre accumulation of Allied troops and supplies to ensure Germany's defeat.

Victory was achieved at a huge cost: between 1939 and 1945, 3,500 Allied merchant ships (totalling 14.5 million gross tons) and 175 Allied warships were sunk and some 72,200 Allied naval and merchant seamen lost their lives.  The vast majority of Allied warships lost in the Atlantic and close coasts were small warships averaging around 1,000 tons such as frigates, destroyer escorts, sloops, submarine chasers, or corvettes, but losses also included two battleships, one battlecruiser, two aircraft carriers, three escort carriers, and seven cruisers.  The Germans lost 783 U-boats and approximately 30,000 sailors killed, three-quarters of Germany's 40,000-man U-boat fleet.  Losses to Germany's surface fleet were also significant, with 4 battleships, 9 cruisers, 7 raiders, and 27 destroyers sunk.

Canada's Merchant Navy was vital to the Allied cause during the Second World War.  More than 70 Canadian merchant vessels were lost.  1,600 merchant sailors were killed, including eight women.  Information obtained by British agents regarding German shipping movements led Canada to conscript all its merchant vessels two weeks before actually declaring war, with the Royal Canadian Navy taking control of all shipping on 26 Aug 1939.

At the outbreak of the war, Canada possessed 38 ocean-going merchant vessels.  By the end of hostilities, in excess of 400 cargo ships had been built in Canada.

With the exception of the Japanese invasion of the Alaskan Aleutian Islands, the Battle of the Atlantic was the only battle of the Second World War to touch North American shores.  U-boats disrupted coastal shipping from the Caribbean to Halifax, during the summer of 1942, and even entered into battle in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

Canadian officers wore uniforms which were virtually identical in style to those of the British.  The ordinary seamen were issued with an 'MN Canada' badge to wear on their lapel when on leave, to indicate their service.

At the end of the war, Rear Admiral Leonard Murray, Commander-in-Chief Canadian North Atlantic, remarked, "...the Battle of the Atlantic was not won by any Navy or Air Force, it was won by the courage, fortitude and determination of the British and Allied Merchant Navy."

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4090379).

RCAF Sunderlands, Cansos, Hudsons, Venturas, Digbys, Liberators and Stranraers went after the German U-boat threat in the North Atlantic with a vengeance. This is a photo of U-754, a German Type IX U-boat under attack by a Lockheed Hudson, RCAF (Serial No.625), No. 113 Sqn, on 31 July 1942.  All 43 hands on the U-boat were lost.

Canadian warships and aircraft sank, or shared in the destruction of some 50 U-boats.  Connections to New Brunswick include the frigate HMCS Saint John and the destroyer HMCS St. Croix sank two U-boats each, although the destroyer was later sunk in September 1943 by an acoustic torpedo.  The Saint John, New Brunswick-built corvette, HMCS Shediac, participated in several convoy battles.  In July 1942, it engaged three U-Boats in a single night, ramming one and damaging another.  HMCS Sackville, has been restored and is now preserved in Halifax as Canada’s National Naval Memorial.

A large naval establishment in Saint John oversaw the inspection of all merchant shipping from the western hemisphere bound for German-controlled ports in Europe.  Naval Control of Shipping HQ in Saint John oversaw shipping throughout the waters around New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and parts of Quebec. The Naval Reserve Division at HMCS Brunswicker located in Lower Cove enlisted nearly 2,300 recruits for the Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve (RCNVR).

RCN Ships Commissioned 1930–1950

Cruisers

HMCS Uganda (C66) (Ceylon-class), later renamed HMCS Quebec (C66); HMCS Ontario (C53) (Minotaur-class)

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Uganda (C66), overhead view showing her 3 triple BL 6-inch Mk XXIII guns.

HMS Uganda, was a Second World War-era Crown Colony-class light cruiser launched in 1941.  She served in the Royal Navy during 1943 and 1944, including operations in the Mediterranean, and was transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy as HMCS Uganda (C66) in October 1944.  She served in the Pacific theatre in 1945 and was put into reserve in 1947. When she was reactivated for the Korean War in 1952 she was renamed HMCS Quebec.  She was decommissioned for the last time in 1956 and scrapped in Japan in 1961.

(Legion Magazine Archives Photo)

HMCS Uganda (C66).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3624562)

Sailors setting shell fuses on board HMCS Uganda (C66), 23 Jun 1945.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3191651)

HMCS Uganda (C66) bombarding Sukuma Airfield on Miyako Jima, 4 May 1945.

 (RCN Photo)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821077)

HMCS Uganda (C66), ca 1947.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4951392)

HMCS Quebec, ca 1956.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821173)

HMCS Quebec, Copenhagen, 1954.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4951382)

HMCS Quebec receiving supplies from HMCS Magnificent, 1952.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4951384)

HMCS Quebec jackstay transfer of pers to HMCS Magnificent, 1952.

HMCS Ontario

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950944)

HMCS Ontario, 1945.

HMCS Ontario was a Minotaur-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy as HMS Minotaur (53), but transferred to the RCN on completion and renamed HMCS Ontario.  HMS Minotaur was laid down on 20 November 1941 by Harland & Wolff of Belfast and was launched on 29 July 1943 and transferred to the RCN in July 1944. She was transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy in July 1944, and completed and commissioned as HMCS Ontario on 25 May 1945 at Belfast.  She sailed to join the 4th Cruiser Squadron in the Pacific Theatre, but was too late to see active service, although she was employed in the operations at Hong Kong, Manila and in Japan.  She returned home for refit, arriving at Esquimalt, BC, on 27 Nov 1945.  In 1953 she took part in the Fleet Review to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.  She was used for training duties postwar until paid off on 15 October 1958.  She arrived at Osaka for breaking up on 19 November 1960.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821379)

HMCS Ontario, passing Duntz head, Esquimalt.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4951249)

HMCS Ontario, passing Duntz head, Esquimalt.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821380)

HMCS Ontario,7 Feb 1958.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821179)

HMCS Ontario, docked at Esquimalt.

 (State Library of Victoria, Australia Photo)

HMCS Ontario (C53), ca Feb 1951.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4951128)

HMCS Ontario (C53), Midshipman B.A. Rogers in front of the warship's main guns, 1957.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4233795)

Normandy invasion fleet, Royal Navy town-class light cruiser with four turrets, June 1944.

Armed Merchant Cruisers

HMCS Prince David (F89) (Prince-class); HMCS Prince Henry (F70) (Prince-class); HMCS Prince Robert (F56) (Prince-class)

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Prince David (F89).

HMCS Prince David was one of three Canadian National Steamships passenger liners  that were converted for the RCN, first to armed merchant cruisers at the beginning of the Second World War, then to Infantry Landing Ships (medium), ISL (M) or to an anti-aircraft escort.  For three years, they were the largest ships in the RCN.

The three 'Prince' ships were a unique part of Canada's war effort: taken out of mercantile service, converted to armed merchant cruisers, two of them (Prince David and Prince Henry) were reconfigured to infantry landing ships and one (Prince Robert) to an anti-aircraft escort; all three ships were paid off at war's end and then returned to mercantile service.

In the early part of the war, as armed merchant cruisers equipped with antique guns and very little armour, Prince David and her sisters were sent to hunt enemy submarines and surface ships, tasks better suited to warships.  As the needs of the RCN changed, the 'Prince' ships adapted to new roles.  Their flexibility offered the RCN greater scope and balance in its operations.   Prince David and her sisters, each with two separate employments, roamed most of the navigable world.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Prince David (F89).

 (DND Photo)

HMCS Prince David (F89), 1942.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3394410)

HMCS Prince David (F89), Oerlikon 20-mm Anti-Aircraft Gun, Kithera, Greece, 16 Sep 1944.  She was armed with four 6-inch/45 cal Mk. VII guns in two single mounts forward and two aft (as an AMC); four 4-inch Mk. XVI HA/LA guns in two twin mounts (as an LSI (M)); two 3-inch HA guns in two single mounts (as an AMC), two 40-mm Bofors AA guns (as an LSI (M)), several Vickers .303-inch twin Machine-guns, ten 20-mm Oerlikon cannon Mk. 5 in single mounts after her refit in April 1942; and two stern-munted depth charge chutes for Mk. VIII 300-lb canister depth charges (as an AMC).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3394502)

6-inch QF Guns awaiting installation in HMCS Prince David, RCN, 19 Aug 1940.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3612526)

HMCS Prince Henry (F70).

HMCS Prince Henry was an armed merchant cruiser and Infantry Landing Ship (ILS) in service with the RCN during the Second World War.  The ship began service as the ocean liner SS Prince Henry for the Canadian National Steamship Company servicing ports along the BC coast and cities in the northwest USA.  In 1937, the vessel was renamed SS North Star for service with the Clarke Steamship Company. The RCN acquired the vessel on the outbreak of the Second World War, and remaned it HMCS Prince Henry.

HMCS Prince Henry was converted to an armed merchant cruiser, and ordered to patrol along the west coast of South America to intercept German merchant vessels trying to break a British blockade in order to return to Germany.  HMCS Prince Henry took part in the apprehension of two German merchant vessels.  The armed merchant cruiser escorted convoys in the Aleutian Islands campaign against the Japanese, before returning to Canada to undergo conversion to a Landing Ship Infantry (LSI).  Following its conversion, HMCS Prince Henry was sent to the United Kingdom to take part in the invasion of Normandy.  HMCS Prince Henry landed troops on Juno Beach on D-day and then spent the next two months supporting the beachhead.  The vessel was then sent to the Mediterranean Sea in preparation for Operation Dragoon, the invasion of Southern France.  HMCS Prince Henry was the flagship of one of the advance forces clearing coastal islands prior to the main invasion.  HMCS Prince Henry continued service in the Mediterranean, landing Allied troops at Piraeus during the liberation of Greece from the Axis powers.  Following this service, HMCS Prince Henry returned to the United Kingdom where the ship was paid off by the Royal Canadian Navy and loaned to the Royal Navy.  The vessel was taken out of service in 1961 and sold to be broken up for scrap at La Spezia, Italy in 1962.

She was armed with four 6-inch/45 cal Mk. VII guns in two single mounts forward and two aft (as an AMC); four 4-inch Mk. XVI HA/LA guns in two twin mounts (as an LSI (M)); two 3-inch HA guns in two single mounts (as an AMC), and a variety of machine guns.  After the conversion, HMCS Prince Henry was of similar strength to the destroyers in service with the RCN, but with greater range.  As a warship, the vessel's compliment was 31 officers and 386 ratings.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3191678)

LCAs leaving HMCS Prince Henry during a training exercise, May 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3612507)

HMCS Prince Henry (F70) Ordnance QF 40mm Bofors AA Gun.

HMCS Prince Robert

  (RCN Photo)

HMCS Prince Robert (F56).

HMCS Prince Robert was the first of three refrigerated passenger and cargo ships constructed at Birkenheaad for Canadian National for service along the BC coast during the 1930s. On the outbreak of the Second World War, the RCN acquired the vessel for use as an armed merchant cruiser for protection of the western coast of Canada.  Upon completion, HMCS Prince Robert and her sister ships were the most powerful ships in service with the RCN until the arrival of larger cruisers later in the war.  She was converted at Esquimalt, BC, and commissioned into the RCN in Sep 1941.  HMCS Prince Robert saw her first action along the Mexican coast, capturing the German freighter Weser later that month.  HMCS Prince Robert then continued patrolling along the Pacific coast of North America, and then being sent to Australia to escort troop convoys across the Pacific.

