Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Japanese Warplanes of the Second World War preserved, Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

Warplanes of the Second World War preserved

Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu fighter/ground attack aircraft, codenamed "Nick" by the Allies, being examined by an RAF Officer.  This was one of a number of aircraft abandoned at Kallang Airport, Singapore, Sep 1945.  (RAF Photo)

Air Technical Intelligence on Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service Warplanes of the Second World War

During and after the Second World War British Commonwealth, American and French forces engaged in air technical intelligence (ATI) collection and evaluation of captured Japanese aircraft. Allied ATI units were established at Calcutta in India in 1943 and at Saigon in French Indo-China in 1945.  The Calcutta unit collected and examined a number of badly damaged aircraft.  A few relatively complete aircraft were acquired, including examples of the Mitsubishi Ki-21-Ia (Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model 1A), codename “Sally”, Nakajima Ki-43-1A (Army Type 1 Fighter Model 1A Hayabusa (Peregrine Falcon)), codename “Oscar”, Mitsubishi Ki-46-III (Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1), codename “Dinah”, and Kawasaki Ki-48 (Army Type 99 Twin-engine Light Bomber Model 1A), codename “Lily.”  After the end of the war, collection continued and flyable examples of the Nakajima Ki-44-1a (Army Type 2 Single-seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki), codename “Tojo”, the Mitsubishi J2M3  Interceptor Fighter Raiden (Thunderbolt) Model 11), codename “Jack”, the Mitsubishi G4M3 (Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 11), codename “Betty”, and the Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke” were obtained and flown.  The Saigon unit obtained a number of flyable aircraft that were on surrendered Japanese airfields in French Indo-China.  Many of the aircraft collected ended up as museum pieces.

The information found on this webpage is current to 10 Dec 2016.

Mitsubishi A6M3 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 22, coded 105, flown by Japanese air ace Nishizawa.  (IJNAF Photo)

Japanese War Prizes in England

Several impressive Japanese aircraft are displayed at the Aerospace Museum at RAF Cosford in the UK.  The museum’s collection of Japanese aircraft comprises the only remaining Japanese aircraft transported to the UK after the Second World War.  At the end of the war, towards the end of 1945 a number of aircraft made up of Japanese Naval and Japanese Air force planes surrendered at Tebrau, a Japanese wartime airstrip in Malaysia.  The planes were flown by Japanese air-crews.  The British applied nationality markings and the acronym Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit - South East Asia (ATAIU-SEA).

Mitsubishi A6M5 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter, Model 52, coded BI-I2, in flight with ATAIU-SEA markings.  (RAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M3 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter cockpit in the RAF Museum, Duxford, England, still carrying its ATAIU-SEA markings.  (Mark Harkin Photo)

Mitsubishi Ki-46-III Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane (C/N 5439), 8484M, of the 81st Sentai, 3rd Chutai IJAAF, codenamed "Dinah", at RAF Cosford, England.  In 1944-45, during the last days of the war, it was modified as a high altitude interceptor, with two 20-mm cannons in the nose and one 37-mm cannon in an "upwards-and-forwards" firing position.   It was stationed in British Malaya before its shipment to England in 1946, and is now on display at RAF Cosford, England.  (Tony Hisgett Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-100, RAF Museum Cosford, England.  (Paul Richter Photo, left, Aldo Bidini Photo right)

At the end of the Second World War, 64 Japanese aircraft were selected for shipment to the UK, but due to limited shipping space only 4 made it to the UK.  These four aircraft included a Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter) codename “Zeke”, (the cockpit is now in the IWM), a Mitsubishi Ki-46-III (Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1), codename “Dinah”, 5439, a Kawasaki Ki-100-1a (Army Type 5 Fighter Model 1A), and a Kyushu K9W1 (Navy Type 2 Primary Trainer Momiji), codename “Cypress” (scrapped after accidental fire damage).  The Ki-46 and Ki-100 are today on display at the AMC.  The aircraft were sent via ship to No 47 MU, Sealand, for crating and storage, in February 1947.  In November 1985 they were transferred to RAF museum reserve collection RAF St Athan, before being moved to RAF Cosford in June 1989.  These aircraft were: Kawasaki Ki-100-1b (Army Type 5 Fighter Model 1A) (Serial No. 8476M); Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka Model 11 (Tail Number I-13); Mitsubishi Ki-46-III (Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1), codename “Dinah”  (Serial No. 5439); a Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, and a Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke” (Manufacture Number 3685), Tail Number Y2-176).  (Source: Steve Dodd, Cosford museum member)

Japanese Warplanes with RAF ATAIU-SEA markings

Mitsubishi A6M5 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 52 in flight, RAF, Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit, South East Asia.  'B1-12' is shown here bing operated by ATAIU-SEA at Tebrau, Malaya in 1946.  Once thought to be applied by the British the tail number is now known to be IJN original  and identifies IJN Air Group 381.  A second Zeke marked 'B1-01' was a  former 381 Ku Raiden in ATAIU-SEA ownership at Tebrau, Malaya.  (RAF Photo)

Japanese Mitsubishi A6M5 Type 0 Model 52 (Serial No. 1303), codenamed "Zeke", RAF, TAIC 11, metal finish.  This aircraft was captured on Saipan.  The legend 'AI 2G . . .' appears beneath the 'Technical Air Intelligence Center' beneath the cockpit.  This was the Air Ministry section responsible for German and Japanese air intelligence.  This aircraft was scheduled for delivery to ATAIU-SEA in India but it was eventually sent to the USA.  (RAF Photo)

 

Captured Mitsubishi G4M2 bomber, F1-11, codenamed "Betty", RAF, Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit, South East Asia ATAIU-SEA).  (RAF Photos)

Mitsubishi J2M Raidens, codenamed Jack, of the 381 K?k?tai in British Malaya being tested and evaluated by Japanese naval aviators under close supervision of RAF officers from Seletar Airfield in December 1945.  RAF, Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit, South East Asia (ATAIU - SEA).  (RAF Photos)

Captured Japanese Warplanes flown by the TAIU-SWPA in Australia

Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter, ready for testing at Brisbane, Australia.  (RAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M3 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter (Serial No. 3844), wearing green surrender crosses at Bougainville, Solomon Islands, Sep 1945; note missing stabilizer on aircraft and jeep in background.  This aircraft was restored by the Aukland Air Museum, New Zealand, where it is currently on display.  (State Library of Queensland, Australia Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M5 "Zeke" (Serial No. 3835) was captured at Kara, Bougainville and later shipped to New Zealand.  Reg No. NZ6000, it is displayed at the War Memorial Museum in Aukland, New Zealand.

Mitsubishi A6M3 "Hamp 1" rebuilt and test flown by the Technical Air Intelligence Unit (TAIU) at Eagle Farm, Brisbane, Australia.  (RAAF Photo)

In early 1943 the TAIU in Australia rebuilt a Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter, using parts of five different aircraft captured at Buna, New Guinea.  The completed aircraft was test flown; the flights included mock combat against a Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V.  It was concluded that the “Zeke” was superior to the Spitfire below 20,000 feet.  In late 1943 the “Zeke” was shipped to the United States aboard the escort carrier USS Copahee.  It went to Wright Field where it was flown and evaluated.

Other Japanese aircraft acquired by the TAIU in Australia included two Nakajima Ki-43-1A (Army Type 1 Fighter Model 1A Hayabusa (Peregrine Falcon)), codename “Oscar”, and a Kawasaki Ki-61-II (Army Type 3 Fighter Model 1 Hien (Swallow)), codename “Tony”.  The “Oscars” were test flown in Australia in March and April 1944, and the “Tony” was shipped to NAS Anacostia later in 1944.

In June 1944 the US Navy personnel at the TAIU in Australia were transferred to NAS Anacostia and became the cadre for an expanded Technical Air Intelligence Center.  Collection of Japanese aircraft continued in 1943, 1944, and 1945, for analysis by the US Navy and the USAAF.  TAIUs operated in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, China, and, after the end of hostilities, in Japan.  Personnel of the Royal Australian Air Force participated, as they had earlier in the war.

Mitsubishi G4M2 bomber, codenamed "Betty", found at the end of the war.  (USAAF Photo)

Captured Japanese airfields, particularly in the Philippines, were especially fruitful.  Many of the aircraft were shipped to the United Stated by escort carriers.  Their destinations were usually NAS Anacostia, Wright Field, or Freeman Field, Indiana. 

Nakajima Ki-44-1a (Army Type 2 Single-seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki), (Serial No. 2068), codenamed “Tojo”, in the Philippines in TAIU-SWPA S11, USAAF markings.  It is shown here being tested by TAIU-SWPA at Clark Field in the Philippines in 1945 in natural metal finish with pre-war rudder stripes.  The uncoded serial number of this aircraft was 1068 and it was manufactured in July 1944.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-44-1a (Army Type 2 Single-seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki), (Serial No. 1747), codenamed “Tojo”, in the Philippines, Feb 1944.  (USAAF Photo)

Japanese aircraft acquired during those years included examples of the Mitsubishi A6M7 Model 63 Zero-Sen, (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codenamed “Zeke”, Kawasaki Ki-61-II (Army Type 3 Fighter Model 1 Hien (Swallow)), codenamed “Tony”, Nakajima Ki-44-1a (Army Type 2 Single-seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki), codename “Tojo”, Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 Navy Interceptor Fighter Shaiden KAI, codenamed “George”, Nakajima Ki-84-Ia (Army Type 4 Fighter Model 1A Hayate (Gale)), codenamed “Frank”, Mitsubishi J2M3 (Navy Interceptor Fighter Raiden (Thunderbolt) Model 11), codenamed “Jack”, and Kawasaki Ki-45 (Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter Model A Toryu (Dragon Slayer)), codenamed “Nick” fighters; the Nakajima B5N2 (Navy Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber Model 1), codenamed “Kate”, Nakajima B6N2 (Navy Carrier Attack Bomber Tenzan (Heavenly Cloud)) Model 11), codenamed “Jill”, Yokosuka D4Y1 (Navy Type 2 Carrier Reconnaissance Plane Model 11 Susei (Comet)), codenamed “Judy”, and Mitsubishi G4M3 (Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 11), codenamed “Betty” bombers; the Douglas DC-3 L2D2/5, codenamed “Tabby” transport, and the Mitsubishi Ki-46-III (Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1), codenamed “Dinah” reconnaissance aircraft.  Some underwent flight evaluation.

