Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Japanese Warplanes of the Second World War preserved (3), Nakajima to Yokosuka (Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

Japanese Warplanes of the Second World War preserved,

Mitsubishi A7M to Yokosuka

Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

Data current to 10 April 2017.

* Photos 1-3.  Mitsubishi A7M Reppu (Strong Gale), designed as the successor to the Imperial Japanese Navy's A6M Zero with development beginning in 1942.  Performance objectives were to achieve superior speed, climb, diving, and armament over the Zero, as well as better maneuverability.  As a result, the wing area and overall size were significantly greater, on par with the American Republic P-47 Thunderbolt.  The A7M's allied codename was Sam.  (USN Photos)

 

* Photos 1-9.  Mitsubishi G3M Nell in IJAAF service.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Mitsubishi G3M Nell with green cross surrender markings.  (USAAF Photo)

  

* Photos 1-15.  Mitsubishi G4M codenamed Betty in IJNAF service.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photo.  IJN aviators flying Mitsubishi G4M codenamed "Betty" bombers pressing home a torpedo attack against American ships off Guadalcanal on 8 August 1942, with heavy losses.  (USN Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Mitsubishi G4M bombers at Yokosuka Naval Air Depot, 1945 after occupation by US Navy.  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1-8.  Mitsubishi G4M2, code-named Betty, in surrender colours, white with green crosses.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 Land-based Attack Aircraft, USAAF FE-2205, being prepared for flight testing.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-7.  Mitsubishi G4M2 Navy Type 1 Land-based Attack Aircraft, TAIC-SWPA, later USAAF FE-2205.  Some parts survive in the NASM.  (USAAF Photo)

There are no flyable or intact Mistubishi G4Ms left.  Several wrecks remain scattered in southeast Asia and on Pacific islands, although only one complete aircraft is known to be on display, a G4M1 Model 11, built in Nagoya Works No. 3 on 16 April 1942, tail number 370.  This aircraft, which had likely crash landed before mid-1944, was recovered from Babo Airfield, Indonesia, in 1991.  The wreck is on display in a diorama at the Planes of Fame Air Museum.  Several other locations display pieces of the G4M.

 

* Photos 1-14.  Mitsubishi Ki-21-Ia (Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model 1A), codename “Sally” in flight.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-13.  Mitsubishi J2M3 Model 21 Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter, codenamed Jack, IJAAF.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Mitsubishi J2M3 Model 21 Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter, codenamed Jack, in the factory where it was found, guarded by US troops.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Mitsubishi J2M3 Model 21 Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter, codenamed Jack, in USN markings.  (USN Photo)

* Photos 1-12. Mitsubishi J2M3 Model 21 Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter, (Serial No. 3008), captured on the emergency airstrip at Dewey Boulevard, Manila in the Philippines.  It was designated TAIC-SWPA S12, and test flown at Clark Field, Manila.  This aircraft is shown in natural metal finish with pre-war rudder stripes.  The engine of this aircraft seized on its second flight, ending its test evaluation.  (USAAF Photos)

The Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (“Thunderbolt”) was a single-engined land-based fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. The Allied reporting name was “Jack”.  A surviving J2M is on display in the Planes of Fame museum in Chino, California.  Two captured J2Ms were U.S. Technical Air Intelligence Command (TAIC) tested using 92 octane fuel plus methanol, with the J2M2 achieving a speed of 655 km/h (407 mph) at 5,520 m (17,400 ft), and the J2M3 achieving a speed of 671 km/h (417 mph) at 4,980 m (16,600 ft).  Four Raidens were shipped to the USA, with J2M5, USAAF FE-318 and FE-319 scrapped at Middletown in 1946, J2M3, FE-320 scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950 and FE-321 scrapped at Middletown in 1946.

* Photos 1-6. Mitsubishi J2M3 Model 21 Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter, (Serial No. 3014), in the Planes of Fame Museum.  A total of 621 Raidens were built.  (Dustin May Photo1, Goshimini Photo 2, Duke le patois Photos 3 & 4, Internet Photo 5, Alan Wilson Photo 6)

* Photos 1-3.  Mitsubishi J8M1 Navy Experimental 19-Shi Rocket-Powered Interceptor Fighter Shusui (Sharp Sword).  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Mitsubishi J8M1 Navy Experimental 19-Shi Rocket-Powered Interceptor Fighter Shusui (Sharp Sword), Akikusa glider trainer.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-5.  Mitsubishi J8M1 Navy Experimental 19-Shi Rocket-Powered Interceptor Fighter Shusui (Sharp Sword), (Serial No. 403), A25.  This aircraft was closely based on the German Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA where it was designated USAAF FE-300.  It is now in the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.  The Shusui was built as a joint project for both the Navy and the Army Air Services, it was designated J8M (Navy) and Ki-200 (Army).  Successful gliding tests were carried out, and one prototype was tested but crashed on take-off on 7 July 1945, and no further tests took place before the war ended.  A total of 60 of the training version (Ku-13, Ki-13, MXY-8, MXY-9) were produced by Yokosuka, Yokoi and Maeda.  Seven of the operational version (J8M1/Ki-200) were built by Mitsubishi.  (IJAAF Photos)