Following the entry of the United States into the war in 1941, HMCS Prince Robert took part in the naval operations in Alaska alongside her sister ships HMCS Prince Henry and HMCS Prince David.  In 1943, HMCS Prince Robert was converted into an anti-aircraft cruiser.  HMCS Prince Robert returned to service later that year and escorted convoyes in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea between the United Kingdom and Naples, Italy, protecting them from air attack.  In 1944, the ship was transferred to the Pacific once again and was at Sydney, Australia when Japan surrendered.  HMCS Prince Robert was ordered to Hong Kong to repatriate Canadian prisoners of war, and to assist in control of the island.  The ship returned to Canada on 20 October 1945 and was pain off on 10 December and transferred to the War Assets Corporation for disposal.

The ship was sold to private buyers who returned to the vessel to the cargo/passenger trade as Charlton Sovereign in 1948.  Charlton Sovereign transported displaced persons and refugees from Europe to locations in Central and South America.  In 1951, the ship was sold again and renamed Lucania.  Lucania was used a passenger ship between Italy and Venezuela until 1962, when the vessel was sold for scrap.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4233654)

HMCS Prince Robert (F56), Esquimalt, British Columbia.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950890)

HMCS Prince Robert, 4-inch Mk. XVI anti-aircraft guns and crew, during convoy escort in March, 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950889)

HMCS Prince Robert, 20-mm Oerlikon AA Gun crew, 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821078)

HMCS Prince Robert (F56), Armed Merchant Cruiser, ca 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950948)

HMCS Prince Robert (F56), Armed Merchant Cruiser, ca 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950950)

HMCS Prince Robert (F56), Armed Merchant Cruiser, ca 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950947)

HMCS Prince Robert (F56), Armed Merchant Cruiser, ca 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950951)

HMCS Prince Robert (F56), Armed Merchant Cruiser, ca 1944.

Aircraft carriers

HMS Nabob (D77) (Ameer-class); HMS Puncher (D79) (Ameer-class); HMCS Warrior (R31) (Colossus-class); HMCS Magnificent (CVL 21) (Majestic-class)

HMS Nabob

 (Shearwater Aviation Museum Photo)

HMS Nabob (D77) at sea before being transferred to the RCN.

HMS Nabob (D77) was a Bogue-class escort aircraft carrier which served in the Royal Navy during 1943 and 1944.  The ship was built in the United States as USS Edisto (CVE-41) (originally AVG-41 then later ACV-41) but did not serve with the United States Navy.  She was laid down on 20 October 1942, launched 22 March 1943, and transferred under Lend-Lease to the United Kingdom on 7 September 1943 prior to her commissioning as HMS Nabob (D77) into the Royal Navy.  She served as an anti-submarine warfare carrier and the ship's crew was largely drawn from personnel provided by the Royal Canadian Navy.  Flight crew were Royal Navy personnel (852 and 856 Naval Air Squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm). 

After training the ship went to San Diego and took the 852 FAA-Sqdn on board, equipped with Avenger aircraft. She then proceeded with HMCS New Waterford (K321) via the Panama Canal to Norfolk, where 45 Republic P-47 Thunderbolt fighters were embarked as deck load and US Army Air Force personnel were taken on board as passengers when the ship made passage to the UK in convoy VT-10.  There, it joined the Home Fleet after disembarking the fighters.  In April 1944, four Grumman Martlet (Wildcat) Mk. V fighters were added to the No. 852 Squadron, FAA, while a detachment of the No. 856 Squadron, FAA, equipped with Grumman Avenger Mk. II aircraft joined the escort carrier in June.  The ship then participated in Operation Offspring, a great mine lying operation off Norway.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3230534)

HMS Nabob (D77), RCN 40-mm Bofors AA Gun Mk. XI in Twin Mounting, crew engaged practice firing, Jan 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950892)

Twin 40-mm Bofors AA Gun station, ca 1945.

(Corvus Publishing Group Photo, Canada's Navy)

HMS Nabob (D77), off the coast of California during her post-modification workup with Grumman Avenger torpedo bombers of No. 852 Squadron, March 1944.

(IWM Photo, A.25368)

HMS Nabob (D77) was hit by a torpedo during an operation in northern waters on 22 Aug 1944.  

On 22 August 1944, while returning from a strike against the German battleship Tirpitz (Operation Goodwood), she was torpedoed by U-354 in the Barents Sea and sustained heavy damage. The damaged carrier is shown steaming under her own power for Scapa Flow.  At 01.14 hours on 22 Aug 1944 the U-boat fired a spread of FAT torpedoes and hit the HMS Nabob (D 77) with one torpedo in the starboard side aft, resulting in a hole about 32 feet square located aft of the engine room and below the waterline.  At 01.22 hours, the U-boat fired a Gnat to finish off the carrier, but struck the HMS Bickerton (K466) instead, which was about to begin refuelling the escort carrier at the time of the attack.  The frigate was subsequently scuttled by a torpedo from the HMS Vigilant (R93).

The stern of the HMS Nabob (D 77) quickly sank 15 feet and the power went off.  The fans in the engine room stopped and the main engines had to be shut down because the temperature had soared to 150 degrees.  As the ship lay dead in the water, 205 men were evacuated from the ship and transferred to the Canadian destroyer HMCS Algonquin by boats and Carley floats, two weeks later they were transferred to the HMS Zest (R02) near the Faeroe Islands and finally brought to Scapa Flow.  The remaining crew worked hard to get the ship under control.  Emergency diesel generators were used to get power for the pumps to limit the flooding, but the engine room bulkheads bulged inward from the pressure of the sea that had rushed in through the hole.  Heavy gear was ditched or brought to the bow to improve the trim, including the two 5-inch guns, which were removed with cutting torches and dropped overboard.  This helped raise the stern so there was not as much pressure on the drive shaft bearings.  In the early evening, the escort carrier was underway again at 10 knots.

Early the next morning, an HF/DF bearing and a surface contact indicated that a U-boat was in the area.  Two Avengers managed to launch from the sloping deck and kept the U-boat under water for three and a half hours.  The first returned and made a good landing, but the second crashed and damaged six other aircraft on deck.  The damaged torpedo bombers were later jettisoned.   

Despite her damaged condition, HMS Nabob turned homeward with a skeleton crew and reached her base after sailing 1,070 miles at a steady ten knots, proceeding homewards under her own steam, her stern low down in the water.  On 27 August, the ship reached Scapa Flow under her own power. As the carrier's galley had been destroyed the skeleton crew lived on short rations and rum for the five days it took to get the ship home.

 (IWM Photo, A.25689)

HMS Nabob, entering the main dry dock at Rosyth, Scotland, on 18 September 1944.

HMS Nabob had lost 21 men.  She was eventually judged not worth repairing, was beached and abandoned, and then cannibalized for other ships.  She was decommissioned on 30 September 1944, but was retained as part of the Reserve Fleet.  She was returned to USN at Rosyth and stricken for disposal 16 March 1946.  She was sold for scrapping in the Netherlands in March 1947, but was resold and converted as the merchant ship Nabob of Norddeutscher Lloyd (she was later renamed Glory and registered in Panama).  She was sold for scrap in Taiwan in 1977.  HMS Nabob was one of three Royal Navy escort carriers built in the United States which were listed as lost in action (2 sunk and 1 heavily damaged and never repaired) during the Second World War.

These ships were all larger and had a greater aircraft capacity than all the preceding American built escort carriers.  They were also all laid down as escort carriers and not converted merchant ships.  All the ships had a complement of 646 men and an overall length of 492 feet 3 inches (150.0 m), a beam of 69 feet 6 inches (21.2 m) and a draught of 25 ft 6 in (7.8 m).  Propulsion was provided a steam turbine, two boilers connected to one shaft giving 9,350 brake horsepower (SHP), which could propel the ship at 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph).  Aircraft facilities were a small combined bridge–flight control on the starboard side, two aircraft lifts 43 feet (13.1 m) by 34 feet (10.4 m), one aircraft catapult and nine arrestor wires.  Aircraft could be housed in the 260 feet (79.2 m) by 62 feet (18.9 m) hangar below the flight deck.  Armament comprised: two 4 inch Dual Purpose guns in single mounts, sixteen 40-mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns in twin mounts and twenty 20-mm Oerlikon anti-aircraft cannons in single mounts.  They had a maximum aircraft capacity of twenty-four aircraft which could be a mixture of Grumman Martlet, Vought F4U Corsair or Hawker Sea Hurricane fighter aircraft and Fairey Swordfish or Grumman Avenger anti-submarine aircraft.

HMS Puncher

 (Alanfor SVallely Photo)

HMS Puncher (D79).

HMS Puncher (D79), originally named USS Willapa (AVG-53/ACV-53/CVE-53) was a Bogue-class escort aircraft carrier (originally an auxiliary aircraft carrier) in the United States Navy, leased to the United Kingdom.  Willapa was laid down on 21 May 1943 at Seattle, Washington, by the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation and reclassified CVE-53 on 10 June 1943.  Launched on 8 November 1943, the ship was transferred under lend-lease to the Royal Navy on 5 February 1944 to be manned by a Canadian crew.  Renamed HMS Puncher (D79), the carrier served the Royal Canadian Navy except for Fleet Air Arm personnel in the Atlantic and Mediterranean for the duration of hostilities.  Stationed with the Home Fleet at Scapa Flow, Puncher initially served in a training role, but was re-tasked to strike and convoy air protection (CAP) after her sister ship, HMS Nabob was torpedoed off Norway in 1944.  Also part of her squadron was the US escort carrier USS Shamrock BayPuncher also provided convoy air protection on the Murmansk/Arkhangelsk convoy route which she did six times. Strike operations included against German occupied Norway industrial and shipping targets such as the steel works at Narvik on the west coast of Norway.  Fleet Air Arm squadrons assigned to Puncher included Fairey Barracuda torpedo bombers, Fairey Firefly fighter/bombers, American-built Hellcat (Wildcat) fighters and Avenger torpedo bombers.  The Barracuda was one of the largest carrier-borne aircraft in the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm and required rocket assistance to take flight from the small flight deck.  The Admiralty had determined that, in the post-war world, Canada would have her own aircraft carriers. Both HMS Puncher and HMS Nabob were crewed by RCN crews to establish the knowledge base for the future carriers assigned to that country, HMCS Warrior (ex HMS Warrior), HMCS Magnificent (ex HMS Magnificent) ("The Maggie"), and HMCS Bonaventure (ex HMS Powerful) ("The Bonnie").  Decommissioned on 16 February 1946 at Norfolk, Virginia, and returned to American custody that day, the escort carrier was struck from the Navy Registry on 12 March 1946, having never seen active service with the United States Navy.  Initially sold to William B. St. John, of New York City, on 9 January 1947, the carrier was subsequently resold to a British firm on 4 February 1947 and converted for mercantile service.  She later served successively as Muncaster Castle, Bardic and Ben Nevis until she was scrapped in Taiwan in 1973.