After the conclusion of the Pacific War, most surviving Japanese aircraft were destroyed where they lay, usually by burning.  Those machines in more isolated areas were simply left to rot, often stripped of useful components by the indigenous population.   Some examples were shipped to Allied nations (primarily Australia, England and the United States) for technical study, but by the 1950s most of these had been sold for scrap.   With the rise of interest in aviation history during the 1970s, the surviving examples of Japanese Navy Air Force (JNAF) and Japanese Army Air Force (JAAF) aircraft were often repaired, restored, and placed on public display.  A few additional examples were recovered from former war zones and, in a few cases, renovated to high standards.  There are doubtless many more still corroding in jungle areas or under the sea which may one day be recovered and restored.[1]

“The Japanese Army and Navy forces as organizations were progressively demobilized and disbanded as soon as practical after their surrender in August 1945.  This short three-part article outlines the corresponding fate of their aircraft, a story beginning with the formation of Technical Air Intelligence Units (TAIUs) during 1943.”

“As in Europe, the Allies in the Pacific theatre were also keen to learn as much as possible about their opponents’ equipment. With Americans having the major involvement there, it was appropriate that they predominated in all such evaluation, particularly in respect of captured aircraft. It was agreed in this regard that the US Navy would lead a technical air intelligence joint organization which included USAAF, RAF and RN representatives.”

“Thereafter, the first TAIU was set up as a joint USAAF/USN/RAAF organization in Australia in early 1943.  This particular unit absorbed a small team from the Directorate of Intelligence, HQ Allied Forces, who were developing the Code Name system for Japanese aircraft they had started in 1942.  A second, known as the Allied TAIU for South East Asia (ATAIU-SEA), followed in Calcutta in late 1943 as a joint RAF/USAAF Allied unit.  Then, in mid 1944, the USN personnel from the TAIU in Australia were withdrawn to NAS Anacostia, near Washington DC, to become the TAIC (Technical Air Intelligence Centre), whose purpose was to centralise and co-ordinate work of test centres in the United States with work of TAIUs in the field.”

“The operation in Australia was reformed to function thereafter as TAIU for the South West Pacific Area (TAIU-SWPA) and eventually moved to the Philippines in early 1945.  Two other operations were also set up, TAIU for the Pacific Ocean Area (TAIU-POA) as a USN unit to trawl the various Pacific Islands for aircraft and TAIU for China (TAIU-CHINA) under control of Chiang Kai Shek’s Nationalists.”

“Aircraft test flown by the TAIUs before cessation of hostilities in August 1945:

TAIU (Australia) - approximately 5; TAIU-SWPA (Philippines) - over 20; ATAIU-SEA – None; TAIU- POA - None, but 14 sent to TAIC; TAIU-CHINA – 1; and, TAIC - at least 11.”

“When war ended the Allies felt it necessary to assess the state of technological development still remaining intact in Japan.  Although work of other TAIUs ended speedily, that of ATAIU-SEA and TAIU-SWPA continued to gather selected material for further evaluation; in order to do this the former moved to Singapore, with a flying unit at Tebrau in Malaya, and the latter to Japan itself.”

“There were two periods of so-called green cross flights by Japanese aircraft after capitulation.  The first lasted from about 19th August to 12th September 1945, covering flights of surrender delegations and flights of surrendering aircraft to assembly points.  The second period lasted from 15th September to 10th October 1945, covering general communications and taking surrender details to outlying forces. The longest survivors of these operations were probably those few that found their way into the Gremlin Task Force (see Part 3); the rest were destroyed.”

“By early 1946 ATAIU-SEA in Singapore had gathered some 64 Army and Navy aircraft, most in flyable condition, for shipment to the UK for further evaluation.  An unknown number of these aircraft were actually test flown at Tebrau. Lack of shipping space prevented this shipment and only four eventually arrived in England for Museum purposes.  In any event, funds for testing captured war material were by then severely restricted and most such work already stopped.”

“By the end of 1945 TAIU-SWPA teams had scoured the Japanese mainland and other territories to gather together in Yokohama Naval Base four examples of every Japanese aircraft type never previously tested by the Allies; one of each was to be for the USAAF, USN, RAF and Museum purposes.”

“In the event, those for the RAF have not been accounted for and of the remainder some 115 arrived in America during December 1945, 73 to Army bases and 42 to Naval bases.  Once again funds and interest for further testing were drying up rapidly and only six of the aircraft were actually flown there, four by the Army and two by the Navy.  Out of the 115 total, plus 11 TAIC aircraft already there, 46 are in US Museums, about two thirds of the remainder were scrapped and the rest are probably still corroding away somewhere out of sight.”[1]


[1] Data from an article by Peter Starkings, originally published in JAS Jottings, 1/3, 1995.

USN and USAAF Air Technical Intelligence Units in the Pacific Theatre

The US Navy was also engaged in ATI in the Pacific Theatre[1].  A joint ATI group with members from the US Navy, US Army Air Forces, Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), and Royal Navy was formed in Australia in 1942.  Later, some US Navy personnel of the group were withdrawn to the United States where they formed a Technical Air Intelligence Unit (TAIU) at Naval Air Station Anacostia, near Washington, DC.  The Anacostia TAIU was supported by other Navy air stations such as those at North Island, San Diego, California, and Patuxent River, Maryland.

Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 22, coded V-173, shown where it crash-landed on a beach en route from Taiwan to Saigon in 26 November 1941.  This aircraft was removed by the Chinese forces and hidden until it could be assessed by Allied Intelligence, becoming USAAF EB-2, later EB-200.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 22, coded V-173, restored and parked on an airfield in China.  It was shipped to the USA where it was designated USAAF EB-2, later EB-200.  (USAAF Photo)

 

Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 22, coded V-173, USAAF EB-2, later EB-200.  (USAAF Photos)

On 26 November 1941, a Japanese Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 22, (Serial No. 3372), coded V-173 of the Tainan Naval Air Corps force landed near Teitsan airfield.  It was made airworthy at Kinming by American engineers and flown in Chinese markings with the number P-5016.  Coded EB-2, this aircraft eventually made its way to Wright Field in July 1943, and was renumbered EB-200.[2]

Mitsubishi A6M2 "Zeke" Navy Type 0 in early IJN markings.  (IJN Photos)

On 3 June 1942, Flight Petty Officer Tadayoshi Koga left the flight deck of the IJN Carrier Ryujo in his Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 fighter as part of a task force assigned to attack Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands.  His A6M2, which had been built in February, was on its first operational mission.  On his way back to the Ryujo, Koga found that two bullets had punctured his fuel supply and he informed his flight commander that he intended to land on Akutan Island, designated as an emergency landing field.  Koga did not make the landing field and instead made a forced landing in a marsh.  The aircraft flipped over, breaking the pilot’s neck and killing him.  Five weeks later, a US Navy Consolidated PBY Catalina, making a routine patrol, discovered the Japanese fighter upside down in the marsh. 

Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” (Serial No. 4593), Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 21, coded DI-108, being recovered from its crash site on Akutan Island, Alaska by USAAF forces.  This aircraft was designated TAIC 1.  (USAAF Photos)

Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” (Serial No. 4593), Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 21, coded DI-108, designated TAIC 1.  (USN Photo)

This single fighter was probably one of the greatest prizes of the Pacific war.  Hardly damaged, it was recovered by US Navy personnel and shipped to Naval Air Station (NAS) North Island, California, where it was repaired and exhaustively tested.  It was first flown at North Island in September 1942.  Over the next several months it made mock combat flights against US Navy Grumman F-4F Wildcat and Vought F4U Corsair aircraft and USAAF Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Bell P-39 Airacobra, Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, and North American P-51 Mustang aircraft.  The pilots of the USAAF aircraft were from the Proving Ground at Eglin Field, Florida.  Information gathered during testing of the A6M2 prompted the American aircraft manufacturer Grumman, to lighten the Grumman F4F Wildcat and to install a larger engine on the Grumman F6F Hellcat.[3]

Koga's Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero-Sen Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter (Serial No. 4593), TAIC 1, Anacostia, restored and flown by the USN.  (USN Photos)

Koga’s crashed aircraft, while resurrected temporarily, did not in fact survive the war.  Following its tests by the Navy in San Diego, the Zero was transferred from Naval Air Station North Island to Anacostia Naval Air Station in 1943 (becoming TAIC 1).  In 1944, it was recalled to North Island for use as a training plane for rookie pilots being sent to the Pacific.  As a training aircraft, the Akutan Zero was destroyed during an accident in February 1945 at North Island.  While the Zero was taxiing for a takeoff, a Curtiss SB2C Helldiver lost control and rammed into it.  The Helldiver’s propeller sliced the Zero into pieces.  Only small bits (instruments) still exist in museums in Washington and Alaska.