Mitsubishi J8M1 Shusui (Autumn Water) (Serial No. 403), USAAF FE-300, on display in the Planes of Fame Museum, Merrill Field, Chino, California.  (Jeffrey G. Scism Photo 1, Alan Wilson Photo 2, Dustin May Photo 3, Sekinei Photo 4)

* Photos 1-10.  Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu (Flying Dragon) Army Type 4 Heavy Bomber, code-named Peggy.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-5.  Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu (Flying Dragon) Army Type 4 Heavy Bomber, code-named Peggy, (Serial No. 74-148) of the 74th Hiko Sentai, Matsumoto airfield, Japan, 1945.  This twin engine bomber with the hand-painted USAAF markings is possibly one of five shipped to the USA, designated USAAF FE-2200 scrapped at Middletown, FE-2201 scrapped at Newark, FE-2202 scrapped at Middletown, FE-2203 scrapped at Newark, and FE-2204 also scrapped scrapped at Newark.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Mitsubishi Ki-109 fighter prototype.  This aircraft is a Ki-67-I modified for daylight fighting.  It was armed with one fixed 75-mm Type 88 Heavy Cannon in the nose and one mobile 12.7-mm (0.5 in) Ho-103 Type 1 machine gun in the tail.  It was equipped with Mitsubishi Ha-104 engines of 1,417 kW (1,900 hp) each or turbochargers Ha-104 Ru with 1,417 kW (1,900 hp) each.  Two were produced.  (IJAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-4.  Mitsubishi Ki-109 fighter prototype in the USA.  This twin engine bomber is possibly one of five aircraft listed as a Ki-67 shipped to the USA, designated USAAF FE-2200 scrapped at Middletown, FE-2201 scrapped at Newark, FE-2202 scrapped at Middletown, FE-2203 scrapped at Newark, and FE-2204 also scrapped scrapped at Newark.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-.  Mitsubishi Ki-83, designed as a long-range heavy fighter.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-5.  Mitsubishi Ki-83, in USAAF markings.  This Ki-83 was shipped to the USA for flight tests, where it was designated USAAF FE-151.  It was scrapped at park Ridge, ca. 1950.  These fighters displayed remarkable maneuverability for aircraft of their size, being able to execute a 671 m (2,200 ft) diameter loop in just 31 seconds at a speed of over 644 km/h (400 mph).  The Ki-83 carried a powerful armament of two 30 mm (1.18 in) and two 20 mm cannon in its nose.  Following the war, American aeronautical engineers and American Air Force officials evaluated the four prototype machines with great interest.  In the evaluation flight, Ki-83 recorded 762 km/h (473 mph) top-speed at altitude 7000 m (23,000 ft) with American high-octane fuel.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Nakajima A4N1-K carrier based fighter used by the IJNAF.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Nakajima E8N ship-borne, catapult-launched, reconnaissance seaplane of the Second Sino-Japanese War.  It was a single-engine, two-seat biplane with a central main-float and underwing outriggers.  During the Pacific War, it was known to the Allies by the reporting name "Dave".  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1-7.  Nakajima Ki-27 (Kyunana-shiki sentoki)  Type 97 Fighter.  The Ki-27 was the main fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force up until 1940.  Its Allied code name was "Nate", although it was called "Abdul" in the "China Burma India" (CBI) theater by many post war sources.  Allied Intelligence had reserved that name for the nonexistent Mitsubishi Navy Type 97 fighter, expected to be the successor to the Type 96 carrier-borne A5M with retractable landing gear and an enclosed cockpit.  One is preserved in the Tachiarai Peace Memorial Museum, Japan.  The Mansyu Ki-79  was a trainer version of the Ki-27.  A Mansyu Ki-79 is preserved at the Satria Mandala Armed Forces Museum, Jakarta, Indonesia.

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-27 on display in the Tachiarai Peace Memorial Museum, Japan.  (CC-BY-SA 3.0 Photo)

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-27 replica, Tokorozawa Aviation Museum, Tokorozawa, Japan.  (Josephus37 Photo)