 (IWM Photo, A25712)

HMS Puncher (D79).

 (IWM Photo, FL 17755)

HMS Puncher (D79) at anchor.

 (Shearwater Aviation Museum Photo)

HMS Puncher (D79).

HMS Warrior

 (RCN Photo)

HMS Warrior, previously HMCS Warrior, a Colossus class light fleet aircraft carrier, off Gibraltar in the 1950s. 

Built by Harland and Wolff in Belfast, she was originally to be called HMS Brave; the Royal Navy had originally intended to rush her into service for operations in the Indian Ocean during  the Second World War, thus she was built without heaters for some onboard equipment since heat was unnecessary in tropical operations.  She was launched on 20 May 1944 and completed on 24 January 1946. She was transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy, commissioned as HMCS Warrior and placed under the command of Captain Frank Houghton, and served in the Royal Canadian Navy from 1946 to 1948.   She entered Halifax harbour on 31 March 1946, a week after leaving Portsmouth.  The RCN experienced problems with the unheated equipment during operations in cold North Atlantic waters off eastern Canada during 1947.  The RCN deemed her unfit for service and, rather than retrofit her with equipment heaters, made arrangements with the Royal Navy to trade her for a more suitable aircraft carrier of the Majestic class which became HMCS Magnificent (CVL 21) on commissioning.  HMCS Warrior returned to the United Kingdom and was recommissioned as HMS Warrior (R31) on 23 March 1948, serving the RN from 1948 to 1958.  In 1957 she was headquarters ship for Britain’s atom bomb tests on Christmas Island.  She was sold to the Argentine Navy serving from 1959 to 1969 as ARA Independencia (V-1).  She was scrapped in 1971.

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo CBVA 1184-3461)

HMCS Warrior passing under the Lions Gate Bridge, British Columbia, ca 1947.

 (Lt VS Curry Photo)

HMCS Warrior (R31), Supermarine Seafire warming up on deck ahead of a flight of with Fairey Firefly fighters.

(James A. Senior Photo)

HMCS Warrior (R31), with a pair of Fairey Firefly fighters warming up.

 (James A. Senior Photo)

HMCS Warrior (R31), with Fairey Firefly.

  (George Crewe Photo)

HMCS Warrior (R31), with Fairey Firefly preparing to lower wings for launch.

(George Crewe Photo)

HMCS Warrior (R31), with Fairey Firefly wings lowered and ready for launch.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4820989)

HMCS Warrior (R31), with Fairey Firefly warming up on deck.

(James A. Senior Photo)

HMCS Warrior (R31), aerial view, ca 1947.

(Lt VS Curry Photo)

HMCS Warrior (R31), ca 1947.

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo CBVA 1184-3458)

HMCS Warrior passing under the Lions Gate Bridge, British Columbia, 10 Feb 1947.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, PA129207)

HMCS Warrior (R31).

 (George Crewe Photo)

HMCS Warrior (R31).

 (Shearwater Aviation Museum Photo)

HMCS Warrior.

Destroyers, A, C, D, E, F, G, and H Class

The RCN entered the Second World War with six destroyers in 1939, HMCS Saguenay (HO1/D79/179) (A class destroyer); HMCS Skeena (D59) (A class destroyer) were the first two, built to Canadian specifications.  In 1937 and 1938 they were joined by HMCS Fraser (H48) (C class); HMCS St. Laurent (H83) (C class);  HMCS Restigouche (H00) (C class);  and HMCS Ottawa (H60) (C class), which were purchased by the RCN from the RCN.  HMCS Assiniboine (I18) (C class destroyer) joined the RCN shortly after the war broke out in 1939.

HMCS Margaree (H49) (D class) joined the RCN in 1940, followed in 1943 and 1944 by HMCS Chaudière (H99) (H class destroyer); HMCS Gatineau (H61) (E class destoyer); HMCS Kootenay (H75) (D class destroyer); HMCS Qu’Appelle (H69) (F Class destroyer); HMCS Ottawa (H31) (G class destroyer) - the 2nd to carry its name during the war; and HMCS Saskatchewan (H70) (F class).

HMCS Saguenay (HO1/D79/179) 

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3399173)

HMCS Saguenay (HO1/D79/179) (A class destroyer), Montreal, 1932.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3399174)

HMCS Saguenay (HO1/D79/179) (A class destroyer), Montreal, 1932.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photos, MIKAN No. 3399179)

HMCS Saguenay (HO1/D79/179) (A class destroyer), Montreal, 1934.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3576681)

HMCS Saguenay (HO1/D79/179) Depth Charge Thrower, 30 Oct 1941.

HMCS Skeena (D59) 

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Skeena (D59) (A class destroyer).

HMCS Fraser (H48) 

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Fraser (H48) was a C-class destroyer initially built for the Royal Navy and commissioned as HMS Crescent in the early 1930s.  Crescent was sold to the RCN in late 1936 and renamed HMCS Fraser.  She was stationed on the west coast of Canada until the beginning of the Second World War when she was transferred to the Atlantic coast for convoy escort duties.  The ship was transferred to the United Kingdom (UK) in May 1940 and helped to evacuate refugees from France upon her arrival in early June. HMCS Fraser was sunk on 25 June 1940 in a collision with the anti-aircraft cruiser HMS Calcutta while returning from one such mission.

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM54-S4-: Bo P282.2)

HMCS Fraser (H48), with one of her four QF 4-7-inch Mk. IX main guns being serviced by one of her sailors, ca 1940.

HMCS St. Laurent (H83)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3724153)

HMCS St. Laurent (H83) (C class), 15 Aug 1941.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3399121)

HMCS St. Laurent (H83) (C class), 15 Aug 1941.

HMCS Restigouche (H00)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207420)

HMCS Restigouche (H00) (C class), 1940.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821061)

HMCS Restigouche (H00) (C class), 1940.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950930)

HMCS Restigouche (H00) (C class), May 1942.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950925)

HMCS Restigouche (H00) (C class), May 1942.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950926)

HMCS Restigouche (H00) (C class), May 1942.

HMCS Ottawa (H60)

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Ottawa (H60).

HMCS Ottawa (H60) was a C-class destroyer commissioned as HMS Crusader for the RN in the early 1930s.  Crusader was sold to the RCN in 1938 and renamed HMCS Ottawa.  She was initially deployed on the Canadian Pacific Coast before the Second World War, but was transferred to the Atlantic three months after the war began. Together with the British destroyer HMS Harvester, she sank the Italian submarine Comandante Faa' Di Bruno in the North Atlantic in November 1941.  She served as a convoy escort during the battle of the Atlantic until sunk by the German submarine U-91 on 14 September 1942.

 (DND Photo)

HMCS Ottawa (H60).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3305629)

HMCS Ottawa (H60) and HMCS Assiniboine (I18), Halifax, 19 Aug 1940.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3398976)

HMCS Ottawa (H60) and HMCS Assiniboine (I18), Halifax, 19 Aug 1940.

HMCS Assiniboine (I18)

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) (C class destroyer).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3566830)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) (C class destroyer), 1 Nov 1940.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3399942)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) (C class destroyer), 1 Nov 1940.

 (Author Photo)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) attacking U-210 during the Battle of the Atlantic, artwork by Tom Forrestall. 

On 6 Aug 1942, while on escort duty with convoy SC-94 on the foggy Grand Banks, HMCS Assiniboine spotted the German submarine U-210 on the surface.  For the next seven hours she pursued the U-boat using every resource at her disposal to attack and destroy the U-boat.  The battle was fierce; at one point the two combatants were so close that the Canadian Destroyer could only use its .50 calibre machine guns and small arms.  The U-boat scored numerous hits with its 20-mm gun causing a fire abreast the starboard side of the bridge superstructure, and killing one and wounding 13 seamen.  Finally, as U-210 attempted to dive, the Destroyer successfully rammed the submarine just behind the conning tower, forcing it to surface.  HMCS Assiniboine then rammed U-210 again, sending it to the bottom in two minutes.  All but six of the U-boat crew were recovered.  Six members of HMCS Assiniboine's company received medals for their heroism during this engagement, and fourteen others were Mentioned in Dispatches.

In 2004, Tom Forrestall, a world-renowned Dartmouth, Nova Scotia-based painter, was commissioned to paint a mural that would highlight the valour and tenacity of the Royal Canadian Navy as a tribute to the Battle of the Atlantic.  The incident selected was this engagement between the River Class Destroyer HMCS Assiniboine and the German Type VII-C submarine U-210.  This artwork hangs in an honoured place in the Wardroom, an integral part of the CFB Halifax Officers’ Mess complex.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) attacking U-210, 6 August 1942.

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) ramming U-210  6 August 1942.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3566952)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) signalmen, 1940.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3566434)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) QF 2-pounder pom-pom Mk. VIII, V.S.M. (Vickers, Sons & Maxim LL) Automatic Gun, 10 July 1940.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3566440)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18) QF 2-pounder pom-pom Mk. 1, V.S.M. (Vickers, Sons & Maxim LL) Automatic Gun, being fired on 10 July 1940.

HMCS Margaree (H49) 

 (RN Photo)

HMCS Margaree (H49) was a D-class destroyer commissined as HMS Diana for the Royal Navy, entering naval service in 1932.  Diana was transferred to the RCN in 1940 and renamed HMCS Margaree.  She served for just over a month with the RCN before being sunk in a collision with a large freighter she was escorting on 22 October 1940.

HMCS Chaudiere (H99)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3201926)

HMCS Chaudiere (H99) gun crews, 7 Jan 1944. 

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Chaudière (H99) in RCN service.  As HMS Hero in RN service, she sank two German submarines whilst stationed in the Mediterranean in 1942.  She was converted to an escort destroyer before being transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1943 and renamed HMCS Chaudière.  She became part of the Mid-Ocean Escort Force (MOEF) in early 1944 until her transfer back to British coastal waters in May to protect the build-up for Operation Overlord.  Together with other ships, she sank three more German submarines during the year. HMCS Chaudière was refitting when the war ended in May 1945 and was in poor shape.  The ship was paid off in August and later sold for scrap.  The process of breaking her up, however, was not completed until 1950.

HMCS Gatineau (H61)

 (IWM Photo, FL 11685)

HMCS Gatineau (H61) in RN service as HMS Express.

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Gatineau (H61) in RCN service, ca 1943.

HMCS Kootenay (H75)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3520751)

HMCS Kootenay (H75) (D class destroyer), firing Hedgehog depth charges during the action in which Escort Group 11 sank the German submarine U-621, 18 August 1944.  HMCS Ottawa is visible in the background.

HMCS Qu’Appelle (H69)

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Qu’Appelle (H69).

HMCS Ottawa (H31)

 (IWM Photo, 8308-29)

HMCS Ottawa (H31) as HMS Griffin in 1936.  She was transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy as HMCS Ottawa (H31) in 1943.  She was assigned to escort convoys in the North Atlantic until she was transferred in May 1944 to protect the forces involved with the Normandy Landings.  Working with other destroyers, HMCS Ottawa sank three German submarines off the French coast before she returned to Canada for a lengthy refit.  After the end of the European war in May 1945 she was used to bring Canadian troops home until she was paid off in October 1945.  HMCS Ottawa was sold for scrap in August 1946.