[1] Data from an article by Peter Starkings, originally published in JAS Jottings, 1/3, 1995.

[2] Phil Butler, War Prizes, p. 165.

[3] Internet: http://www.aviation-history.com/mitsubishi/zero.html.

Japanese Warplanes of the Second World War examined by the USAAF and US Navy

Aichi D3A1 dive-bomber in flight, from the IJN carrier Akagi.  (IJN Photo)

Aichi D3A2, codenamed "Val" on display in wrecked "as found" condition at the National Museum of the Pacific War in Fredericksburg, Texas.  (Author Photo). 

Aichi D3 codenamed "Val".  One is currently under restoration at the Planes of Fame Museum in Chino, California.

Aichi B7A2 Ryusei, codenamed "Grace".  (IJNAF Photo)

Aichi B7A2 Ryusei, codenamed "Grace", (Serial No. 816) captured by the US and test flown in 1946 by the US air intelligence unit ATAIU-SEA.  Shipped to the USA it is shown here in USN markings, No. 52, USAAF FE-1204, currently in storage in the Paul E. Garber facility, Suitland, Maryland.  Aichi B7A2, USAAF FE-1206 was scrapped at Middletown, Pennsylvania.  (USAAF Photos)

Aichi E16A Zuiun (Auspicious Cloud), two-seat Naval reconnaissance floatplane operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy, Allied reporting name "Paul", shown here in USN markings.  There do not appear to be TAIC or FE numbers alloctated for this aircraft.  (USN Photos)

Aichi M6A Seiran (Clear Sky Storm or Mist on a Fair Day) on display in the Paul E. Garber facility, Suitland, Maryland before being moved to the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.  (Author Photo)

Aichi M6A Seiran (Clear Sky Storm or Mist on a Fair Day) on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.  (Eric Salard Photo)

The Aichi M6A Seiran (Clear Sky Storm or Mist on a Fair Day) was a submarine-launched attack floatplane.  It was intended to operate from I-400 class submarines whose original mission was to conduct aerial attacks against the United States.  A single M6A1 has been preserved and resides in the Udvar-Hazy Center of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum.  It is located in the Washington, DC suburb of Chantilly, Virginia near Dulles International Airport.  The Seiran was surrendered to an American occupation contingent by Lt Kazuo Akatsuka of the Imperial Japanese Navy, who ferried it from Fukuyama to Yokosuka.  The US Navy donated it to the Smithsonian Institution in November 1962.  Restoration work on the Seiran began in June 1989 and was completed in February 2000.  There does not appear to be an FE or T2 number for this aircraft.

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan.  (USN Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (code name Nick) in IJAAF service.  (IJAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (code name Nick) captured at Cape Glouster, New Britain in 1944.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (code name Nick) captured by US forces being prepared for flight testing at Clark Field in the Philippines.  This aircraft is possibly (Serial No. 3303), TAIC-SWPA S14 designated USAAF FE-325 and later T2-325, which was scrapped at Freeman Field in 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (Serial No. 3303), codenamed "Nick",TAIC-SWPA S14.  This aircraft was captured at Fujigaya and later shipped to the USA.  It was designated USAAF FE-325 and later T2-325.  This aircraft was test flown at Freeman Field, Ohio until it was scrapped in 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu (Serial No. 4268), codenamed Nick, shipped to the USA and shown here at Middletown Air Depot in 1946.  Designated USAAF FE-701, the fuselage of this aircraft is now on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu (Serial No. 4268), USAAF FE-701, fuselage on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Steven Duhig Photo)

Only one Ki-45 KAIc (Serial No. 4268), FE-701, survives today.  It was one of about 145 Japanese aircraft brought to the United States aboard the carrier USS Barnes for evaluation after the Second World War.  It underwent overhaul at Middletown Air Depot, Pennsylvania, and was test-flown at Wright Field, Ohio, and Naval Air Station Anacostia in Washington, D.C.  The United States Army Air Forces donated the Toryu to the Smithsonian Institution in June 1946.  Only the fuselage is currently on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, alongside the Nakajima J1N and Aichi M6A.

Kawasaki Ki-48 Army Type 99 Twin-engined Light Bomber, codenamed "Lily", IJAAF.  (IJAAF Photo)  

Kawasaki Ki-48 Army Type 99 Twin-engined Light Bomber, codename "Lily" captured by US forces.  This is possibly one of two Ki-48 shipped to the USA.  USAAF FE-1202 scrapped at Middletown or FE-1205, which was scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950.  (USAAF Photo)  

Kawasaki Ki-48 in Chinese Liberation Army Air Force colours on display in the China Aviation Museum in Datangshan.  Some of the parts of the airplane are reproduced.  (Calflieer001 Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-48 is reported to be on display in the Indonesian Air Force Museum.

Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien Army Type 3 Fighters captured at the end of the war.  (IJAAF Photos)

Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien Army Type 3 Fighter captured with flight test markings.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-61-1-Tei Hien Army Type 3 Fighter, captured and flown by USMC VMF 322 at Okinawa in May 1945.  This aircraft is painted in a very colourful finish of dark blue and white with the USMC emblem in red on the vertical fin.  The rudder and fin are painted in red.  (USMC Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-61-1a Ko Hien Army Type 3 Fighter  (Serial No. 263), codenamed Tony.  This aircraft was originally seizou bangou 263 captured at Cape Gloucester and test flown as 'XJ 003'at Eagle Farm, Brisbane, Australia and designated TAIC 9, before being shipped to the USA.  Although seizou bangou (?) is often referred to as a 'serial number' the term means, literally, 'manufacturer production series number' and as stencilled on the airframe was coded by one of three known methods to provide a level of deception about how many aircraft had been produced. This aircraft was shipped to the TAIU at Anacostia in the USA.  It crashed at Yanceyville, North Carolina on 2 July 1945.  (USAAF Photos) 

Kawasaki Ki-61-1a Hien Army Type 3 Fighter  (Serial No. 263) assigned USAAF code number XJ003 and TAIC 9, test flown in the USA post war.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien codenamed “Tony” of 149th Shimbu Unit at Ashiya airfield in Fukuoka, Japan.  (USN Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-61-1a Hien Army Type 3 Fighter  (Serial No. 2210), This aircraft was the last remaining Tony in Japan and was put on display at Yakota Air Base, which is still a functioning USAF base today.  It was initially set up on the base in Japanese markings after being captured at Yakota at the end of the war.  Sometime in 1947, it was deemed offensive to American personnel and repainted in bogus USAF markings (with the new red bar used in USAF flashes after 1 January 1947).  Apparently it was easier to mark them as American at that time than to dispose of them.  In 1953, the Tony was returned to the Japanese people through civilian representatives of the Japan Aeronautic Association (Nippon Kohkuh Kyohkai).  They moved it to Hibiya Park in Tokyo near the Imperial Palace for display.  (USAAF Photo)

Three Kawasaki Ki-61 airframes are known to exist: A Ki-61-II-Kai (Serial No. 5017 ) is on static display at the Tokko Heiwa Kaikan Museum in Chiran Kagoshima Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan.  A Ki-61 (unknown type and serial number) is owned by Kermit Week’s Fantasy of Flight museum at Polk, Florida.  It is currently stored and in need of restoration. A Ki-61-I-Otsu ( Serial No. 640 ) is currently under restoration to flying condition and will become part of the Military Aviation Museum collection in Virginia Beach, Virginia.  Of the three Ki-61s brought to the USA in 1945, USAAF FE-313 and FE-316 were scrapped at park Ridge ca. 1950, and TAIC 9 crashed on 2 July 1945.

Kawaskai Ki-96 Experimental Twin-engine Single-seat fighter.  (IJAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-102b "Randy".  This aircraft has the number 106, which may refer to the loading number for the aircraft carrier that brought it, as one of three Ki-102b which were shipped to the USA.  Ki-102b USAAF FE-308 was scrapped at park Ridge ca. 1950; Ki-102B FE-309 was scrapped at Middletown in 1946, and Ki-102b FE-310 was scrapped at Newark in 1946.  (USAAF Photos)

Nakajima Ki-106, a wooden airframe version of the Ki-84, shipped to the USA where it was designated USAAF FE-301, later T2-301.  This aircraft was an new production prototype produced by Tachikawa in 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

Kawanishi N1K1 Ky?f? (strong wind) (Serial No. unknown), shipped to the USA after the war.  One was designated USAAF FE-324.  It was scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950.  (USN Photo)

The Kawanishi N1K1 Ky?f? (strong wind) (Serial No. 565), on display at NAS Willow Grove.  This aircraft is now with the National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida.  (USN Photo)

 (Author Photo)

Kawanishi N1K Kyofu (strong wind), Allied reporting name “Rex”, on display in immaculate condition at the National Museum of the Pacific War in Fredericksburg, Texas.  The Rex was an Imperial Japanese Navy floatplane fighter.  

Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden (Serial No. 5511), test flown by the TAIU-SWPA, TAIC (S) 7, in USAAF markings. This aircraft crashed at Clark Airfield, Luzon, Philippines, 1945. (USAAF Photo)

Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden (Violet Lightning), (Serial No. 7102), code-named George, TAIC-SWPA, S9, at Clark Field, Luzon, Philippines, 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden (Serial No. 7287) and (Serial No. 7317) were captured and taken to United States on the carrier USS Barnes. The Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service land-based version of the N1K1 floatplane.  Assigned the Allied codename “George”, the N1K1-J was considered by both its pilots and opponents to be one of the finest land-based fighters flown by the Japanese during the Second World War.  The N1K1 possessed a heavy armament and, unusual for a Japanese fighter, could absorb considerable battle damage. 

Kawanishi N1KJ2 USAAF markings being run up with the assistance of Japanese workers.  (USAAF Photo)

At least three Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 aircraft survive in American museums.  Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai (Serial No. 5128) is in the National Museum of Naval Aviation in Pensacola, Florida.  Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai (Serial No. 5312), a fighter-bomber variant equipped with wing mounts to carry bombs, is on display in the Air Power gallery at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio.  The N1K2-Ja is painted as an aircraft in the Yokosuka K?k?tai, an evaluation and test unit.  Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai (Serial No. 5341), USAAF FE-305 is on display at the National Air and Space Museum’s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.

Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai Model 21 (Serial No. 5312) on display in the National Museum of the USAF.  (NMUSAF Photo)

Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 (Serial No. 5128), USAAF FE-306 on display in the National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida.  (Greg Goebel Photo)

Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 (Serial No. 5128), USAAF FE-306 on display in the National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida.  (Dick Jenkins Photo)

Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21, on display in the Shikoku Museum, Japan.   This is an authentic N1K2-J Shiden-Kai from the 343 squadron.  After the aircraft was damaged in battle, its pilot landed on 24 July 1945 in the waters of the Bungo Channel, but he was never found; by the time of the aircraft’s recovery from the seabed in the 1970s, he could be identified only as one of six pilots from the 343 squadron who disappeared that day.  (Kintaro Photo)

Kawanishi H6K Type 97 seaplane, code-named Mavis wearing green surrender crosses.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-100-1b Type 5 fighter.  One was shipped to the UK.  Four were shipped to the USA, Ki-100-1b designated USAAF FE-312 was scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950, Ki-100-1b (Serial No. 13012), FE-314 was broken up at Patterson AFB in 1959, FE-315 was scrapped, and FE-317 was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950.  (IJAAF Photos)

 

Kawasaki Ki-108 Experimental High Altitude fighter, codenamed "Randy".  (IJAAF Photo)

Kugisho P1Y1-C Ginga in USAAF markings.  Three Kugisho (Yokosuka) P1Y1 were shipped to the USA in 1945, USAAF FE-170 and FE-1701 were scrapped at Newark.  Kugisho P1Y1 (Serial No. 8923), FE-1702 is stored with the NASM.  (USAAF Photo) 

Kyushu J7W1 Shinden, found at the factory where it was built in Japan in 1945.  One J7W1 Shinden was shipped to the USA, USAAF FE-326.  This aircraft is preserved in the Smithsonian Institution.  (USAAF Photos)

Kyushu Q1W1 patrol bomber, codenamed "Lorna" in USAAF markings.  Four Kyushu Q1W1 were shipped to the USA for flight testing in 1945.  Kyushu Q1W1, USAAF FE-4800 was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950, FE-4805 was scrapped at Middletown, FE-4810 and FE-4811 were scrapped at Newark.  (USAAF Photo)

Kokusai Ki-86A (Allied code name "Cypress") in 1945. This plane was a German Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann which was licence-produced in Japan.  Approximately 1037 Ki-86s were built for the Imperial Japanese Air Force and 339 Kyushu K9W1 for the Imperial Japanese Navy.  (USN Photo)

Kyushu K9W1 Navy Type 2 Primary Trainer Momiji, codenamed “Cypress” built for the Imperial Japanese Navy.  One was collected by the RAF and flown at the ATAIU-SEA airfield at Tebrau, Malaya in 1945.  It was scrapped after accidental fire damage.

Kawanishi H8K2  (Nishiki Hik?tei), Type 2 flying boat (Serial No. 426) in Washington State post war.  Four H8K2 aircraft survived until the end of the war.  One of these, an H8K2 (Serial No. 426), was captured by U.S. forces at the end of the war and was evaluated before being eventually returned to Japan in 1979.  It was on display at Tokyo's Museum of Maritime Science until 2004, when it was moved to Kanoya Air Base in Kagoshima.  (USN Photo)

Kawanishi H8K2  (Nishiki Hik?tei), Type 2 flying boat (Serial No. 426), codenamed "Emily"on display outdoors at the Kanoya Museum, Japan.  (Max Smith Photo)

The submerged remains of an H8K can be found off the west coast of Saipan, where it is a popular scuba diving attraction.  Another wrecked H8K lies in Chuuk Lagoon, Chuuk, in Micronesia.  This aircraft is located off the south-western end of Dublon Island.

Mitsubishi F1M1 floatplanes in IJNAF service,  (IJNAF/USN Photos)

Mitsubishi B5M code named Ann folding its wings, IJNAF.  (IJNAF Photo)

Mitsubishi Ki-46-II Army Type 100 Air Defence Fighter (Serial No. 2846), codenamed "Dinah".  This aircraft was captured at Hollandia in New Guinea is Sep 1944 and made airworthy by the 13th BS, 3rd BG whose "Grim Reaper" insignia was applied to the nose.   It was assigned code TAIC 10 and is shown here in USAAF markings before being shipped to USA.  It was test flown at Patuxtent, NAS Anacostia and Eglin AFB.  Five Dinahs were brought to the USA, including Ki-46-III, USAAF FE-4801 and FE-4802 both scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950, FE-4806 scrapped at Newark, FE-4807 scrapped at Middletown and Ki-46-IV, FE-4812 scrapped at Middletown.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi Ki-46 Army Type 100, reconnaissance aircraft captured by the Soviet Union.  (G.F.Petrova Archive)

Mitsubishi Ki-51-1 Type 99 Assault Plane, code named "Sonia".  On the day Hiroshima was destroyed by an atomic bomb, two Ki-51s scored the last Japanese victory against US submarines.   Two depth charges hit USS Bullhead (SS-332), in which she later exploded and sank with all hands.  This sinking was confirmed as the 52nd USN submarine lost during the war.  (USN Photo)

Mitsubishi  Ki-51-1 Type 99 assault plane, Allied code name "Sonia", captured at Keningau and flown to Labuan island by 4 Sqn, RAAF.  The aircraft is coded QE-? on the vertical fin.  (AWM Photo P00014 013/Brendan Cowan)

Mitsubishi A5M Type 96 carrier-borne fighter, codednamed "Claude".  (IJNAF Photo)

Pearl Harbor

On 07:48 on Sunday morning, 7 Dec 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy launched a carrier borne air attack in two waves against the USN warships and USAAF aircraft and installations based on the island of Oahu including Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.  The Japanese General Staff variously named the plans for the attack as the “Hawaii Operation”, “Operation AI” and “Operation Z” by the Japanese was a surprise military strike on the morning of December 7, 1941.

The object of the attack was to disable the American Pacific Battle Fleet and to prevent or delay American intervention against Imperial Japanese Navy operations planned for the territories of the British, Dutch and French colonial empires in Southeast Asia.  There were simultaneous Japanese attacks on the US-held Philippines and on the British forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong. 

Aichi D3A from the IJN Carrier Akagi.  (IJN Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M2 Zeke from the IJN Carrier Zuikaku.  (IJNAF Photo)

Nakajima B5N2 torpedo bomber, code-named Kate.  (IJNAF Photo)

The US naval base at Pearl Harbor was attacked by 353 Japanese aircraft including Mitsubishi A6M2 Zeke fighters, Aichi D3A Val dive bombers and Nakajima B5N Kate torpedo planes in two waves, launched from six IJN aircraft carriers.

Four US Navy battleships were sunk and four others damaged.  Three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship and one minelayer were also sunk or crippled.  The Japanese air attack also concentrated on surrounding airfields, where 188 US aircraft and hangers were destroyed.  Casualties on the ground were calculated at 2,402 men killed and a further 1,282 wounded.  The Japanese lost 29 aircraft and five midget submarines, with 65 servicemen killed or wounded.  One Japanese sailor was captured.

The attack on Pearl Harbor immediately propelled the United States into conflict with Japan and its Axis allies, both in the Pacific and in Europe.

Photograph from a Japanese plane of Battleship Row at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on the USS Oklahoma.  Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over the USS Neosho and one over the Naval Yard.

Photographs taken from the air by other Japanese aircraft during the attack on Pearl Harbor.  (IJNAF Photos)

Mitsubishi A6M Zeke wreckage being recovered from Pearl Harbor, one of the 29 IJNAF aircraft shot down during the 7 Dec 1941 attack.  (USN Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M Zero-Sen Navy Type Zero Carrier Fighter (61-131), 29, test flown in the USA in 1944.  (USAAF Photos)

Mitsubishi A6M2 (Serial No. 4593) Zero-Sen Navy Type Zero Carrier Fighter, TAIC 1.  North Island NAS, fall 1944, after the plane was flown back to California from Anacostia NAS, and used as a training tool by the ComFAirWest training operation flying against squadrons headed west.  It was damaged at NAS North Island on 10 Feb 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero-Sen Navy Type Zero Carrier Fighter Model 52 (Serial No. 2193), TAIC 8.  This is the Zero that is presently displayed at the National Air & Space Museum hanging from the 2nd Floor, Second World War gallery.  This particular Zeke was built by Mitsubishi in or around December 1943.  It was originally assigned to the 261st K?k?tai with tail code 61-108.  It was one of 12 captured by the USMC at Aslito Airfield, Saipan in March 1944.  American intelligence coded this aircraft as TAIC 8.  In the USA, this Zero was transported to the USAAF test organization at Wright Field, Ohio.  Late in 1945 it was relocated at Eglin Field, Florida.  This colour photo was taken in the US some months after the Second World War had ended.  (USAAF Photo)

 

Mitsubishi A6M5 (Serial No. 4340) Zero-Sen Navy Type Zero Carrier Fighter, TAIC 7, with partial Japanese and USAAF FE-130, later T2-130 markings.  This aircraft is now on display in the NASM, Washington, D.C.