* Photos 1-15.  Nakajima Ki-43-II Hayabusa, code-named Oscar, IJAAF.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-43-I Hayabusa, XJ002, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 1943.  After its capture at Hollandia in New Guinea, it was rebuilt by the Technical Air Intelligence Unit (TAIU) in Hangar 7 at Eagle Farm, Brisbane, Australia.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-4.  Nakajima Ki-43-II Hayabusa codenamed "Oscar", TAIU-SWPA, XJ004, "Racoon Special", Hollandia and Australia.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA, arriving at NAS Alameda, California.  Its ultimate fate is unknown.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Nakajima Ki-43-II Hayabusa codenamed "Oscar", TAIU-SWPA, XJ005, 84th Aerodrome Squadron.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA, arriving at NAS Alameda, California.  Its ultimate fate is unknown.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa, codenamed "Oscar", post war.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa, codenamed Oscar, possibly XJ002, Ki-43-II XJ004 or Ki-43-II XJ005 wearing USAAF markings post war in the USA.  One came to the USA, Ki-43 (Serial No. 6430), designated USAAF FE-6430.  This aircraft was on display in the EAA Museum, Oshkosh, Wisconsin.  It is currently displayed in the Pima Air & Space Museum, Tucson, Arizona.  (USAAF Photo)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (Serial No. 6430), designated USAAF FE-6430, on display in the Pima Air and Space Museum, Arizona.   (Stumanusa Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Nakajima Ki-43 II, P-5017, Chinese Air Force post war.  (Chinese Air Force Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa on display in the Chiran Peace Museum for Kamikaze Pilots, Minamikyushu, Kagoshima, Japan.  (Ogrebot Photo 1, STA3816 Photo 2)

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa on display in the Museum Dirgantara Udara Yogyakarta, Indonesia.  (Davidelit Photo)

* Photos 1-5.  Nakajima Ki-43-I Hayabusa (Serial No. 750), codenamed "Oscar" was found in dense jungle 6 km from Vunakanau airfield, Rabaul, in September 1945.  This plane entered service in January 1943 and went to Truk as part of the 1st and 11th Sentai.  Later it was moved to serve at Rabaul, New Britain.  The plane had severe front-end damage from its final landing, but was repaired by Japanese servicemen with parts salvaged from a number of other Ki-43s.  It was then forwarded to Australia for the Australian War Memorial.  It was sold in 1954 to New Zealand and is today (airworthy) on display at the Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington.  (Articseahorse Photos 1-3, John Veit Photos 1 & 2)

* Photos 1-4.  Nakajima Ki-43-IIb Hayabusa (Oscar), Tillamook, Oregon.  (Valder137 Photos 1-3)

* Photos 1-3.  Nakajima Ki-43-IIb, Seattle Museum of Flight, Seattle, Washington.  (Articseahorse Photos 1&2 , Goshimini Photo 3)

* Photos 1-4.  Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa. This aircraft was rebuilt using the remains from a crash site.  The wing, engine and prop, at least, are genuine. It wears the markings of the 54th Sentai, which it served with on Shumshu island. Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Victory Park, Moscow.  (Alan Wilson Photos 1 & 2, Mike1979 Russia Photos 3 & 4)

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa, owned by The Fighter Collection, Duxford, England and awaiting restoration. 

Nakajima Ki-43-II, currently on display at the Museum Dirgantara Udara Yogyakarta. 

Former ZK-OSC restored to flying condition by the Alpine Fighter Collection in the 1990s, not currently flying.  

Nakajima Ki-43-IIIb, four aircraft are under restoration/rebuild at the Texas Airplane Factory, Meacham Field, Fort Worth, Texas.

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-44-1a Shoki Army Type 2 single-seat Fighter Model 1A, codenamed “Tojo”, at Akino Army training field, Japan.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-10.  Nakajima Ki-44-1I Shoki Army Type 2 single-seat Fighter Model 1A, codenamed “Tojo”.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-44-1I Shoki Army Type 2 single-seat Fighter Model 1A, codenamed “Tojo”, in camouflage.  This a late-war production aircraft with individual exhaust stacks still in IJAAF camouflage with the partially over-painted emblem of a former operator the 70th Sentai on the rudder.  It has separate cowl flaps.  This aircraft is possibly USAAF FE-303, scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950, or FE-307, also scrapped in the USA.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-5.  Nakajima Ki-44-1a (Army Type 2 single-seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki), (Serial No. 2068), codenamed “Tojo”, in the Philippines in TAIU-SWPA S11, USAAF markings.  It is shown here being tested by TAIU-SWPA at Clark Field in the Philippines in 1945 in natural metal finish with pre-war rudder stripes.  The uncoded serial number of this aircraft was 1068 and it was manufactured in July 1944.   This aircraft crashed at Clark Field in the Philippines.  (USAAF Photos).  No complete surviving examples of the Ki-44 exist.  However a wing center section is preserved at the Northwestern Polytechnic University Aviation Museum, Xian, China.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-7.  Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu (Storm Dragon), codenamed Helen, in IJAAF service.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu (Storm Dragon), codenamed Helen, in IJAAF service and with green surrender crosses.  Three Ki-49 Donryu were brought to the USA for flight testing.  Ki-49 USAAF FE-1703 and FE-1704 were scrapped at Middletown, and FE-1705 was scrapped at Newark.  (USAAF Photo)