 (DND Photo)

HMCS Ottawa (H31)

 (Bob Macklem Photo)

HMCS Ottawa (H31).

HMCS Saskatchewan (H70) 

 (IWM Photo, FL 13249) 

HMCS Saskatchewan (H70) (F class), previously HMS Fortune, 1943.

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Saskatchewan (H70) (F class) in RCN service.

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Saskatchewan (H70) (F class) in RCN service.

Lockheed Hudson and the surrender of  U-570 

(RCAF Photo)

Lockheed Hudson Mk. I, RCAF, coded OY-C, ca 1943.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3589741)

Lockheed Hudson Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 638), 21 June 1943.

A Lockheed Hudson bomber, flying from Kaldaðarnes, 30 miles southeast of Reykjavík, Iceland, located U-570 running on the surface off the Icelandic coast on 27 August 1941. The Hudson attacked the U-boat with depth charges, damaging the enemy craft so severely that she could not submerge.  Soon, some of the German crew appeared on deck displaying a large white cloth - possibly a bed sheet - indicating that they had surrendered.  Patently unable to capture the submarine herself, the Hudson radioed for help.

Destroyers, Wickes and Clemson Class

In September 1940, the RCN was given six of the 50 overage American destroyers transferred to the UK in exchang for the use of British bases.  These warships included HMCS Columbia (I49) (Clemson class); HMCS Niagara (I57) (Clemson class): HMCS St. Clair (I65) (Clemson class); HMCS St. Croix (I81) (Wickes class); HMCS St. Francis (I93) (Wickes class); and HMCS Annapolis (I04) Clemson class.  HMCS Hamilton (I24) (Clemson class), was acquired in 1941, and HMCS Buxton (H96) (Wickes class) was acquired in 1943.

HMCS Columbia (I49)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3534147)

HMCS Columbia (I49) (Clemson class), 1 Nov 1940.

HMCS Niagara (I57) 

HMCS Niagara (I57).

HMCS Niagara was one of 50 American four-stack destroyers transferred to the RCN in 1940.  Originially named for Admiral Henry K. Thatcher, the USS Thatcher (DD-162) was a Wickes-class destroyer laid down on 8 June 1918 at Quincy, Massachusetts, by the Fore River Plant of the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation; launched on 31 August 1918; and commissioned on 14 January 1919. 

The European situation had taken a drastic turn with the fall of France in June 1940.  British destroyer forces in the wake of the disastrous Norwegian campaign and the evacuation of Dunkirk found themselves thinly spread, especially after Italy entered the war on Germany's side. Prime Minister Winston Churchill appealed to the United States for help.

In response, America's President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order authorizing the transfer of 50 "over age" destroyers to the British in return for 99-year leases on strategic base sites in the western hemisphere. USS Thatcher was accordingly withdrawn from the Atlantic Squadron she was serving with in Destroyer Division 69 for transfer to the Royal Canadian Navy, which had been allocated six of the "50 ships that saved the world," as these vessels came to be known.

As such, USS Thatcher and her five sisters arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 20 September 1940, the third group of the "flush deckers" transferred.  Decommissioned on 24 September 1940, USS Thatcher was struck from the Navy list on 8 January 1941.

Renamed HMCS Niagara following the Canadian practice of naming destroyers after Canadian rivers (but with deference to the U.S. origin), after the Niagara River forming the border between New York and Ontario.  Niagara departed Halifax on 30 November; proceeded eastward via St. John's, Newfoundland; and arrived in the British Isles on 11 December.  Early in 1941, the destroyer was allocated to the 4th Escort Group, Western Approaches Command, and based at Greenock, Scotland. Subsequently transferred to the Newfoundland escort force, Niagara operated on convoy escort duties into the summer of 1941. While she was operating with this force, she took part in the capture of a German U-boat, U-570.

  (RCN Photo)

HMCS Niagara (I57) (Clemson class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Niagara (I57) (Clemson class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Niagara (I57) (Clemson class) viewed from the air during the capture of U-570.

 (IWM Photo, FL 951)

German U-Boat U-570 entering the dock at Barrow-in-Furness after her capture by the Royal Navy.

HMCS Niagara sped to the scene and arrived at 08:20 on 28 August 1941.  Rough weather initially hampered the operation but eventually, by 18:00, HMCS Niagara had placed a prize crew aboard the submarine and had taken U-570 in tow.  During the operation, she also took the 43-man crew of the enemy craft on board.  Towed to Þorlákshöfn, Iceland, the U-boat eventually served in the Royal Navy as HMS Graph.

In January 1942, HMCS Niagara escorted the tempest-battered Danish merchantman Triton into Belfast, Northern Ireland, after the freighter had been severely mauled in a storm at sea.  In March the destroyer rescued the survivors from the American merchantman SS Independence Hall, which had run aground off Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and had broken in half.  The next month, she picked up two boatloads of survivors from the sunken steamer SS Rio Blanco, which had been torpedoed by U-160 on 1 April 1942, 40 nautical miles (74 km) east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

The destroyer subsequently underwent boiler repairs at Pictou from May to August 1942 before resuming coastwise convoy operations between Halifax and New York and escort duty in the western Atlantic.  Another refit at Pictou came in June and October 1943, before she continued her coastwise convoy escort missions through 1944.

HMCS Niagara became a torpedo-firing ship - first at Halifax and later at St. John, New Brunswick - from the spring of 1945 until the end of the Second World War in mid-August 1945, training torpedomen.  Decommissioned on 15 September 1945, HMCS Niagara was turned over to the War Assets Corporation on 27 May 1946 and broken up for scrap soon thereafter.

HMCS St. Clair (I65) 

 (USN Photo)

HMCS St. Clair (I65) (Clemson class); previously USS Williams (DD-108), entering service with the USN in 1919.  Following a brief stint in active service, the ship was laid up for 17 years before being transferred to the RCN.  It survived the war, but was scrapped in 1946.

Renamed HMCS St. Clair (I65), following the Canadian practice of naming destroyers after Canadian rivers (but with deference to the U.S. origin), her name commemorates the St. Clair River which forms the boundary between Michigan and Ontario.  This destroyer was fitted out for convoy escort duties and sailed for the UK on 30 November 1940.  Operating with the Clyde Escort force, HMCS St. Clair escorted convoys in and out of the heavily travelled Western Approaches to the British Isles in the spring of 1941.  Late in May, when the German battleship Bismarck and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen slipped through the Denmark Straits, the "flush decker" became involved in the intensive and widespread effort to destroy the German warship. Eventually, a British force located and sank Bismarck on 27 May, but not before the tragic loss of HMS Hood on 24 May.  The search for the elusive German force brought some of the British units dangerously close to exhaustion of their fuel supplies.  HMCS St. Clair, near the battle area, came under attack by German long-range bombers. The old destroyer doggedly put up a good defense, shooting down one, and possibly, a second, enemy aircraft.

HMCS St. Clair subsequently joined the Newfoundland Escort Force after this group's establishment in June 1941 and operated on convoy escort missions between Newfoundland and Reykjavik, Iceland, through the end of 1941.  HMCS St. Clair was assigned to the Western Local Escort Force following repairs at Saint John, New Brunswick, in early 1942, and operated out of Halifax over the next two years, escorting coastwise convoys until withdrawn from this service in 1943 due to her deteriorating condition.

Operating as a submarine depot ship at Halifax until deemed unfit for further duty "in any capacity" in August 1944, HMCS St. Clair was used as a fire-fighting and damage control hulk until 1946.  She was handed over to the War Assets Corporation for disposal, on 6 October 1946,  and was subsequently broken up for scrap.

HMCS St. Croix (I81) 

(RCN Photo)

HMCS St. Croix (I81) was a Wickes class destroyer that was originally commissioned as USS McCook (DD-252), until she was transferred to the RN and then to the RCN in 1940.  She sank U-90 in the North Atlantic on 24 July 1942.  HMCS St. Croix was torpedoed in the mid-Atlantic and lost on 20 Sep 1943.

 (George Metcalf Archival Collection, CWM Photo, 19900085-1040)

HMCS St. Croix (I81) (Wickes class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3571062)

HMCS St. Croix (I81) (Wickes class), Rating manning a .50 cal AA machine-gun, March 1941.

HMCS St. Francis (I93) 

 (Government of NS Virtual Archives Photo)

HMCS St. Francis (I93).

 (DND Photo)

HMCS St. Francis (I93), (ex-USS Bancroft, DD-256) early in her war service with mainmast reduced to a stump, shortened funnels, a modified bridge, radar Type 286 and the usual 12-pounder gun aft and the loss of the after tubes.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3396601)

HMCS St. Francis (I93) (Wickes class), refueling at sea, 7 Nov 1942.  Previously USS MacKenzie (DD–175).

HMCS Annapolis (I04) 

  (RCN Photo)

HMCS Annapolis (I04) after having one stack and one boiler removed.

HMCS Annapolis's (I04) was transferred to the RCN on 24 Sep 1940.  Her No. 4 boiler was damaged during workup and it was removed and not replaced, together with a funnel, during repairs which continued until February 1941.  Until 1944, HMCS Annapolis sailed with the Halifax and Western Local Escort Forces, escorting convoys from east of St. Johns, Newfoundland to New York.  In April 1944, she was attached to HMCS Cornwallis, near Annapolis, Nova Scotiqa, where she remained as a training ship until the end of the war.  On 4 June 1945, she was turned over to the War Assets Corporation and sold to Frankel Brothers, Ltd., of Toronto for scrapping.

The ship's bell of HMCS Annapolis is currently held by the town of Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia.  The Christening Bells Project at Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Naval and Military Museum includes information from the ship's bell of HMCS Annapolis, which was used for baptism of babies onboard ship.

HMCS Hamilton (I24)

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Hamilton (I24), taken on strength with the RCN in 1941.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3201273)

HMCS Hamilton (I24) with its QF 4-inch gun crew training, 10 Aug 1944.

HMCS Buxton (H96)

 (RN Photo)

HMCS Buxton (H96) (Wickes class), acquired by the RCN in 1943.  Commissioned as USS Edwards on 24 Apr 1918, she saw brief service with the USN in Europe before being placed in reserve at San Diego in 1922.  Re-commissioned in Dec 1939, she was given an overhaul, and from Apr to Sep 1940, was on Neutrality Patrol in the Gulf of Mexico and off the east coast of the U.S.  On 8 Oct 1940 she was commissioned HMS Buxton at Halifax and assigned to local duties, since serious defects prevented her from crossing the Atlantic.  Following a major refit at Boston from Jul to Sep 1941, she made her first transatlantic crossing in Oct 1941, only to undergo further repairs at Chatham in the UK, which kept her idle from Dec 1941 to Apr 1942.  Returning to Canadian waters in Aug 1942, she was assigned to WLEF, but her defects persisted and she was taken to Boston in Dec 1942 for further repairs. These repairs completed, she arrived at St. John's on 30 Mar 1943, to rejoin WLEF, three months later becoming part of its newly formed EG W-1.  Continuing sickly, Buxton was offered to the RCN for training purposes and arrived at Digby in Dec 1943, having been commissioned on 4 Nov 1943 at Halifax.  She continued as a stationary training ship until paid off 2 Jun 1945, at Sydney, and was broken up the same year at Boston.