Mitsubishi A6M5 "Zeke" in IJNAF service.  (IJNAF Photos)

Mitsubish A6M5 "Zeke" (Serial No. unknown).  This aircraft was shipped to the USA, where it was designated USAAF FE-323.  It was loaned to the University of Kansas in 1946.  Its subsequent fate is unknown.   (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M5 (Seerial No. 4340), Zero-Sen, coded 61-131, TAIC 7, USAAF FE-130, later T2-130, on display in the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C.  (350z33 Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero-Sen Navy Type Zero Carrier Fighter in modified USN markings, EB-201.  (USN Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 fighters captured at Atsugi Naval Air Base in Japan at the end of the war.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M2 abandoned on an airfield in Japan being examined by American soldiers,  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 on display at the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan.  (Momotarou2012 Photos)

Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 21 on display in the Yamato Museum, Japan.  (CC-BY-3.0 Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 21 (Serial No. 4168), on display at the Yasukuni War Museum, Japan.  (CC-BY-3.0 Photo)

Several Zero fighters survived the war.  Those on display in Japan include one in Aichi, Tokyo’s Yasukuni War Museum, one in Kure’s Yamato Museum, Hamamatsu, one with the MCAS Iwakuni, and and one at Shizuoka.  One is on display in Beijing, China.  The Museum Dirgantara Mandala in Yogyakarta, Indonesia also has an A6M in its collection.

Mitsubishi A6M2 Reisen, preserved in the National Museum of the USAF, Dayton, Ohio.  (NMUSAF Photo)


Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 on display at the Pacific Aviation Museum, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.  (J.J. Messerly Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 on display at the Pacific Aviation Museum, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.  (Simon sees Photo)

This aircraft was made airworthy in the early 1980s before it was grounded in 2002.  A6M2 Model 21 Zero Nakajima Manufacture Number 500, built by Nakajima in December, 1942, this aircfraft served with Air Group 201 of the 24th Air Flotilla in the Solomon Islands.  It was abandoned to the jungles of Ballale Island due to combat damage.  Recovery and restoration began in 1964.  It was repowered by an American Pratt and Whitney R-1830, and used to depict BII-120 which pilot Shigenori Nishikaichi flew from carrier Hiryu in the attack Pearl Harbor.  The original BII-120 landed on Niihau after running low on fuel and was destroyed with some fragments remaining.  Authentic markings correspond to BI-120, Manufacture number 2262.

Zero fighters preserved in the United States include one in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C, one in the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Dayton, Ohio, one in the National Museum of Naval Aviation at Pensacola, Florida, one in the Pacific Aviation Museum in Honolulu, Hawaii, one in the San Diego Air and Space Museum, San Diego, California and one in the Flying Heritage Collection, Evrett, Washington.

Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 21, Reg. No. N3852 with the Flying Heritage Collection, Evrett, Washington.  (Ken Fielding Photos)

The remains of a Zero still carrying its TAIU-SEA markings are preserved in the RAF Museum at Duxford, England and another is preserved in New Zealand’s Auckland War Memorial Museum. 

Mitsubishi A6M2-21, V-173, retrieved as a wreck after the war and later found to have been flown by Sabur? Sakai at Lae, on display inside the Australian War Memorial in Canberra., Australian.  (CC-BY-3.0 Photo) 

Another aircraft recovered by the Australian War Memorial Museum in the early 1970s now belongs to Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida.  Along with several other Zeros, it was found near Rabaul in the South Pacific.  The markings suggest that it was in service after June 1943 and further investigation suggests that it has cockpit features conducive to the Nakashima built Model 52b.  If this is correct, it is most likely one of the 123 aircraft lost by the Japanese during the assault of Rabaul.  The aircraft was shipped in pieces to the attraction and it was eventually made up for display as a crashed aircraft.  Much of the aircraft is usable for patterns and some of its parts can be restored to one day make this a basis for a flyable aircraft.

Mitsubishi A6M6c Type 0 Model 53c Zero, Camarillo Airport Museum, Camarillo, California. This is one of only three flying Zeros in the world.  Bruce Fenstermacher found this aircraft in New Guinea in 1991 at the abandoned Babo airfield.  This airplane was used in the filming of the movie Pearl Harbor.  (CAM Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M6c Type 0 Model 53c Zero, EII, California.  (Kevin Collins Photos)

Only four flyable Zero airframes exist; three have had their engines replaced with similar American units; only one, the Planes of Fame Museum’s A6M5 bearing tail number “61-120” (recovered from Saipan) has the original Sakae engine.

Mitsubishi A6M5 Type 0 (Serial No. 5357), coded “61-120”, was recovered from Saipan in 1945.  This aircraft still has its original Sakae engine.  This aircraft was coded TAIC 5 and test flown at NAS Anacostia.  It is currently flying as Reg No. NX46770, with the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.  (USN Photos)

Mitsubishi A6M5 Type 0 (Serial No. 5357), coded “61-120”, TAIC 5, Reg No. NX46770, painted X-133, on display at the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.  (Armchair Aviator's Photo)

Although not a survivor, the “Blayd” Zero is a reconstruction based on templating original Zero components recovered from the South Pacific.  In order to be considered a “restoration” and not a reproduction, the builders used a small fraction of parts from the original Zero landing gear in the reconstruction.  Restored as an A6M2 Model 21, it is currently owned by the Texas Flying Legends Museum.

Mitsubishi A6M3 flown by Japanese ace Nishzawa.  (IJNAF Photo)

The Commemorative Air Force’s A6M3 was recovered from Babo Airfield, New Guinea, in 1991.  It was partially restored from several A6M3s in Russia, then brought to the United States for restoration.  The aircraft was re-registered in 1998 and displayed at the Museum of Flying in Santa Monica, California.  It currently uses a Pratt & Whitney R1830 engine. 

Mitsubishi A6M3 (Serial No. unknown).  A second aircraft was recovered from Babo Airfield and restored with a P&W engine.  It currently is owned by the Flying Heritage Collection in Everett, Washington.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M7.  One was shipped to the USA, in 1945, it was  designated USAAF FE-322, but scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A6M8 Type 0 Model 64 with a Kinsae 64 engine.  One of two prototypes completed was shipped to the USA and designated USAAF FE-311.  This aircraft was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi A7M Repp? (Strong Gale), designed as the successor to the Imperial Japanese Navy's A6M Zero with development beginning in 1942.  Performance objectives were to achieve superior speed, climb, diving, and armament over the Zero, as well as better maneuverability.  As a result, the wing area and overall size were significantly greater, on par with the American Republic P-47 Thunderbolt.  The A7M's allied codename was Sam.  (IJNAF Photo)

Mitsubishi G3M Nell in IJAAF service.  (IJAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi G4M codenamed Betty in IJNAF service.  (IJNAF Photo)

IJN aviators flying Mitsubishi G4M codenamed "Betty" bombers pressing home a torpedo attack against American ships off Guadalcanal on 8 August 1942, with heavy losses.  (USN Photo)

Mitsubishi G4M bombers and  one Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko, codenamed "Irving" night fighter along with other Japanese aircraft at Yokosuka Naval Air Depot, 1945 after occupation by US Navy.  The pointed nose of the Gekko is obscured because of the dark shape of  the left engine behind it, but this aircraft`s quad radar antennae are clearly visible.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi G4M2, code-named Betty, in surrender colours, white with green crosses.  (USAAF Photos)

Mitsubishi G4M2 Navy Type 1 Land-based Attack Aircraft, TAIC-SWPA, later USAAF FE-2205.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 Land-based Attack Aircraft, USAAF FE-2205, being prepared for flight testing.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi G4M3 Navy Type 1 Land-based Attack Aircraft, USAAF FE-2205.  Some parts survive in the NASM.  (USAAF Photo)

There are no flyable or intact Mistubishi G4Ms left.  Several wrecks remain scattered in southeast Asia and on Pacific islands, although only one complete aircraft is known to be on display; a G4M1 Model 11, built in Nagoya Works No.3 on 16 April 1942, tail number 370, which had likely crash landed before mid-1944, was recovered from Babo Airfield, Indonesia, in 1991. The wreck is on display in a diorama at the Planes of Fame Air Museum.  Several other locations display pieces of the G4M.