 Photos 1-3.  Nakajima Ki-49 Hellen, wreck on Papua New Guinea.  (Acred99 Photos 1-3)

* Photo.  Nakajima Navy Type 0 Transport and Showa Navy Type 0 Transport, license-built versionsof the Douglas DC-3.  The L2D series, numerically, was the most important Japanese transport in the war.  The L2D was given the Allied code name Tabby.  This Showa/Nakajima L2D2 was captured in 1945.  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1& 2.  Nakajima Navy Type 0 Transport and Showa Navy Type 0 Transport, license-built versions of the Douglas DC-3.  The L2D series, numerically, was the most important Japanese transport in the war.  The L2D was given the Allied code name Tabby.  This Showa/Nakajima L2D2 is at Zamboanga in USAAF markings in 1945.  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1-7.  Nakajima J1N Gekko, codenamed Irving in IJNAF service.  (IJNAF Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko (Serial No. 7334), USAAF FE-700, later T2-700, in the USA post war.  This aircraft is now on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  (USAAF Photos)

Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko (Serial No. 7334), USAAF FE-700, later T2-770, restored and on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Azu Photo 1, Ruhrfisch Photo 2, Sturmvogel 66 Photo 3)

* Photos 1-8.  Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Serial No. 1446), Army Type 4 Fighter, codenamed Frank.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Serial No. 1446), Army Type 4 Fighter, codenamed Frank, captured in the Philippines, possibly before being painted as TAIC-SWPA, S17 at Clark Field, 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-5.  Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Serial No. 1446), Army Type 4 Fighter, codenamed Frank, captured in the Philippines and test flown by TAIC-SWPA, S17 at Clark Field.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA.  Sold to a civilian, it bore Reg No. N3385G.  Restored, this aircraft was returned to Japan and is now on display at the Peace Museum, Chiran.  (USAAF Photos)

After the war a number of Ki-84 aircraft were tested by the allied forces, two at the Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit - South-West Pacific Area (ATAIU-SWPA) as S10 and S17 and a further two in the United States as FE-301 and FE-302 (Later T2-301 and T2-302), scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950. 

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Serial No. 1446), TAIU-SWPA S17 being transported by the aircraft carrier USS Long Island to the USA post war.  It was test flown TAIU-SWPA at Clark Field in the Philippines in 1945.  It is shown here in natural metal finish with pre-war rudder stripes.  This aircraft had a long post-war career in various spurious finishes including an appearance in the 1954 film "Never So Few".  It was eventually returned to Japan and is now displayed in the markings of its former operator the 11th Sentai.  (USN Photo)

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-84 (Serial No. 1446), TAIU S17, following an extensive restoration in the USA and before its return to Japan, ca 1970.  This aircraft was operated and flown by the Planes of Fame Museum in Chino, California, Reg No. N3385G, before being returned to Japan for display at the Arashiyama Museum in Kyoto.  This aircraft is now exhibited at the Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Frank),Tokko Heiwa Kinen-kan Museum, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.  It is the only surviving Ki-84.  (RuthAS Photo)

* Photos 1-5.  Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Frank),Tokko Heiwa Kinen-kan Museum, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.  (Bouquey Photos 1-5)

* Photos 1-7.  Nakajima Ki-87 high-altitude fighter interceptor.  Only a single prototype was competed.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA, where it was designated USAAF FE-155.  It was scrapped at Middletown in 1946.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-8.  Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurugi (Sabre) one-man kamikaze aircraft developed by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in the closing stages of the war in late 1945.  The Imperial Japanese Navy called this aircraft T?ka (Wisteria Blossom).  An example of the Ki-115 (Serial No. 1002), USAAF FE-156 is stored in the Garber Facility of the National Air and Space Museum, in disassembled condition; another, once displayed as a gate guardian at Yokota Air Base, is reportedly at a Japanese museum.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Nakajima B5N1 torpedo bomber code-named Kate.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Nakajima B5N2 (Navy Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber Model 1), codename “Kate.  (USN Photos)

* Photo.  Nakajima B5N2 Kate, green cross sureender markings.  (USN Photo)

* Photo.  Nakajima B5N2 Kate, No. 302, RNZAF, captured in Sep 1945 at Rabaul.  (RNZAF Photo)

* Photos 1-4.  Nakajima B5N2 Navy Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber Model 1, (Serial No. 2194), codenamed “Kate”, TAIC 6 flying out of NAS Anacostia.  This aircraft was scrapped in 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

 

* Photos 1-7.  Nakajima B6N2 in IJNAF service.  (IJNAF Photo)