Destroyers, Tribal, V, and C 1943 Class

The Tribal class destroyers were built for the RN, the RCN and the RAN and served during and after the Second World War.  They were originally intended to serve as light fleet cruisers, but in response to new designs by Japan, Italy, and Germany, the Tribals evolved into fast, powerful destroyers, with greater emphasis on guns over torpedoes than previous destroyers.  The Tribals were well admired by their crews and the public when they were in service.  The Tribal class destroyers served with distinction in nearly all theatres of the Second World War.   Canadian Tribals saw service in the Korean War.

HMCS Athabaskan (G07) Tribal class; HMCS Athabaskan (R79) (Tribal class); HMCS Cayuga (R04) (Tribal class); HMCS Haida (G63) Tribal class); HMCS Huron (G24) (Tribal class); HMCS Iroquois (G89) (Tribal class); HMCS Micmac (R10) (Tribal class); HMCS Nootka (R96) (Tribal class); HMCS Algonquin (R17) (V class destroyer); (HMCS Sioux (R64) (V-class); HMCS Crescent (R16) (C class (1943) destroyer); HMCS Crusader (R20) (C class)

HMCS Athabaskan, (G07)

(IWM Photo, A22987)

HMCS Athabaskan, (G07), ca 1944.  

On 29 April 1944 at about 0300 hours, HMCS Athabaskan was patrolling with her sister Tribal-class destroyer HMCS Haida in support of a British minelaying operation off the coast of France near the mouth of the Morlaix River.  She received the first of a series of Admiralty orders to intercept German warships near Ile de Bas as spotted by coastal radar in southern Englan d. During the subsequent engagement with German naval vessels, HMCS Athabaskan was torpedoed and sank.  128 men were lost, 44 were rescued by HMCS Haida and 83 were taken prisoner by three German minesweepers whihc sortied from the coast after the departure of HMCS Haida.

Accounts of the night battle vary.  Some survivors recount that the ship was initially struck by shore-battery gunfire, and then by a torpedo launched by German torpedo boat T24.  At least one survivor tells of a second torpedo hit fifteen minutes after the first, but the official history of the Royal Canadian Navy attributes the second major explosion to the fires touching off the ammunition magazine.

HMCS Athabaskan, (R79)

  (USN Photo)

HMCS Athabaskan, (R79), off the Korean coast, ca 1950.  

She was the second RCN destroyer to named HMCS Athabaskan, after the many tribes throughout western Canada that speak Athabaskan family languages.  It was also known as HMCS Athabaskan II.  Built too late to see action in the North Atlantic, HMCS Athabaskan served in the Korean War, and played an important role in Canadian postwar naval reform.

HMCS Cayuga (R04)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821142)

HMCS Cayuga (R04), 218, (Tribal class), 1956.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4476764)

HMCS Cayuga (R04), 218, (Tribal class), 20 Aug 1958.

HMCS Haida (G63)

  (RCN Photo)

HMCS Haida (G63) off the coast of Korea, ca. 1952-1954.

HMCS Haida (G63) is a Tribal-class destroyer that served in the RCN from 1943 to 1963, participating in both the Second World War and the Korean War.  She was named for the Haida First Nations tribe.  She is the only surviving Tribal-class destroyer out of 27 vessels constructed for the RCN, RN and RAN between 1937 and 1945.  HMCS Haida sank more enemy surface tonnage than any other Canadian warship and as such is commonly referred to as the "Fightingest Ship in the Royal Canadian Navy".  HMCS Haida was designated as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1984, and she now serves as a museum ship berthed next to HMCS Star, an active RCNR Division, in Hamilton, Ontario.  In 2018, HMCS Haida was designated the ceremonial flagship of the RCN.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Haida (G63) off the coast of Korea, ca. 1952-1954.

(Balcer Photo)

HMCS Haida, one of two main twin 4-inch Mk 16 gun turrets.

 

 (Author Photos)

HMCS Haida (G63), Hamilton harbour, Ontario.

HMCS Huron (G24)

(TheEastCoastRoys Photo)

HMCS Huron (G24).

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Huron (G24).

HMCS Iroquois (G89)

 (RCN Photos)

HMCS Iroquois (G89), 217.

(RCN Photos)

HMCS Iroquois (G89), 217.

HMCS Iroquois (G89), 217.  Painting by Gordon Grant.

HMCS Micmac (R10)

 (DND Photo)

HMCS Micmac (R10) served with the RCN from 1945 to 1964.  HMCS Micmac was the first modern, high-performance warship built in Canada.  She was the first of four Tribal destroyers built at the Halifax Shipyard and one of eight Tribal-class destroyers to serve in the Royal Canadian Navy.  She was armed with six 4.7-inch (120-mm) guns (3 double mounts), two 4-inch (102-mm) guns (1 double mount), four 2-pound (0.9 kg) guns (1 x quadruple mount); eight 20-mm guns (4 double mounts), four 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes (1 quadruple mount) and depth charges; (Escort) four 4-inch (102-mm) guns (2 double mounts), two 3-inch (76-mm) guns (1 double mount), six 40-mm guns (6 single mounts), four 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes (1 quadruple mount) and two Squid mortars.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Micmac (R10), 214, HMCS Athabaskan (R79), 219, HMCS Nootka (R96), 213, HMCS Cayuga 218.

 (Harry Pot Photo)

HMCS Micmac (R10), behind HMCS Huron (G24), 11 Oct 1950.

HMCS Nootka (R96)

  (RCN Photo)

HMCS Nootka (R96)

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Nootka (R96)

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Nootka (R96)

HMCS Algonquin (R17)

 (IWM Photo)

HMCS Algonquin (R17)

 (DND Photo)

HMCS Algonquin (R17), 223.

 

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821021)

HMCS Algonquin (R17), 4.7-inch gun crew after shelling Normandy beachhead, 6 June 1944.  She took part in escorting the aircraft carriers that bombed the German warship Tirpitz in March 1944, prior to providing naval gunfire support in Operation Neptune, the naval participation in the D-Day landings.  

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3223884)

HMCS Algonquin (R17), 4.7-inch gun crew after shelling Normandy beachhead, 6 June 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4820934)

HMCS Algonquin (R17), Ordnance QF 40-mm Bofors Twin AA gun with RCN ensign, 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4233946)

HMCS Algonquin (R17) (V class destroyer), enroute to France, 18 June 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3348210)

HMCS Algonquin, Twin 3-inch gun mount, 21 Jan 1955.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3577106)

HMCS Algonquin, Ordnance QF 40-mm Bofors Twin AA gun crew.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3921885)

HMCS Algonquin (R17) (V class destroyer).

HMCS Sioux (R64)

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Sioux (R64) (V-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950996)

HMCS Sioux (R64) (V-class), ca 1954.

HMCS Crescent (R16)

(IWM Photo, FL 10054)

HMCS Crescent (R16).

HMCS Crusader (R20)

(IWM Photo, FL 10052)

HMCS Crusader (DD 228), circa in 1946 after the transfer to the RCN. Crusader had been commissioned in 1945 as HMS Crusader (R20).  She was later converted to an anti-submarine frigate (DDE 228) and scrapped in 1964.

 (USN Photo, 80-G-642747)

HMCS Crusader (DDE 228) underway off Korea on 3 March 1954.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821386)

HMCS Crusader and HMCS Crescent alongside in Japan.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 2242383)

HMS Cossack (L03) a Royal Tribal Class Destroyer, similar to HMCS Iroquois (G89) and HMCS Athabaskan (G07) which still under construction at the time, was used as the study for the Canadian 1942 $1 stamp.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 2185091)

Canadian $1 stamp issued on 1 July 1942, depicting a Tribal Class Destroyer.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3567270)

Torpedo handling on an RCN Destroyer, Halifax, March 1941.

 

Frigates

HMCS Annan (K404) (River-class); HMCS Antigonish (K661) (River-class); HMCS Beacon Hill (K407) (River-class); HMCS Buckingham (K685) (River-class); HMCS Cap de la Madeleine (K663) (River-class); HMCS Cape Breton (K350) (River-class); HMCS Capilano (K409) (River-class); HMCS Carlplace (K664) (River-class); HMCS Charlottetown (K244) (River-class); HMCS Chebogue (K317) (River-class); HMCS Coaticook (K410) (River-class); HMCS Eastview (K665) (River-class); HMCS Ettrick (K254) (River-class); HMCS Fort Erie (K670) (River-class); HMCS Glace Bay (K414) (River-class); HMCS Grou (K518) (River-class); HMCS Hallowell (K666) (River-class); HMCS Inch Arran (K667) (River-class); HMCS Joliette (K418) (River-class); HMCS Jonquiere (K318) (River-class); HMCS Kirkland Lake (K337) (River-class); HMCS Kokanee (K419) (River-class); HMCS La Hulloise (K668) (River-class); HMCS Lanark (K669) (River-class); HMCS Lasalle (K519) (River-class); HMCS Lauzon (K371) (River-class); HMCS Levis (K400) (River-class); HMCS Longueuil (K672) (River-class); HMCS Magog (K673) (River-class); HMCS Matane (K444) (River-class); HMCS Meon (K269) (River-class); HMCS Monnow (K441) (River-class); HMCS Montreal (K319) (River-class); HMCS Nene (K270)(River-class); HMCS New Glasgow (K320) (River-class); HMCS New Waterford (K321) (River-class); HMCS Orkney (K448) (River-class); HMCS Outremont (K322) (River-class); HMCS Penetang (K676) (River-class); HMCS Port Colborne (K326) (River-class); HMCS Poundmaker (K675) (River-class); HMCS Prestonian (K662) (River-class); HMCS Prince Rupert (K324) (River-class); HMCS Ribble (K525) (River-class); HMCS Royal Mount (K677) (River-class); HMCS Runnymede (K678) (River-class); HMCS Sea Cliff (K344) (River-class); HMCS Springhill (K323) (River-class); HMCS St. Catharines (K325) (River-class); HMCS Saint John (K456) (River-class); HMCS St. Pierre (K680) (River-class); HMCS St. Stephen (K454) (River-class); HMCS Ste. Thérèse (K366) (River-class); HMCS Stettler (K681) (River-class); HMCS Stone Town (K531) (River-class); HMCS Stormont (K327) (River-class); HMCS Strathadam (K682) (River-class); HMCS Sussexvale (K683) (River-class); HMCS Swansea (K328) (River-class); HMCS Teme (K458) (River-class); HMCS Thetford Mines (K459) (River-class); HMCS Toronto (K538) (River-class); HMCS Valleyfield (K329) (River-class); HMCS Victoriaville (K684) (River-class); HMCS Waskesiu (K330) (River-class); HMCS Wentworth (K331) (River-class); HMCS Loch Achanalt (K424) (Loch-class); HMCS Loch Alvie (K428) (Loch-class); HMCS Loch Morlich (K517) (Loch-class)

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Beacon Hill (K407) (River-class).