Mitsubishi Ki-21-Ia (Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model 1A), codename “Sally” in flight.  (IJAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi Ki-21-Ia (Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model 1A), codename “Sally”, captured on an airfield in Vietnam, 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi J2M Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter, Atsugi Airfield.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi J2M Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter in the factory where it was found, guarded by US troops.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi J2M Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter in USN markings.  (USN Photo)

Mitsubishi J2M3 (Serial No. 3008) Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter Model 21, captured on the emergency airstrip at Dewey Boulevard, Manila in the Philippines.  It was designated TAIC-SWPA S12, and test flown at Clark Field, Manila.  This aircraft is shown in natural metal finish with pre-war rudder stripes.  The engine of this aircraft seized on its second flight, ending its test evaluation.  (USAAF Photo)

The Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (“Thunderbolt”) was a single-engined land-based fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. The Allied reporting name was “Jack”.  A surviving J2M is on display in the Planes of Fame museum in Chino, California.  Two captured J2Ms were U.S. Technical Air Intelligence Command (TAIC) tested using 92 octane fuel plus methanol, with the J2M2 achieving a speed of 655 km/h (407 mph) at 5,520 m (17,400 ft), and the J2M3 achieving a speed of 671 km/h (417 mph) at 4,980 m (16,600 ft).  Four Raidens were shipped to the USA, with J2M5, USAAF FE-318 and FE-319 scrapped at Middletown in 1946, J2M3, FE-320 scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950 and FE-321 scrapped at Middletown in 1946.

Mitsubishi J2M3 Raiden in the Planes of Fame Museum.  A total of 621 Raidens were built.  (Dustin May Photo)

Mitsubishi J8M1 Navy Experimental 19-Shi Rocket-Powered Interceptor Fighter Sh?sui (Sharp Sword), (Serial No. 403), A25.  This aircraft was closely based on the German Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA where it was designated USAAF FE-300.  It is now in the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.  The Sh?sui was built as a joint project for both the Navy and the Army Air Services, it was designated J8M (Navy) and Ki-200 (Army).  Successful gliding tests were carried out, and one prototype was tested but crashed on take-off on 7 July 1945, and no further tests took place before the war ended.  A total of 60 of the training version (Ku-13, Ki-13, MXY-8, MXY-9) were produced by Yokosuka, Yokoi and Maeda.  Seven of the operational version (J8M1/Ki-200) were built by Mitsubishi.  (IJAAF Photos)

Mitsubishi J8M1 Sh?sui (Autumn Water) (Serial No. 403), USAAF FE-300, on display in the Planes of Fame Museum, Merrill Field, Chino, California.  (Jeffrey G. Scism Photo)

Mitsubishi J8M1 Sh?sui (Autumn Water) (Serial No. 403), USAAF FE-300, on display in the Planes of Fame Museum, Merrill Field, Chino, California.  (Dustin May Photo)

 

Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu (Flying Dragon) Army Type 4 Heavy Bomber, code-named Peggy, (Serial No. 74-148) of the 74th Hik? Sentai, Matsumoto airfield, Japan, 1945.  This twin engine bomber with the hand-painted USAAF markings is possibly one of five shipped to the USA, designated USAAF FE-2200 scrapped at Middletown, FE-2201 scrapped at Newark, FE-2202 scrapped at Middletown, FE-2203 scrapped at Newark, and FE-2204 also scrapped scrapped at Newark.  (USAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi Ki-109 fighter prototype.  This aircraft is a Ki-67-I modified for daylight fighting.  Ot was armed with onee fixed 75-mm Type 88 Heavy Cannon in the nose and one mobile 12.7-mm (0.5 in) Ho-103 Type 1 machine gun in the tail.  It was equipped with Mitsubishi Ha-104 engines of 1,417 kW (1,900 hp) each or turbochargers Ha-104 Ru with 1,417 kW (1,900 hp) each.  Two were produced.  (IJAAF Photo)

Mitsubishi Ki-83, designed as a long-range heavy fighter.  This Ki-83 was shipped to the USA for flight tests, where it was designated USAAF FE-151.  It was scrapped at park Ridge, ca. 1950.  These fighters displayed remarkable maneuverability for aircraft of their size, being able to execute a 671 m (2,200 ft) diameter loop in just 31 seconds at a speed of over 644 km/h (400 mph).  The Ki-83 carried a powerful armament of two 30 mm (1.18 in) and two 20 mm cannon in its nose.  Following the war, American aeronautical engineers and American Air Force officials evaluated the four prototype machines with great interest.  In the evaluation flight, Ki-83 recorded 762 km/h (473 mph) top-speed at altitude 7000 m (23,000 ft) with American high-octane fuel.  (USAAF Photos)

Nakajima E8N ship-borne, catapult-launched, reconnaissance seaplane of the Second Sino-Japanese War.  It was a single-engine, two-seat biplane with a central main-float and underwing outriggers.  During the Pacific War, it was known to the Allies by the reporting name "Dave".  (IJNAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-27 on display in the Tachiarai Peace Memorial Museum, Japan.  (CC-BY-SA 3.0 Photo)

The Nakajima Ki-27 (Ky?nana-shiki sent?ki)  Type 97 Fighter was the main fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force up until 1940.  Its Allied code name was "Nate", although it was called "Abdul" in the "China Burma India" (CBI) theater by many post war sources.  Allied Intelligence had reserved that name for the nonexistent Mitsubishi Navy Type 97 fighter, expected to be the successor to the Type 96 carrier-borne A5M with retractable landing gear and an enclosed cockpit.  One is preserved in the Tachiarai Peace Memorial Museum, Japan.  The Mansyu Ki-79  was a trainer version of the Ki-27.  A Mansyu Ki-79 is preserved at the Satria Mandala Armed Forces Museum, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Nakajima Ki-43-II Hayabusa, code-named Oscar, IJAAF.  (IJAAF Photos)

Nakajima Ki-43-I Hayabusa, possibly XJ005, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 1943.  After its capture at Hollandia in New Guinea, it was rebuilt by the Technical Air Intelligence Unit (TAIU) in Hangar 7 at Eagle Farm, Brisbane, Australia.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43-II Hayabusa codenamed "Oscar" being test flown by TAIU-SWPA, XJ004.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA, arriving at NAS Alameda, California.  its ultimate fat is unknown.  (USAAF Photos)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa, codenamed "Oscar", post war.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa on display post-war in the USA.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43-I Hayabusa, codenamed Oscar, possibly XJ002, Ki-43-II XJ004 or Ki-43-II XJ005 in New Guinea wearing USAAF markings.  One came to the USA, Ki-43 (Serial No. 6430), designated USAAF FE-6430.  This aircraft was on display in the EAA Museum, Oshkosh, Wisconsin.  It is currently displayed in the Pima Air & Space Museum, Tucson, Arizona.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (Serial No. 6430), designated USAAF FE-6430, on display in the Pima Air and Space Museum, Arizona.   (Author Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (Serial No. 6430), designated USAAF FE-6430, on display in the Pima Air and Space Museum, Arizona. (Aeroprints Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa on display in the Chiran Peace Museum for Kamikaze Pilots, Minamikyushu, Kagoshima, Japan.  (STA3816 Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa on display in the Chiran Peace Museum for Kamikaze Pilots, Minamikyushu, Kagoshima, Japan.  (Ogrebot Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa on display in the Museum Dirgantara Udara Yogyakarta, Indonesia.  (Davidelit Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43-I Hayabusa (Serial No. 750), codenamed "Oscar" was found in dense jungle 6 km from Vunakanau airfield, Rabaul, in September 1945.  This plane entered service in January 1943 and went to Truk as part of the 1st and 11th Sentai.  Later it was moved to serve at Rabaul, New Britain.  The plane had severe front-end damage from its final landing, but was repaired by Japanese servicemen with parts salvaged from a number of other Ki-43s.  It was then forwarded to Australia for the Australian War Memorial.  It was sold in 1954 to New Zealand and is today (airworthy) on display at the Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington.  (John Veit Photos)

An airworthy Oscar is located at the Tillamook Air Museum.  There are seven survivors: Ki-43, owned by The Fighter Collection, Duxford, England and awaiting restoration.  Ki-43 at the Pima Air and Space Museum, Arizona.  Ki-43-II, currently on display at the Museum Dirgantara Udara Yogyakarta.  Ki-43-Ib, Reg No. N750N, owned by Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, USA.   Former ZK-OSC restored to flying condition by the Alpine Fighter Collection in the 1990s, not currently flying.  Ki-43-Iib, Seattle Museum of Flight.  Ki-43-Iib, Pima Air & Space Museum, static display in Hangar 4.  Ki-43-IIIb, four aircraft under restoration/rebuild at Texas Airplane Factory, Meacham Field, Fort Worth, Texas.  Ki-43-IIIb, Tillamook Air Museum in Oregon.

Nakajima Ki-44-1a Shoki Army Type 2 Single-seat Fighter Model 1A, codenamed “Tojo”, at Akino Army training field, Japan.  (IJAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-44-1I Shoki Army Type 2 Single-seat Fighter Model 1A, codenamed “Tojo”, in camouflage.  This a late-war production aircraft with individual exhaust stacks still in IJAAF camouflage with the partially over-painted emblem of a former operator the 70th Sentai on the rudder.  It has separate cowl flaps. This aircraft is possibly USAAF FE-303, scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950, or FE-307, also scrapped in the USA.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-44-II Shoki (Serial No. 2068) fighter codenamed Tojo, pictured in flight in Technical Air Intelligence Unit - South West Pacific Area, S11 markings. This aircraft crashed at Clark Field in the Philippines.  (USAAF Photos).  No complete surviving examples of the Ki-44 exist.  However a wing center section is preserved at the Northwestern Polytechnic University Aviation Museum, Xian, China.

Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu (Storm Dragon) in IJAAF service and with green surrender crosses.  Three Ki-49 Donryu codenamed `Helen` were brought to the USA for flight testing.  Ki-49 USAAF FE-1703 and FE-1704 were scrapped at Middletown, and FE-1705 was scrapped at Newark.  (IJAAF Photos)

Nakajima Navy Type 0 Transport and Sh?wa Navy Type 0 Transport, license-built versions of the Douglas DC-3.  The L2D series, numerically, was the most important Japanese transport in the war.  The L2D was given the Allied code name Tabby.This Showa/Nakajima L2D2 is at Zamboanga in USAAF markings in 1945.  (USN Photo)

Nakajima J1N-39s Gekko, ED-187, IJNAF.  (IJNAF Photo)

Nakajima J1N-7s Gekko, codenamed "Irving" in IJNAF service.  (IJNAF Photo)

Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko (Serial No. 7334), USAAF FE-700, later T2-700, in the USA post war.  This aircraft is now on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko (Serial No. 7334), USAAF FE-700, later T2-770, restored and on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Sturmvogel 66 Photo)

Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Ruhrfisch Photo)

Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko, restored and on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Azu Photo)

Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Serial No. 1446), Army Type 4 Fighter, codenamed Frank, captured in the Philippines and test flown by TAIC-SWPA, S17 at Clark Field.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA.  Sold to a civilian, it bore Reg No. N3385G.  Restored, this aircraft was returned to Japan and is now on display at the Peace Museum, Chiran.  (USAAF Photo)

After the war a number of Ki-84 aircraft were tested by the allied forces, two at the Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit - South-West Pacific Area (ATAIU-SWPA) as S10 and S17 and a further two in the United States as FE-301 and FE-302 (Later T2-301 and T2-302), scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950. 

Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Serial No. 1446), TAIU-SWPA S17 being transported by carrier to the USA post war.  It was test flown TAIU-SWPA at Clark Field in the Philippines in 1945.  It is shown here in natural metal finish with pre-war rudder stripes.  This aircraft had a long post-war career in various spurious finishes including an appearance in the 1954 film 'Never So Few'.  It was eventually returned to Japan and is now displayed in the markings of its former operator the 11th Sentai.  (USN Photo)

Nakajima Ki-84 (Serial No. 1446), TAIU S17, following an extensive restoration in the USA and before its return to Japan, ca 1970.  This aircraft was operated and flown by the Planes of Fame Museum in Chino, California, Reg No. N3385G, before being returned to Japan for display at the Arashiyama Museum in Kyoto.  This aircraft is now exhibited at the Tokko Heiwa Kinen-kan Museum at Chiran, Japan.  It is the only surviving Ki-84.  (RuthAS Photo)

 

 

Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate post war.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-87 high-altitude fighter interceptor.  Only a single prototype was competed.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA, where it was designated USAAF FE-155.  It was scrapped at Middletown in 1946.  (IJAAF Photos)

The Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurugi (Sabre) one-man kamikaze aircraft developed by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in the closing stages of the war in late 1945.  The Imperial Japanese Navy called this aircraft T?ka (Wisteria Blossom).  An example of the Ki-115 (Serial No. 1002), USAAF FE-156 is stored in the Garber Facility of the National Air and Space Museum, in disassembled condition; another, once displayed as a gate guardian at Yokota Air Base, is reportedly at a Japanese museum.  (USAAF Photos)

Nakajima B5N2 (Navy Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber Model 1), codename “Kate.  (USN Photo)

Nakajima B5N1 torpedo bomber code-named Kate.  (IJNAF Photo)

Nakajima B5N2 Kate, No. 302, RNZAF, captured in Sep 1945 at Rabaul.  (RNZAF Photo)

Nakajima B5N2 (Serial No. 2194) Navy Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber Model 1, codenamed “Kate”, TAIC 6 flying out of NAS Anacostia.  This aircraft was scrapped in 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima B6N2 in IJNAF service.  (IJNAF Photo)

Nakajima B6N2 Tenzan (Serial No. 5350), codenamed "Jill", TAIC-SWPA S19, at NAS Anacosta flight tested by US Navy personnel of the TAIC (Technical Air Intelligence Center) after the war. This aircraft was designated USAAF FE-1200.  It is stored with the NASM.  (USAAF Photo)

The Nakajima B6N Tenzan (Heavenly Mountain, Allied reporting name: Jill) was the Imperial Japanese Navy's standard carrier-borne torpedo bomber during the final years of the Second World War.  Today only one B6N2 (Serial No. 5350), FE-1200, remains in existence and it is stored at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.  It consists of the fuselage and its engine/propeller (separate) and a vertical stabilizer.  The location of the horizontal surfaces is unconfirmed, however as the aircraft was intact at one time, it is possible that the wings are stored separately.

Nakajima C6N1 Saiun night-fighter variant 30 mm cannon installed type, June 1945, Atsugi Naval Air Base.  (Imperial Japanese Navy Photo)

Nakajima C6N1 Saiun (Iridescent Cloud) carrier-based reconnaissance aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, codenamed "Myrt".  Advanced for its time, it was the fastest carrier-based aircraft put into service by Japan during the war.  At least four Nakajima C6N Saiun came to the USA, (Serial No. 4161), USAAF FE-4803 is currently stored with the NASM, FE-4804 was scrapped at Wright Field, FE-4808 was scrapped at Newark, and FE-4809 was scrapped at Middletown.  (USAAF Photos)

Nakajima G8N1 Renzan, heavy bomber (code named Rita), taken as a war prize following the Japanese surrender and painted in United States Army Air Forces markings, USAAF FE-2210.  This aircraft was scrapped at Patterson AFB.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima J9Y Kikka (Orange Blossom), Japan's first jet-powered aircraft, was developed late in the war and the first prototype had only flown once before the end of the conflict.  It was also called K?koku Nig? Heiki (Imperial Weapon No.2).  (IJAAF Photo)

Nakajima J9Y Kikka at Patuxent River Navy Base, Maryland, 1946.  After the war, airframes 3, 4, and 5 (and possibly other partial airframes) were brought to the USA for study. Only one example survives in the National Air and Space Museum: a Kikka that was taken to the Patuxent River Navy Base   for analysis. This aircraft is very incomplete and is believed to have been patched together from a variety of semi-completed airframes.  Parts of this aircraft are on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre.  (USN Photos)

Nakajima J9Y Kikka on display inside the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Museum, Chantilly, Virginia.  (FlugKerl2 Photo)

Nakajima A6M2-N, Navy Type 2 Interceptor/Fighter-Bomber, single-crew floatplane codenamed "Rufe", based on the Mitsubishi A6M Zero Model 11.  (IJNAF Photos)

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Nakajima A6M2-N, Navy Type 2 Interceptor/Fighter-Bomber, single-crew floatplanes with the Allied reporting name "Rufe" in flight.  (IJNAF Photo) 

Nakajima A6M2-N floatplane, ATAIU, in French hands. At the end of the war France attempted to consolidate its interests in the Far East, including French Indochina (Vietnam).  This Mitsubishi A6M2-N Rufe was photographed at Cat Lai in 1946.  The Rufe was a single-seat float seaplane based on the Mitsubishi A6M Zero Model 11.  This was the last A6M2-N in Japanese military service, recovered by the French forces in Indochina in 1946.  It crashed shortly after this photo was taken, killing the pilot.  (RAF Photo)

Nakajima J5N1 Tenrai experimental fighter developed from the J1N1 (no Allied reporting name).  This aircraft did not enter production, but two prototypes were shipped to the USA.  Their final disposition is unknown.  (USAAF Photos)

Rikugun Ki-93 twin-engined fighter prototype armed with large calibre cannon designed to serve in the anti-shipping or bomber-destroyer roles.  One example of the Ki-93 was completed; this was damaged on its maiden flight and further wrecked in a bombing raid when the hangar collapsed on it.  The remains of this aircraft were shipped to the USA where it was designated USAAF FE-152.  It was scrapped at Park Ridge ca.1950.  )IJAAF Photos)

Tachikawa Ki-9, codenamed "Spruce" in USAAF markings photographed at airfield K-1, Pusan-West in South Korea in 1951.  The aircraft is also painted in South Korean Air Force markings underwing.  (USN Photos)

Tachikawa Ki-54 codenamed "Hickory" in USAAF markings.  (USAAF Photo)

Tachikawa Ki-54 codenamed "Hickory" with green surrender crosses, taken over by the RAAF.  The fuselage of this aircraft is stored in the Treloar Technology Centre, Australia.  (Australian War Museum Photo)

Tachikawa Ki-74, codenamed "Patsy" in USAAF markings.  Four Ki-74 were brought to the USA, USAAF FE-2206 was scrapped at Newark, FE-2207 was scrapped at Middletown, FE-2208 was scrapped at Newark, and FE-2209 was scrapped at Newark.  (USAAF Photos)

Tachikawa Ki-94-I single engine monoplane twin-boom fighter prototype.  (IJAAF Photos)

Tachikawa Ki-94-II single engine monoplane fighter prototype brought to the USA and designated FE-150.  This aircraft was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950.  (IJAAF Photos)

Tachikawa aircraft assembled at a Japanese airfield post war.  (USAAF Photo)

Japanese warplanes that were transported to the USA for evaluation just after the war from Yokosuka, Japan in late October and early November, 1945.  Aircraft on board the USS Barnes (CVE-20) during its transit to Norfolk via Alameda and the Panama Canal include: Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 "George", Kawasaki Ki-48, Kawasaki Ki-102 "Randy", Kyushu Q1W "Lorna", Mitsubishi A6M "Zeke", Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah", Nakajima C6N1 Saiun "Myrt", Nakajima J5N1 Tenrai prototype (no Allied reporting name), Yokosuka P1Y1 "Ginga" and Yokosuka D4YSuisei (Comet) "Judy".  (USN Photos)

Tachikawa Ki-77 being shipped to the United States aboard the carrier USS Bogue from Yokosuka in December 1945.  It arrived at Alameda, California on 8 January 1946, where it was examined before being scrapped.  (USN Photos)

Tachikawa Ki-77, USAAF FE-154.  This aircraft was scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950.  (USAAF Photo)

 

Yokosuka/Kugisho D4Y2 Susei (Comet) Navy Type 2 Carrier Reconnaissance Plane Model 33, codenamed “Judy”.  (IJAAF Photos)

Yokosuka D4Y1 Susei (Serial No. 4316) on display in the Yasukuni Jinja Y?sh?kan shrine in Tokyo.  (YJY Photo)

Yokosuka D4Y3 Susei Navy Type 2 Carrier Reconnaissance Plane Model 11, codenamed “Judy”.  (IJAAF Photo)

Yokosuka D4Y3 Suisei (Serial No. 3957), Navy Carrier Dive bomber, captured at Clark Field in the Philippines, in TAIC-SWPA S16, USAAF markings.