* Photos 1-7.  Nakajima B6N2 Tenzan (Serial No. 5350), codenamed "Jill", TAIC-SWPA S19, at NAS Anacosta flight tested by US Navy personnel of the TAIC (Technical Air Intelligence Center) after the war. This aircraft was designated USAAF FE-1200.  It is stored with the NASM.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Nakajima B6N Tenzan (Heavenly Mountain, Allied reporting name: Jill), the Imperial Japanese Navy's standard carrier-borne torpedo bomber during the final years of the Second World War.  Today only one B6N2 (Serial No. 5350), FE-1200, remains in existence and it is stored at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.  It consists of the fuselage and its engine/propeller (separate) and a vertical stabilizer.  The location of the horizontal surfaces is unconfirmed, however as the aircraft was intact at one time, it is possible that the wings are stored separately.  (www.J-aircraft Photo)

* Photo.  Nakajima C6N1 Saiun night-fighter variant 30 mm cannon installed type, June 1945, Atsugi Naval Air Base.  (IJNAF Photo)

* Photo.  Nakajima C6N1 Saiun (Iridescent Cloud) carrier-based reconnaissance aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, codenamed "Myrt".  Advanced for its time, it was the fastest carrier-based aircraft put into service by Japan during the war.  (IJNAF Photo)

* Photos 1-5.  Nakajima C6N1 Saiun (Iridescent Cloud) carrier-based reconnaissance aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, codenamed "Myrt".  At least four Nakajima C6N Saiun came to the USA, (Serial No. 4161), USAAF FE-4803 is currently stored with the NASM, FE-4804 was scrapped at Wright Field, FE-4808 was scrapped at Newark, and FE-4809 was scrapped at Middletown.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-5.  Nakajima G8N1 Renzan, heavy bomber (code named Rita), taken as a war prize following the Japanese surrender and painted in United States Army Air Forces markings, USAAF FE-2210.  This aircraft was scrapped at Wright-Patterson AFB.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Nakajima J9Y Kikka (Orange Blossom), Japan's first jet-powered aircraft, was developed late in the war and the first prototype had only flown once before the end of the conflict.  It was also called K?koku Nig? Heiki (Imperial Weapon No.2).  (IJAAF Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Nakajima J9Y Kikka at Patuxent River Navy Base, Maryland, 1946.  After the war, airframes 3, 4, and 5 (and possibly other partial airframes) were brought to the USA for study. Only one example survives in the National Air and Space Museum: a Kikka that was taken to the Patuxent River Navy Base   for analysis. This aircraft is very incomplete and is believed to have been patched together from a variety of semi-completed airframes.  Parts of this aircraft are on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre.  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Nakajima J9Y Kikka on display inside the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Museum, Chantilly, Virginia.  (FlugKerl2 Photo 1 and Mike Peel Photo 2)

* Photos 1-10.  Nakajima A6M2-N, Navy Type 2 Interceptor/Fighter-Bomber, single-crew floatplane codenamed "Rufe", based on the Mitsubishi A6M Zero Model 11.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Nakajima A6M2-N floatplane, ATAIU, in French hands. At the end of the war France attempted to consolidate its interests in the Far East, including French Indochina (Vietnam).  This Mitsubishi A6M2-N Rufe was photographed at Cat Lai in 1946.  The Rufe was a single-seat float seaplane based on the Mitsubishi A6M Zero Model 11.  This was the last A6M2-N in Japanese military service, recovered by the French forces in Indochina in 1946.  It crashed shortly after this photo was taken, killing the pilot.  (Armee de l'Air Photos)

* Photos 1-6.  Nakajima J5N1 Tenrai experimental fighter developed from the J1N1 (no Allied reporting name).  This aircraft did not enter production, but two prototypes were shipped to the USA.  Their final disposition is unknown.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-9.  Rikugun Ki-93 twin-engined fighter prototype armed with large calibre cannon designed to serve in the anti-shipping or bomber-destroyer roles.  One example of the Ki-93 was completed; this was damaged on its maiden flight and further wrecked in a bombing raid when the hangar collapsed on it.  The remains of this aircraft were shipped to the USA where it was designated USAAF FE-152.  It was scrapped at Park Ridge ca.1950.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Tachikawa Ki-9, codenamed Spruce.  The Ki-9 was an intermediate training aircraft of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force built by Tachikawa Aircraft Company Ltd in the 1930s.  One is preserved in the Museum Abri Satriamandala, Indonesia.  (IJAAF Photo)

 

* Photos 1 & 2.  Tachikawa Ki-9, codenamed Spruce in USAAF markings photographed at airfield K-1, Pusan-West in South Korea in 1951.  The aircraft is also painted in South Korean Air Force markings underwing.  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1-7.  Tachikawa Ki-36, Japanese Army cooperation aircraft.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Tachikawa Ki-36, Japanese Army cooperation aircraft, Royal Thai Air Force Museum.  (Mztourist Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Tachikawa Ki-54a Army Type 1 Advanced Trainer Model A.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Tachikawa Ki-54c Army Type 1 Transport Model C, codenamed Hickory.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Tachikawa Ki-54 transport aircraft codenamed Hickory with green surrender crosses, taken over by the RAAF.  The fuselage of this aircraft is stored in the Treloar Technology Centre, Australia.  (Australian War Museum Photo)