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Cape Breton (K350) (River-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3554611)

HMCS Coaticook (K410) (River-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950920)

HMCS Loch Alvie (K428) (Loch-class), with captured German U-boat, May 1945.

 (IWM Photo, FL16727)

HMCS Nene (K270) (River-class).

HMS Nene, later HMCS Nene, was a River-class frigate, designed for anti-submarine operations, which was crewed by both the British and the Canadian navies during the Second World War.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Penetang (K676) (River-class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Meon (K269) (River-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3554608)

HMCS Poundmaker (K675) (River-class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Ste. Thérèse (K366) (River-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950808)

HMCS Thetford Mines (K459) (River-class),  twin 20-mm Oerlikon AA Guns on a powered mount, ca 1945.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950915)

HMCS Thetford Mines (K459) (River-class), escorting surrendered U-boats, May 1945.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950917)

HMCS Thetford Mines (K459) (River-class), bridge.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950916)

HMCS Thetford Mines (K459) (River-class), bridge.

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Stormont (K327) (River-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3560512)

HMCS Waskesiu (K330) (River-class), signal lamp, Apr 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950864)

Signals Rating hoisting Signal Flags, ca 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950815)

Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service "Wrens" and Signal Flags before the mast, ca 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821046)

HMCS Waskesiu (K330) (River-class), 1944.

(IWM Photo, A 8098)

HMCS La Hulloise (K668) (River-class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Charlottetown (K244) (River-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3194362)

HMCS Swansea (K328) (River-class), in rough seas off Bermuda, Jan 1944.

Corvettes

HMCS Agassiz (K129) (Flower-class); HMCS Alberni (K103) (Flower-class); HMCS Algoma (K127) (Flower-class); HMCS Amherst (K148) (Flower-class); HMCS Arrowhead (K145) (Flower-class); HMCS Arvida (K113) (Flower-class); HMCS Asbestos (K358) (Flower-class); HMCS Atholl (K15) (Flower-class); HMCS Baddeck (K147) (Flower-class); HMCS Barrie (K138) (Flower-class); HMCS Battleford (K165) (Flower-class); HMCS Beauharnois (K540) (Flower-class); HMCS Belleville (K332) (Flower-class); HMCS Bittersweet (K182) (Flower-class); HMCS Brandon (K149) (Flower-class); HMCS Brantford (K218) (Flower-class); HMCS Buctouche (K179) (Flower-class); HMCS Calgary (K231) (Flower-class); HMCS Camrose (K154) (Flower-class); HMCS Chambly (K116) (Flower-class); HMCS Charlottetown (K244) (Flower-class); HMCS Chicoutimi (K156) (Flower-class); HMCS Chilliwack (K131) (Flower-class); HMCS Cobalt (K124) (Flower-class); HMCS Cobourg (K333) (Flower-class); HMCS Collingwood (K180) (Flower-class); HMCS Dauphin (K157) (Flower-class); HMCS Dawson (K104) (Flower-class); HMCS Drumheller (K167) (Flower-class); HMCS Dundas (K229) (Flower-class); HMCS Dunvegan (K177) (Flower-class); HMCS Edmundston (K106) (Flower-class); HMCS Eyebright (K150) (Flower-class); HMCS Fennel (K194) (Flower-class); HMCS Fergus (K686) (Flower-class); HMCS Forrest Hill (K486) (Flower-class); HMCS Fredericton (K245) (Flower-class); HMCS Frontenac (K335) (Flower-class); HMCS Galt (K163) (Flower-class); HMCS Giffard (K402) (Flower-class); HMCS Guelph (K687) (Flower-class); HMCS Halifax (K237) (Flower-class); HMCS Hawkesbury (K415) (Flower-class); HMCS Hepatica (K159) (Flower-class); HMCS Kamloops (K176) (Flower-class); HMCS Kamsack (K171) (Flower-class); HMCS Kenogami (K125) (Flower-class); HMCS Kitchener (K225) (Flower-class); HMCS La Malbaie (K273) (Flower-class); HMCS Lachute (K440) (Flower-class); HMCS Lethbridge (K160) (Flower-class); HMCS Levis (K115) (Flower-class); HMCS Lindsay (K338) (Flower-class); HMCS Long Branch (K487) (Flower-class); HMCS Louisburg (K143) (Flower-class); HMCS Louisburg (K401) (Flower-class); HMCS Lunenburg (K151) (Flower-class); HMCS Matapedia (K112) (Flower-class); HMCS Mayflower (K191) (Flower-class); HMCS Merrittonia (K688) (Flower-class); HMCS Midland (K220) (Flower-class); HMCS Mimico (K485) (Flower-class); HMCS Moncton (K139) (Flower-class); HMCS Moose Jaw (K164) (Flower-class); HMCS Morden (K170) (Flower-class); HMCS Nanaimo (K101) (Flower-class); HMCS Napanee (K118) (Flower-class); HMCS New Westminster (K228)  (Flower-class); HMCS Norsyd (K520) (Flower-class); HMCS North Bay (K339) (Flower-class); HMCS Oakville (K178) (Flower-class); HMCS Orillia (K119) (Flower-class); HMCS Owen Sound (K340) (Flower-class); HMCS Parry Sound (K341) (Flower-class); HMCS Peterborough (K342) (Flower-class); HMCS Pictou (K146) (Flower-class); HMCS Port Arthur (K233) (Flower-class); HMCS Prescott (K161) (Flower-class); HMCS Quesnel (K133) (Flower-class); HMCS Regina (K234) (Flower-class); HMCS Rimouski (K121) (Flower-class); HMCS Rivière du Loup (K357) (Flower-class); HMCS Rosthern (K169) (Flower-class); HMCS St. Lambert (K343) (Flower-class); HMCS Sackville (K181) (Flower-class); HMCS Saskatoon (K158) (Flower-class); HMCS Shawinigan (K136) (Flower-class); HMCS Shediac (K110) (Flower-class); HMCS Sherbrooke (K152) (Flower-class); HMCS Smiths Falls (K345) (Flower-class); HMCS Snowberry (K166) (Flower-class); HMCS Sorel (K153) (Flower-class); HMCS Spikenard (K198) (Flower-class); HMCS Stellarton (K457) (Flower-class); HMCS Strathroy (K455) (Flower-class); HMCS Sudbury (K162) (Flower-class); HMCS Summerside (K141) (Flower-class); HMCS The Pas (K168) (Flower-class); HMCS Thorlock (K394) (Flower-class); HMCS Timmins (K223) (Flower-class); HMCS Trail (K174) (Flower-class); HMCS Trentonian (K368) (Flower-class); HMCS Trillium (K172) (Flower-class); HMCS Vancouver (K240) (Flower-class); HMCS Ville de Québec (K242) (Flower-class); HMCS Wetaskiwin (K175) (Flower-class); HMCS Weyburn (K173) (Flower-class); HMCS West York (K369) (Flower-class); HMCS Whitby (K346) (Flower-class); HMCS Windflower (K155) (Flower-class); HMCS Woodstock (K238) (Flower-class); HMCS Arnprior (K494) Castle-class; HMCS Bowmanville (K493) (Castle-class); HMCS Copper Cliff (K495) (Castle-class); HMCS Hespeler (K489) (Castle-class); HMCS Humberstone (K497) (Castle-class); HMCS Huntsville (K499) (Castle-class); HMCS Kincardine (K490) (Castle-class); HMCS Leaside (K492) (Castle-class); HMCS Orangeville (K491) (Castle-class); HMCS Petrolia (K498) (Castle-class); HMCS St. Thomas (K488) (Castle-class); HMCS Tillsonburg(K496) (Castle-class)

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3554046)

Canadian Vickers Ltd., RCN Corvette just completed, Montréal, Quebec.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950910)

RCN Corvette in drydock.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3304841)

HMCS Alberni (K103) (Flower-class), RCN crew preparing to launch a minesweeping float, off the BC coast, March 1941.

 (DND Photo)

HMCS Alberni (K103) (Flower-class).  HMCS Alberni took part in Operation Torch duties in March 1943 and then briefly served with the Western Local Escort Force (WLEF), before an assignment with Quebec Force.  She spent the next five months escorting Quebec-Labrador convoys.  After workups in Bermuda following her refit, HMCS Alberni joined the RN commanded escort group EG 4.  In April 1944, she was reassigned to Western Approaches Command (WAC) for a part in Operation Neptune, the naval participation in the D-Day landings.  

HMCS Alberni was torpedoed and sunk by U-480 in the English Channel while escorting a convoy on 21 August 1944.  59 crew were lost after the torpedo struck the warship on her port side immediately aft of the engine room, causing her to sink in less than a minute.  (Acting) Lt. Frank. Williams was awarded the Royal Humane Society's bronze medal for his work in saving members of the crew.  31 crew members were rescued by Royal Navy motor toerpedo boats (MTB).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821042)

HMCS Arrowhead (K145).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Barrie (K138) (Flower-class).

 (Legion Magazine Archives Photo)

HMCS Battleford (K165) (Flower-class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Bowmanville (K493) (Castle-class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Calgary (K231) (Flower-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, PA105310)

HMCS Chambly (K116) and HMCS Orillia (K119).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo,  MIKAN No. 2242400)

HMCS La Malbaie (K273) (Flower-class) Corvette under construction, stamp study.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 2204003)

Corvette shipbuilding, Canada 20 cent stamp, issued in 1942.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950836)

HMCS Long Branch (K487) (Flower-class), 5-inch Gun and shell, 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821041)

 HMCS Midland (K220) (Flower-class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Moose Jaw (K164) (Flower-class).

  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821017)

HMCS Nanaimo (K101) (Flower-class), 4-inch Mk. IX Gun, ca 1945.

(City of Vancouver Archives CVA 1184-3365)

HMCS Nanaimo (K101) (Flower-class), Vancouver, ca 1945.

U-501 was a Type IX C U-boat commissioned on 30 April 1941.  The boat served with the 2nd U-boat Flotilla until she was sunk off Greenland on 10 September 1941 by HMCS Chambly and HMCS Moose Jaw.  U-501 was taking part in a mass attack on Allied Convoy SC 42 when she was detected by HMCS Chambly with sonar and damaged with depth charges.  The U-boat's captain Hugo Förster decided to scuttle the submarine and surfaced, where she was spotted by the corvette HMCS Moose Jaw, which attempted to ram her.  The U-501 turned at the last moment so that the two vessels were running parallel, only feet apart.  For unknown reasons, Hugo Förster surrendered himself and abandoned his command by leaping from the submarine's bridge to the deck of the Moose Jaw.  The Moose Jaw veered away and the U-boat's first watch officer took command and continued with the scuttling.  A nine-man party from the Chambly got on board the U-501 in an attempt to seize secret papers, but the submarine sank under their feet.  One Canadian sailor and eleven Germans died.  The remaining thirty-five crewmen were taken prisoner.  This was the first U-boat kill by the RCN during the Battle of the Atlantic.  (Blair, Clay (1999). Hitler's U-Boat War: The Hunters 1939-41. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 392).

 (Author Photos, 19 Apr 2018)

U-505, Type IXC similar to U-501, on display in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4902568)

HMCS Kamloops (K176), Halifax, 1941.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, PA136257)

HMCS Lévis was a Flower-class corvette which took part in convoy escort duties until she was torpedoed by U-74 and sunk off Greenland, 19 Sep 1941.