 

Yokosuka D4Y4 Susei (Serial No. unknown), one of two Kugisho-built D4Y4s shipped to the USA.  This aircraft was designated USAAF FE-1201.  It was scrapped at Middletown, Pennsylvania.  (USAAF Photo)

Yokosuka D4Y4 Susei (Serial No. unknown), one of two Kugisho-built D4Y4s shipped to the USA.  This aircraft was designated USAAF FE-1203.  It was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950. 

The Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (Comet) Navy Carrier Dive bomber codenamed "Judy" was operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy.  The D4Y was one of the fastest dive-bombers of the war.  A surviving restored D4Y1 (Serial No. 4316) is located at the Yasukuni Jinja Y?sh?kan shrine in Tokyo.  A second example, an engineless D4Y1 (Serial No. 7483) was recovered from Babo Airfield, Indonesia in 1991 and as of 2012 has been restored/rebuilt by the Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California to non-flying (but taxiable) condition as a D4Y3.  The installed radial engine is American.

 (PoF Photo) (Dustin May Photo)

Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (Serial No. 7483) Navy Carrier Dive bomber, Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.  (PoF Photo)

Yokosuka P1Y-2 Kyokko in USAAF markings.  (USAAF Photo)

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) codenamed Baka purpose-built, rocket powered human-guided anti-shipping kamakaze attack plane.  This one is on Okinawa being examined by American servicemen in 1945.  (US Army Photo)

The Yokosuka MXY-7 Navy Suicide Attacker Ohka was a manned flying bomb that was usually carried underneath a Mistsubish G4Me Model 24J bomber, codenamed "Betty" to within range of its target; on release, the pilot would first glide towards the target and when close enough he would fire the Ohka's three solid-fuel rockets one at a time or in unison, and fly the missile towards the ship that he intended to destroy.  The only variant which saw service was the Model 11, and it was powered by three Type 4 Mark 1 Model 20 rockets. 155 Ohka Model 11s were built at Yokosuka, and another 600 were built.  The final approach was almost unstoppable because the aircraft gained high speed (650 km/h (400 mph) in level flight and 930 km/h (580 mph) or even 1,000 km/h (620 mph) in a dive.  (IJAAF Photo)

Two Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 are on display in Japan, with one in the Yushukan War Museum within the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo, and another at Iruma AFB, Iruma, Saitama.

Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka Model 11, on display in the Indian Air Force Museum, Palam, New Delhi, India.  (Siamlawma Photo)

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 on display in the RAF Museum, Cosford, England.  (Shiori Photo)

Four Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 are on preserved in England, with one in the RAF Museum, Cosford.  Ohka (Serial No. I-130, was captured on 1 April 1945 at Yontan, Okinawa, Japan.  Another Ohka is on display in the Fleet Air Arm Museum at Yeovilton, Somersset, and a third is on display in the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester.  A fourth Ohka is stored with the Imperial War Museum in Duxford, Cambridgeshire.

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 on display in the Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester, England.  (Hohum Photo)

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (Serial No. I-18), captured at Yontan,in 1945.  This Ohka is on display in the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.   (USN Photo)

Three Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 are preserved in the USA, wiith one in the Marine Corps Air-Ground Museum, Quantico, Virginia, another, Ohka (Serial No. I-10) in the Yanks Air Museum, Chino, California, and a third Ohka (Serial No. I-18), captured at Yontan, on display in the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.  One Yokosuka MXY-7 Model 22 is is on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia.  One Ohka K-1 variant was rebuilt to represent a Model 11 but retaining the landing skid, on display in the National Museum of the USAF, Dayton, Ohio, and a second K-1 on display in the US Navy Museum, Washington, D.C.

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (rebuilt from a K-1 to look like a Model 11), preserved in the National Museum of the USAF, Dayton, Ohio.  (NMUSAF Photo)

Yokosuka MXY-7 Model 22 is is on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Jaret Tuszynski Photo)

Captured Allied aircraft flown by the Japanese

Curtiss P-40E Tomahawk.  (IJAAF Photo)

North American P-51C Mustang.  (IJAAF Photo)

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.  (IJAAF Photo)

Douglas A-20 Boston III, RAAF in Japanese markings.  (IJAAF Photo)

LaGG-3 in Japanese markings.  (IJAAF Photo)

Vought F4U Corsair being examined by the Japanese.  (IJAAF Photo)

In 1945, a F4U Corsair was captured near the Kasumigaura flight school by U.S. forces. The Japanese had repaired it, covering damaged parts on the wing with fabric and using spare parts from crashed F4Us. It seems Japan captured two force landed Corsairs fairly late in the war and may have even tested one in flight.

The Japanese learned from the analysis of Allied aircraft they had shot down or captured.  American intelligence analysts were examining aerial reconnaissance photos taken over the Japanese base Tachikawa late in May 1945 when they discovered a large four-engine bomber on what was code-named the "Tachikawa Field 104."  After the war investigators discovered the plane had actually been an American B-17 Flying Fortress, modified and put into the air by Japanese air technical intelligence.  Tachikawa happened to be the location of the Army's Aviation Technical Research Institute.  Yokosuka housed the Japanese Navy's 1st Air Technical Research Arsenal.  Both units sent specialized investigation teams to examine captured aircraft and equipment behind the Japanese assault troops.  From Clark Field the Japanese recovered the turbo-supercharger of a B-17 plus other kinds of spare parts.  Eventually an entire B-17E was put together from the collection.  Another would be recovered in the Netherlands East Indies, put together from the remains of fifteen B-17s wrecked on airfields there, and a third was found in pretty good shape in the same area.  Designer Kikuhara Shizuo, who had originated the Kawanishi H8K Emily flying boat, noted how impressed he was that the United States had perfected the B-17's subsystems to such a degree that a minimum of controls were needed in the cockpit.

What the Japanese did with the B-17 they tried with many other aircraft, studying crashed aircraft, making photos and drawings, salvaging parts, etc.  This effort, like so many others, began as early as the China Incident, where the Japanese recovered a Curtiss P-40E Warhawk fighter and a Douglas A-20A Havoc twin-engine bomber.  Within the JNAF these studies were conducted by the same people who did the design work for Navy planes.  Thus, of 327 personnel at the Yokosuka main office of the Research Technical Arsenal and 186 at the branch office in Isogo, it has been estimated that roughly 10 officers, 10 civilian designers, and 150 enlisted men worked on studies of foreign aircraft.

Navy Lieutenant Toyoda Takago was one designer who worked in the foreign-technology program.  He reports that the Japanese Army sent out most of the field teams, subsequently supplying the JNAF with copies of their reports and lending them aircraft as desired.  The single team Takogo remembers the JNAF dispatching went to Burma to study a crashed De Havilland DH.98 Mosquito light bomber.  But the Navy center would be sent aircraft recovered in the Southern Areas and would send teams to crash sites in the Empire area, including Okinawa, where a Grumman F6F Hellcat was recovered after raids in October 1944.  British carrier raids in the Netherlands East Indies earlier that year yielded a Grumman TBM-1C Avenger.  Yokosuka's specialists were surprised at the "extremely strong construction."  When a Vought F4U Corsair was captured near the Kasumigaura flight school, "we were surprised there were places on the wing covered with fabric."  The JNAF recovered the flight manual for the Consolidated B-24 Liberator in the summer of 1944, and flew a captured Grumman F6F Hellcat.  The comparable Army unit also flew the Brewster Buffalo, the Hawker Hurricane, the Boeing B-17D and E Flying Fortress, and the Martin PBM Mariner.

Flying experience and ground studies were used to compile reports on the foreign aircraft, but because the specialists were preoccupied by their own design work, the studies of foreign planes were fairly basic.  Only very late in the war was a special section of three officers and twelve to fourteen men formed just to track foreign technology, first under Commander Nomura Suetsu, then under Iwaya Eichi.  (War Relics Eu)

 

Axis Warplane Survivors

A guidebook to the preserved Military Aircraft of the Second World War Tripartite Pact of Germany, Italy, and Japan, joined by Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia; the co-belligerent states of Thailand, Finland, San Marino and Iraq; and the occupied states of Albania, Belarus, Croatia, Vichy France, Greece, Ljubljana, Macedonia, Monaco, Montenegro, Norway, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Manchukuo, Mengjiang, the Philippines and Vietnam.

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