* Photo.  Tachikawa Ki-54 Hickory fuselage in storage at the Australian War Memorial's Treloar Technology Centre.  (Nick-D Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Tachikawa Ki-54 transport aircraft codenamed Hickory, in USAAF markings.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Tachikawa Ki-54 Hickory, remains preserved in Japan.  (Aomorikuma Photo)

* Photos 1-6.  Tachikawa Ki-74 experimental long-range reconnaissance bomber, codenamed Patsy.  (IJAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-4.  Tachikawa Ki-74 experimental long-range reconnaissance bomber, codenamed Patsy in USAAF markings.  Four Ki-74 were brought to the USA, USAAF FE-2206 was scrapped at Newark, FE-2207 was scrapped at Middletown, FE-2208 was scrapped at Newark, and FE-2209 was scrapped at Newark.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Tachikawa Ki-94-I single engine monoplane twin-boom fighter prototype.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Tachikawa Ki-94-II single engine monoplane fighter prototype brought to the USA and designated FE-150.  This aircraft was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-12.  Japanese warplanes that were transported to the USA for evaluation just after the war from Yokosuka, Japan in late October and early November, 1945.  Aircraft on board the USS Barnes (CVE-20) during its transit to Norfolk via Alameda and the Panama Canal include: Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 "George", Kawasaki Ki-48, Kawasaki Ki-102 "Randy", Kyushu Q1W "Lorna", Mitsubishi A6M "Zeke", Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah", Nakajima C6N1 Saiun "Myrt", Nakajima J5N1 Tenrai prototype (no Allied reporting name), Yokosuka P1Y1 "Ginga" and Yokosuka D4YSuisei (Comet) "Judy".  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Tachikawa Ki-77 being shipped to the United States aboard the carrier USS Bogue from Yokosuka in December 1945.  It arrived at Alameda, California on 8 January 1946, where it was examined before being scrapped.  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Tachikawa Ki-77 transport aircraft.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Tachikawa Ki-77, found by US forces at the end of the war in Yamanashi airfield.  This aircraft was designated USAAF FE-154.  It was scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-5.  Yokosuka B4Y (Navy Type 96 Carrier Attack Bomber), carrier torpedo bomber, codenamed Jean, was used by the IJNAF from 1936 to 1943.  (IJNAF Photos)

  

* Photos 1-5.  Yokosuka/Kugisho D4Y2 Susei (Comet) Navy Type 2 Carrier Reconnaissance Plane Model 33, codenamed “Judy”.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Yokosuka/Kugisho D4Y2 Susei (Comet) Navy Type 2 Carrier Reconnaissance Plane Model 33, codenamed Judy, in USAAF markings.  (USN Photo)

* Photos 1-4.  Yokosuka/Kugisho D4Y2 Susei (Comet) Navy Type 2 Carrier Reconnaissance Plane Model 33, codenamed Judy, (Serial No. 3957), captured at Clark Field in the Philippines, in TAIC-SWPA S16, USAAF markings..  It was flight tested at NAS Anticosti post war.  (USN Photos)

* Phots 1 & 2.  Yokosuka D4Y4 Susei (Serial No. unknown), one of two Kugisho-built D4Y4s shipped to the USA.  This aircraft was designated USAAF FE-1201.  It was scrapped at Middletown, Pennsylvania.  It was one of two Kugisho-built D4Y4s shipped to the USA.  This aircraft was designated USAAF FE-1203.  It was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950. (USAAF Photos)

The Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (Comet) Navy Carrier Dive bomber codenamed "Judy" was operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy.  The D4Y was one of the fastest dive-bombers of the war.  A surviving restored D4Y1 (Serial No. 4316) is located at the Yasukuni Jinja Yushukan shrine in Tokyo.  A second example, an engineless D4Y1 (Serial No. 7483) was recovered from Babo Airfield, Indonesia in 1991 and as of 2012 has been restored/rebuilt by the Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California to non-flying (but taxiable) condition as a D4Y3.  The installed radial engine is American.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Yokosuka D4Y1 Susei (Serial No. 4316) on display in the Yasukuni Jinja Yushikan shrine in Tokyo.  (Chirokostage Photo 1 and YJY Photo 2)

* Photos 1-4.  Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (Serial No. 7483) Navy Carrier Dive bomber, Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.  (PoF Photo 1, Alan Wilson Photo 2, Dustin May Photo 3, Howard Shen Photo 4, Goshimini Photo 5)