(Ken Macpherson, Naval Museum of Alberta, Photo MC-2774)

HMCS Pictou (K146) (Flower-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3393539)

HMCS Pictou (K146) (Flower-class), firing a depth charge, March 1942.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Pictou (K146) (Flower-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950906)

HMCS Regina (K234) (Flower-class), June 1942.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950907)

HMCS Regina (K234) (Flower-class), June 1942.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Rimouski (K121) (Flower-class).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Rosthern (K169) (Flower-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950904)

HMCS Weyburn (K173) (Flower-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821036)

HMCS Weyburn (K173) (Flower-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No.4950903)

HMCS Weyburn (K173) (Flower-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3394476)

HMCS North Bay (K339) (Flower-class), Hedgehog array, Oct 1943.

  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3604328)

HMCS Prescott (K161) (Flower-class).

(Author Photos)

HMCS Sackville (K181) (Flower-class), alongside in Halifax Harbour, 2005.

 (Author Photos)

QF 4-inch/45 Gun Mk IX, mounted on the forward deck in a gun turret, HMCS Sackville.

 (Author Photos)

HMCS Sackville (K181) (Flower-class), Hedgehog Anti-Submarine projector/mortars, 40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun Mk. VIII on AA mount.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3455882)

HMCS Sherbrooke (K152) (Flower-class), QF 4-inch gun firing,  June 1945.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3554094)

HMCS Shediac (K110) (Flower-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MC-2975)

HMCS Spikenard (K198) (Flower-class), torpedoed by U-136 (Type VIIC) in the mid-Atlantic on 10 Feb 1942.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Timmins (K223) (Flower-class).

(Ken Macpherson, Naval Museum of Alberta Photo)

HMCS Wetaskiwin (K175) (Flower-class).

RCN, Misc.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3715774)

RCN warship in drydock, Portsmouth, England facing HMS Victory.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3566929)

RCN sailor operating a Rangefinder, RCN Gunnery School, Halifax, 1940.

Submarines

HMCS U-190 (surrendered and recommissioned U-boat); HMCS U-889 (surrendered and recommissioned U-boat)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3194317)

U-190, 3 Jun 1945, St Johns, Newfoundland.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3191843)

U-190, 3 Jun 1945, St Johns, Newfoundland.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3191501)

U-190, St Johns, Newfoundland, 15 May 1945.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3191842)
U-190 surrender flags, June 1945.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3238913)

U-889 surrender off Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 13 May 1945.
 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3238579)
U-889 off Shelburne, Nova Scotia to the RCB crew of Fairmile Motor Launch Q117, 13 May 1945.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3194315)
U-889 surrender off Shelburne, Nova Scotia, overflown by a Canso from No. 161 Sqn, 13 May 1945.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3229371)
HMCS U-190, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 20 Nov 1947. 

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3191699)

U-744 being boarded by sailors from HMCS Chilliwack, 6 Mar 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3211661)

German two-man "Biber" submarines guarded by two Canadian Military Policemen from No. 1 Provost Coy, CPROC, Ijmuiden, Netherlands, 25 May 1945.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3229360)

German two-man "Biber" submarine, Kiel, Germany, 18 May 1945.  Canadian Army Film & Photo Unit Sgt.

 (Author Photos)

German Second World War Kriegsmarine Molch mini-submarine War Prize, on display in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.  This submarine was brought to Canada by Farley Mowat's Intelligence Collection Team in 1945.

Minesweepers

HMCS Border Cities (J344) (Algerine-class); HMCS Fort Frances (J396) (Algerine-class); HMCS Kapuskasing (J326) (Algerine-class); HMCS Middlesex (J328) (Algerine-class); HMCS New Liskeard (J397) (Algerine-class); HMCS Oshawa (J330) (Algerine-class); HMCS Portage (J331) (Algerine-class); HMCS Rockcliffe (J355) (Algerine-class); HMCS Sault Ste. Marie (J334) (Algerine-class); HMCS St. Boniface (J332) (Algerine-class); HMCS Wallaceburg (J336) (Algerine-class); HMCS Winnipeg (J337) (Algerine-class); HMCS Bayfield (J08) (Bangor-class); HMCS Bellechasse (J170) (Bangor-class); HMCS Blairmore (J314) (Bangor-class); HMCS Brockville (J270) (Bangor-class); HMCS Burlington (J250) (Bangor-class); HMCS Canso (J21) (Bangor-class); HMCS Caraquet (J38) (Bangor-class); HMCS Chedabucto (J168) (Bangor-class); HMCS Chignecto (J160) (Bangor-class); HMCS Clayoquot (J174) (Bangor-class); HMCS Courtenay (J262) (Bangor-class); HMCS Cowichan (J146) (Bangor-class); HMCS Digby (J267) (Bangor-class); HMCS Drummondville (J253) (Bangor-class); HMCS Esquimalt (J272) (Bangor-class); HMCS Fort William (J311) (Bangor-class); HMCS Gananoque (J259) (Bangor-class); HMCS Georgian (J144) (Bangor-class); HMCS Goderich (J260) (Bangor-class); HMCS Granby (J264) (Bangor-class); HMCS Grandmère (J258) (Bangor-class); HMCS Guysborough (J52) (Bangor-class); HMCS Ingonish (J69) (Bangor-class); HMCS Kelowna (J261) (Bangor-class); HMCS Kenora (J281) (Bangor-class); HMCS Kentville (J312) (Bangor-class); HMCS Lachine (J266) (Bangor-class); HMCS Lockeport (J100) (Bangor-class); HMCS Mahone (J159) (Bangor-class); HMCS Malpeque (J148) (Bangor-class); HMCS Medicine Hat (J256) (Bangor-class); HMCS Melville (J263) (Bangor-class); HMCS Milltown (J317) (Bangor-class); HMCS Minas (J165) (Bangor-class); HMCS Miramichi (J169) (Bangor-class); HMCS Mulgrave (J313) (Bangor-class); HMCS Nipigon (J154) (Bangor-class); HMCS Noranda (J265) (Bangor-class); HMCS Outarde (J161) (Bangor-class); HMCS Port Hope (J280) (Bangor-class); HMCS Quatsino (J152) (Bangor-class); HMCS Quinte (J166) (Bangor-class); HMCS Red Deer (J255) (Bangor-class); HMCS Sarnia (J309) (Bangor-class); HMCS Stratford (J310) (Bangor-class); HMCS Swift Current (J254) (Bangor-class); HMCS Thunder (J156) (Bangor-class); HMCS Transcona (J271) (Bangor-class); HMCS Trois-Rivières (J269) (Bangor-class); HMCS Truro (J268) (Bangor-class); HMCS Ungava (J149) (Bangor-class); HMCS Vegreville (J257) (Bangor-class); HMCS Wasaga (J162) (Bangor-class); HMCS Westmount (J318) (Bangor-class); HMCS Comox (J64) (Fundy-class); HMCS Fundy (J88) (Fundy-class); HMCS Gaspe (J94) (Fundy-class); HMCS Nanoose (J35) (Fundy-class); HMCS Alder Lake (J480) (Lake-class); HMCS Ash Lake (J481) (Lake-class); HMCS Beech Lake (J482) (Lake-class); HMCS Birch Lake (J483) (Lake-class); HMCS Cedar Lake (J484) (Lake-class); HMCS Cherry Lake (J485) (Lake-class); HMCS Fir Lake (J486) (Lake-class); HMCS Hickory Lake (J487) (Lake-class); HMCS Larch Lake (J488) (Lake-class); HMCS Maple Lake (J489) (Lake-class); HMCS Oak Lake (J490) (Lake-class); HMCS Pine Lake (J491) (Lake-class); HMCS Poplar Lake (J492) (Lake-class); HMCS Spruce Lake (J493) (Lake-class); HMCS Willow Lake (J495) (Lake-class); HMCS Coquitlam (J364) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS Cranbrook (J372) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS Daerwood (J357) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS Kalamalka (J395) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS Lavallee (J371) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS Llewellyn (J278) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS Lloyd George (J279) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS Revelstoke (J373) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS Rossland (J358) (Llewellyn-class); HMCS St. Joseph (J359) (Llewellyn-class)

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4090375)

HMCS Burlington (J250).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, PA16969)

HMCS Clayoquot (J174).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Esquimalt (J272).

 (Author Photo, 30 Jan 2019)

HMCS Esquimalt (J272) memorial in the town of Esquimalt.

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Goderich (J260) (Bangor-class).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3554190)

HMCS Grandmère (J258) (Bangor-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950902)

HMCS Sault Ste. Marie (J334) (Algerine-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950921)

HMCS Sault Ste. Marie (J334) (Algerine-class).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3554189)

HMCS Vegreville (J257) (Bangor-class).

Armed trawlers

HMCS Anticosti (T274) (Isles class); HMCS Baffin (T275) (Isles class); HMCS Cailiff (T276) (Isles class); HMCS Ironbound (T284) (Isles class); HMCS Liscomb (T285) (Isles class); HMCS Magdalen (T279) (Isles class); HMCS Manitoulin (T280) (Isles class); HMCS Miscou (T277) (Isles class)

Armed Troopship

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo Bo N80)

RMS (HMT) Empress of Canada, Vancouver, BC, 1 June 1936.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3331327)

A Canadian machine gun crew aboard His Majesties Troopship (HMT)  Empress of Canada, taking part in Operation GAUNTLET, the Spitsbergen raid, en route to Spitsbergen, ca. 19-24 August 1941.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3331328)

A Canadian crew aboard His Majesties Troopship (HMT)  Empress of Canada, taking part in Operation GAUNTLET, the Spitsbergen raid, en route to Spitsbergen, ca. 19-24 August 1941

Training schooner

HMCS Venture

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3399223)

HMCS Venture on the right, HMS Seaborn on the left, 19 Aug 1940.

Armed yachts

HMCS Ambler (Q11); HMCS Beaver (S10); HMCS Caribou (S12); HMCS Cougar (Z15); HMCS Elk (S05); HMCS Grizzly (Z14); HMCS Husky (S06); HMCS Lynx (Z07); HMCS Moose (Z14); HMCS Otter; HMCS Raccoon; HMCS Reindeer (S08); HMCS Renard (S13); HMCS Sans Peur (Z02); HMCS Vison (S11); HMCS Wolf (Z16).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Ambler (Q11).

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3589808)

HMCS Ambler (Q11).

(RCN Photo)

HMCS Elk (S05).

 (RCN  Photo)

HMCS Otter.  Lost in a fire, sinking off Halifax on 26 Nov 1941.