* Photos 1-20.  Yokosuka P1Y Ginga twin-engined land based bomber, codenamed Frances, developed for the IJNAF.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Yokosuka P1Y2-S Ginga night fighter version of the Frances, equipped with radar and 20-mm slanted upward firing Schräge Musik style cannon.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Yokosuka P1Y-1 Ginga in USAAF markings, one of three brought to the USA.  FE-1700 and FE-1701 were scrapped at Newark, New Jersey.  FE-1702 is in storage at the NASM.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Yokosuka P1Y-1 Kyokko, FE-1702.  This aircraft is in storage with the NASM.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-6.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) Model 11, codenamed Baka purpose-built, rocket powered human-guided anti-shipping kamakaze attack plane.  This one is on Okinawa being examined by American servicemen in 1945.  (US Army Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) Model 11, codenamed Baka, I-18 was captured by US forces at Yontan Airfield on Okinawa on 1 April 1945 and was subsequently transported to the United States for public display during War Bond drives.  It it is currently owned by the Planes of Fame Air Museum and on public display at the Museum's site in Chino, California.  (US Army Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) Model 11, codenamed Baka, I-18 was captured by US forces at Yontan Airfield on Okinawa on 1 April 1945, on dsiplay in the Planes of Fame Air Museum Chino, California.  (Goshimini Photo 1 and Alan Wilson Photo 2)

* Photo.  The Yokosuka MXY-7 Navy Suicide Attacker Ohka was a manned flying bomb that was usually carried underneath a Mistsubish G4Me Model 24J bomber, codenamed Betty to within range of its target; on release, the pilot would first glide towards the target and when close enough he would fire the Ohka's three solid-fuel rockets one at a time or in unison, and fly the missile towards the ship that he intended to destroy.  The only variant which saw service was the Model 11, and it was powered by three Type 4 Mark 1 Model 20 rockets. 155 Ohka Model 11s were built at Yokosuka, and another 600 were built.  The final approach was almost unstoppable because the aircraft gained high speed (650 km/h (400 mph) in level flight and 930 km/h (580 mph) or even 1,000 km/h (620 mph) in a dive.  (IJAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka, I-16, Kawaguchiko Motor Museum, Yamanashi prefecture, Japan.  (Josephus37 Photo)

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11, on display in the Yushukan War Museum within the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo., and another at Iruma AFB, Iruma, Saitama.

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11, on display at Iruma AFB, Iruma, Saitama.

* Photo.  Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka Model 11, on display in the Indian Air Force Museum, Palam, New Delhi, India.  (Siamlawma Photo)

* Photos 1-4.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 on display in the RAF Museum, Cosford, England.   Ohka (Serial No. I-130, was captured on 1 April 1945 at Yontan, Okinawa, Japan.  (Shiori Photo 1, Roland Turner Photo 2, Steve Bowen Photo 3)

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 is on display in the Fleet Air Arm Museum at Yeovilton, Somerset.

* Photo.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 on display in the Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester, England.  (Hohum Photo)

* Photo.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 is stored with the Imperial War Museum in Duxford, Cambridgeshire.  (Alan Wilson Photo)

Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 is on display in the Marine Corps Air-Ground Museum, Quantico, Virginia.

* Photo.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 11 is (Serial No. I-10) captured at Okinawa in 1945 is now in the Yanks Air Museum, Chino, California.  (US Army Photo 1, Skytamer Photo 2)

* Photos 1-3.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (rebuilt from a K-1 to look like a Model 11), preserved in the National Museum of the USAF, Dayton, Ohio.  (NMUSAF Photo 1, Goshimini Photo 2)

* Photo.  Yokosuka MXY7-K1 trainer, on display in the US Navy Museum, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C.  (PaulTTS Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Yokosuka MXY-7 Model 22 is is on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Jaret Tuszynski Photos 1 & 2, Ad Meskens Photo 3)