Auxiliary

HMCS Adversus (auxiliary); HMCS Alachasse (auxiliary); HMCS Andrée Dupré (auxiliary); HMCS Bras d’Or (auxiliary minesweeper); HMCS Cedarwood (auxiliary); HMCS Dundalk (auxiliary); HMCS Dundurn (auxiliary); HMCS Eastmore (auxiliary); HMCS Fleur de Lis (auxiliary); HMCS French (auxiliary); HMCS Jalobert (auxiliary); HMCS Laurier (auxiliary); HMCS Laymore (auxiliary); HMCS Macdonald (auxiliary); HMCS Macsin (auxiliary); HMCS Marvita (auxiliary); HMCS Mastodon (auxiliary); HMCS Mont Joli (auxiliary); HMCS Moonbeam (auxiliary); HMCS Murray Stewart (auxiliary); HMCS Nitinat (auxiliary); HMCS Norsal (auxiliary); HMCS Preserver (auxiliary); HMCS Provider (auxiliary); HMCS Rayon d’Or (auxiliary); HMCS Reo II (auxiliary); HMCS Ross Norman (auxiliary); HMCS Sankaty (auxiliary); HMCS Shulamite (auxiliary); HMCS Standard Coaster (auxiliary); HMCS Star XVI (auxiliary); HMCS Sunbeam (auxiliary); HMCS Vencedor (auxiliary); HMCS Venosta (auxiliary); HMCS Venture II (auxiliary); HMCS Viernoe (auxiliary); HMCS Whitethroat (auxiliary)

 (RCN Photo)

HMCS Adversus (auxiliary), commissioned 7 Sep 1939, wrecked when she ran aground 20 Dec 1941. 

 (DND Photo)

Sankaty (a.k.a. HMCS Sankaty, a.k.a. Charles A. Dunning) was a propeller-driven steamer purchased in 1940 for ferry service with Northumberland Ferries of Prince Edward Island, but before begining service she was requisitioned by the RCN for service as a minelayer during the Second World War.  She was commissioned on 24 Sep 1940 at Halifax, where she also served as a maintenance vessel.  After the war ended, she was paid off on 18 Aug 1945.  She was renamed Charles A. Dunning, and served from 1946 until 1964 in the waters between Wood Islands, Prince Edward Island and Caribou, Nova Scotia.  During this period her capacity was twenty-three cars and four trucks.  She was sold for scrap in 1964, but sank en route to Sydney, Nova Scotia on 27 Oct 1964.

 

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3567289)

RCN ratings with a mine aboard the minelaying vessel HMCS Sankaty off Halifax, Nova Scotia, March 1941.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3567291)

RCN ratings with a mine aboard the minelaying vessel HMCS. Sankaty off Halifax, Nova Scotia, March 1941.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3567295)

RCN ratings with a mine aboard the minelaying vessel HMCS. Sankaty off Halifax, Nova Scotia, March 1941.

Fisherman’s reserve

HMCS Allaverdy (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS B.C. Lady (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Barkley Sound (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Billow (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Bluenose (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Camenita (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Canfisco (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Cape Beale (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Cancolim (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Capella (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Chamiss Bay (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Combat (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Comber (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Crest (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Dalehurst (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Departure Bay (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Early Field (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Ehkoli (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Fifer (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Flores (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Foam (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Howe Sound I (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Joan W. II (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Johanna (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Kuitan (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Leelo (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Loyal I (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Loyal II (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Maraudor (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Margaret I (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Meander (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Merry Chase (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Mitchell Bay (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Moolock (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Moresby II (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Nenamook (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Ripple II (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS San Tomas (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Santa Maria (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Seiner (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Signal (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Smith Sound(Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Spray (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Springtime V (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Stanpoint (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Surf (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Takla (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Talapus (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Tordo (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Valdes (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Vanisle (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS West Coast (Fisherman’s Reserve); HMCS Western Maid (Fisherman’s Reserve)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3515987)

HMCS Leelo.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 2922325)

HMCS Margaret.

Torpedo boats

HMCS Santa Maria (patrol boat); HMCS San Thomas (patrol boat); HMCS CMTB-1 (torpedo boat); HMCS S-09 (torpedo boat)

(RCN Photo, E-1331)

HMCS Santa Maria.

Motor Torpedo Boats

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, PA144574)

MTB 462, 29th Flotilla, UK, 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950981)

RCN Motor Torpedo Boat MTB 460 at speed, 29th Flotilla, English Channel, ca 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950975)

RCN Motor Torpedo Boats, 29th Flotilla in line-ahead formation, English Channel, ca 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950976)

RCN Motor Torpedo Boats, 29th Flotilla in line-ahead formation, English Channel, ca 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950977)

RCN Motor Torpedo Boats, 29th Flotilla in line-ahead formation, English Channel, ca 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3194301)

MTB ML230 loading landing craft for the raid on Dieppe, Aug 1942.

(RCN Photo)

Fairmile Q065.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3524493)

Fairmile ML106, HMCS Beaver PTC706, built at Grew Boats, Penetanguishene and delivered 28 August 1943.  She served with the 70th Flotilla in Bermuda during the war.  On 28 June 1948, she was assigned to HMCS Star but suffered a serious fire in July of 1949 that required costly repairs. In September of that year she was reclassifed as PTC706 and in 1954 was renamed Beaver.  In May of 1956, she was transferred to HMCS York but was declared surplus in November of 1957 as a result of dry rot.  She was laid up at the Hamilton Harbour Commission and by 1961 was reported to be in ruins.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4166338)

Fairmile ML, NW Europe, damaged harbour, ca 1945.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950984)

Fairmile B, Q060, off the coast of Newfoundland, 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950983)

Fairmile B, Q094, bow Oerlikon AA Gun, off the coast of Newfoundland, 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950982)

Fairmile B, Q094, off the coast of Newfoundland, 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950978)

Fairmile Motor Torpedo Boats, some from the 65th Canadian MTB Flotilla, Great Yarmouth, UK ca 1945.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950863)

Fairmile, Signal lamp and rating, 1943.

RCN Command and Control

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3334452)

RCN Operations Room, St. John's, Newfoundland, 24 Sep 1942.

RCN Beach Commando "W"

The Royal Naval Commando units were a formation of the Royal Navy which served during the Second World War.  The first units were raised in 1942 and by the end of the war, 22 company-sized units had been raised to carry out various tasks associated with establishing, maintaining and controlling beachheads during amphibious operations.  ‘W’ Commando was largely formed from personnel drawn from the Royal Canadian Navy.   They were commanded by an officer of the rank of Lieutenant Commander or Commander, with each company comprised of ten officers and 65 ratings organized into three parties with 25 men in each.

RCN Beach Commandos took part in Operation Neptune during the D-Day landings in Normandy in June 1944.  Here they were involved in establishing and defending the landing beaches against German counterattacks at the same time as carrying out their assigned tasks of controlling the beaches to ensure the steady and efficient flow of supplies and men to the front.  The parties remained in Normandy for about six weeks before they were withdrawn to reconstitute in preparation for further operations.  These operations were limited in scope after the effort of D-Day, but included participation in the assault on Walcheren in the Netherlands.  The Commandos were disbanded at the end of the war.  (More information on the RCN Beach Commando W is listed on a separate page on this web site.

Landing Craft

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 5029582)

Canadian infantrymen embarking on landing craft during a training exercise before Operation JUBILEE, the raid on Dieppe, France. England, 1942.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3194482)

Canadian infantrymen disembarking from a landing craft during a training exercise before Operation JUBILEE, the raid on Dieppe, France. England, August 1942.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3396540)

Landing Craft carrying Canadian troops to Dieppe, 19 Aug 1942.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3378881)

Landing Craft ferrying Canadian troops to Dieppe, France, during Operation JUBILEE, 19 Aug 1942.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3396538)

Landing Craft carrying Canadian troops and a Universal Carrier alongside a destroyer, off the coast of Dieppe, France, during Operation JUBILEE, 19 Aug 1942.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4969644)

Landing Craft (Tank), LC(T)5, derelict on the beach at Dieppe after the raid, Aug 1942.

(City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM54-S4-2-: CVA 371-17)

Demonstration of an assault landing by an LCM (landing craft, mechanized) at Kitsilano Beach during the Diamond Jubilee, on the Pacific Coast, 7 July 1946.

(City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM1545-S3-: CVA 586-2247)

Demonstration of an assault landing by an LCM (landing craft, mechanized) at Kitsilano Beach during the Diamond Jubilee, on the Pacific Coast, 7 July 1946.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3516224)

Landing Craft Infantry with R22eR soldiers, Catanzaro Marina, Italy, 16 Sep 1943.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3964057)

Infantry in a light landing craft, ca 1943.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821092)

Landing craft with support ship, 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950966)

Landing Craft, Infantry (Large) LIC(L) 125 heading away from the beach, Normandy, with a Landing Craft Assault passing it. June 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950959)

Landing Craft Assault (LCA) 518, Normandy, 6 June 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950961)

Landing Craft Infantry (Large) heading toward the beaches at Normandy, 6 June 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950955)

Landing Craft Infantry (Large), 125, Normandy, 6 June 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950963)

Landing Craft Infantry (Large), alongside LCI(L) 252,, Normandy, 6 June 1944.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3303867)

Landing Craft Infantry (Large), RCN Oerlikon 20-mm AA gunner, UK, May 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950962)

Landing Craft (Tank), Normandy beaches, 6 June 1944.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950953)

Landing Craft, Infantry (Large) LCI(L) port view at Normandy invasion.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950954)

Landing Craft, Infantry (Large) LCI(L) port view at Normandy invasion.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3408540)

Landing Craft Infantry (Large), LCI (L) 299, delivering troops of the 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade (Stormont, Dundas, and Glengarry Highlanders) going ashore at Bernières-sur-mer, Normandy, France, 6 June 1944.

Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) guns in action

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3356796)

Twin .50 cal Machine Guns, shipboard.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950885)

Twin Vickers Machine Gun mountings on an RCN Minesweeper, ca 1945.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950802)

Quad Machine Guns, shipboard.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3356795)

Ordnance QF 12-pounder 12-cwt Mk V (3-inch-40) BL Gun with shield aboard ship.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3566993)

QF 2-pounder pom-pom, Vickers, Sons & Maxim LL Machine Gun Mk. I weight (410 lbs), VSM 1905 manned on an RCN destroyer, 1940.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3598672)

Naval gunners loading 4-inch shells.

Coastal Defence and Shipboard Guns preserved in Canada

 (Author Photo)

6-inch Gun Mk VII (Serial No. l346), used for coastal defence, photo taken at Point Pleasant Park.  This gun has been re-located to McNab's Island, as of March 2005

Naval Guns on display in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario

 (Author Photo)

Oerlikon 20-mm AA Gun Mk 4 on RCN Mk V Mounting.

QF 1-pounder pom-pom, Vickers-Maxim Mk I Automatic Gun.

 (Author Photo)

QF 1¼-pounder pom-pom, Vickers-Maxim Mk III Automatic Gun from CGS Canada.

QF 2-pounder Mk VIII Gun on Single Mounting from HMCS Kamloops.

Ordnance QF 40-mm Bofors L/60 gun in Mk VC Boffin Mounting.

 (Author Photo)

Ordnance QF 40-mm Bofors AA Gun Mk XI in Twin RP50 Mk IV Mounting.

BL 4-inch Gun Mk XXI, on High Angle Mk XXIV Single Mounting.

 (Author Photos)

BL 4-inch Gun Mk XVI, on Mk XIX Twin High Angle Mounting, 1942, from HMCS Victoriaville.

Squid Anti-submarine Mortar Mk IV.

FMC 3-inch/50 Twin Gun Mk 33, HMCS QuAppelle McKenzie class destroyer.