Captured Allied aircraft flown by the Japanese

* Photos 1-4.  Curtiss P-40E Tomahawks captured by the Japanese.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Curtiss P-40E Tomahawk in Japanese colours, recaptured by US forces in 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  North American P-51C Mustang "Evalina" in Japanese hands.  The Japanese began to encounter the Mustang late in 1943.  As Japanese losses due to the Mustang increased, evaluating it became a priority for the Japanese, in the hope that a tactically significant weakness could be discovered to even the odds.  It is fairly safe to assume that the Japanese were able to study some wrecks and other Mustang-related material but this was not enough for a thorough evaluation of the type's performance.  On 16 Jan 1945, Lt. Oliver E. Strawbridge of the 26th Fighter Squadron, 51st Fighter Group, was hit by enemy gunfire and landed at the Japanese-held Suchin airfield in China.  Some sources indicate he made a wheels-up landing, while others contend he landed his airplane normally.  Pictures of the aircraft in Japanese hands show no obvious sign of damage or repairs. Had Strawbridge made a belly landing, the damage to the propeller and belly intake would have been very complicated for the Japanese to repair.  It is therefore likely that the P-51 was captured intact. His P-51C-11-NT nicknamed "Evalina", was quickly seized by Japanese troops.  It was was flown back to the Japanese Army Air Inspection Center in Fussa (now Yokota Air Base) by Yasuhiko Kuroe, a 30-victory ace.  Evalina was later transferred to the Akeno Flying Training Division for further evaluation and mock combat against fighters such as the Ki-43, Ki-61 and Ki-84. In mid-April 1945, Kuroe was placed in charge of a “flying circus” composed of captured Allied aircraft. The group toured Japanese fighter units to train pilots how to fight the opponent's aircraft. One of the pilots who benefited from this was a First Lieutenant from the 18th Sentai, Masatsugu Sumita, who recalled that he learned “how to take his aircraft out of the P-51's axis when being chased...”.  At the time, the 18th Sentai was flying the Ki-100, one of the few Japanese types that matched the Mustang's general performances.  Evalina was finally grounded by a burned-out generator.  Two P-51Ds were reportedly captured in mainland Japan in 1945, but their fate is unknown.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3. Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat, with Japanese Hinomaru and coded E-801.  This aircraft was captured in the Mariannas area.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress in Japanese markings.  (IJAAF Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Douglas A-20 Boston III, RAAF in Japanese markings.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  LaGG-3 in Japanese markings.  (IJAAF Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Brewster F2A Buffalo (B-339s) captured by the Japanese in either Singapore or NEI (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Vought F4U Corsair being examined by the Japanese.  (IJAAF Photo)

In 1945, a F4U Corsair was captured near the Kasumigaura flight school by U.S. forces. The Japanese had repaired it, covering damaged parts on the wing with fabric and using spare parts from crashed F4Us. It seems Japan captured two force landed Corsairs fairly late in the war and may have even tested one in flight.

The Japanese learned from the analysis of Allied aircraft they had shot down or captured.  American intelligence analysts were examining aerial reconnaissance photos taken over the Japanese base Tachikawa late in May 1945 when they discovered a large four-engine bomber on what was code-named the "Tachikawa Field 104."  After the war investigators discovered the plane had actually been an American B-17 Flying Fortress, modified and put into the air by Japanese air technical intelligence.  Tachikawa happened to be the location of the Army's Aviation Technical Research Institute.  Yokosuka housed the Japanese Navy's 1st Air Technical Research Arsenal.  Both units sent specialized investigation teams to examine captured aircraft and equipment behind the Japanese assault troops.  From Clark Field the Japanese recovered the turbo-supercharger of a B-17 plus other kinds of spare parts.  Eventually an entire B-17E was put together from the collection.  Another would be recovered in the Netherlands East Indies, put together from the remains of fifteen B-17s wrecked on airfields there, and a third was found in pretty good shape in the same area.  Designer Kikuhara Shizuo, who had originated the Kawanishi H8K Emily flying boat, noted how impressed he was that the United States had perfected the B-17's subsystems to such a degree that a minimum of controls were needed in the cockpit.

What the Japanese did with the B-17 they tried with many other aircraft, studying crashed aircraft, making photos and drawings, salvaging parts, etc.  This effort, like so many others, began as early as the China Incident, where the Japanese recovered a Curtiss P-40E Warhawk fighter and a Douglas A-20A Havoc twin-engine bomber.  Within the JNAF these studies were conducted by the same people who did the design work for Navy planes.  Thus, of 327 personnel at the Yokosuka main office of the Research Technical Arsenal and 186 at the branch office in Isogo, it has been estimated that roughly 10 officers, 10 civilian designers, and 150 enlisted men worked on studies of foreign aircraft.

Navy Lieutenant Toyoda Takago was one designer who worked in the foreign-technology program.  He reports that the Japanese Army sent out most of the field teams, subsequently supplying the JNAF with copies of their reports and lending them aircraft as desired.  The single team Takogo remembers the JNAF dispatching went to Burma to study a crashed De Havilland DH.98 Mosquito light bomber.  But the Navy center would be sent aircraft recovered in the Southern Areas and would send teams to crash sites in the Empire area, including Okinawa, where a Grumman F6F Hellcat was recovered after raids in October 1944.  British carrier raids in the Netherlands East Indies earlier that year yielded a Grumman TBM-1C Avenger.  Yokosuka's specialists were surprised at the "extremely strong construction."  When a Vought F4U Corsair was captured near the Kasumigaura flight school, "we were surprised there were places on the wing covered with fabric."  The JNAF recovered the flight manual for the Consolidated B-24 Liberator in the summer of 1944, and flew a captured Grumman F6F Hellcat.  The comparable Army unit also flew the Brewster Buffalo, the Hawker Hurricane, the Boeing B-17D and E Flying Fortress, and the Martin PBM Mariner.

Flying experience and ground studies were used to compile reports on the foreign aircraft, but because the specialists were preoccupied by their own design work, the studies of foreign planes were fairly basic.  Only very late in the war was a special section of three officers and twelve to fourteen men formed just to track foreign technology, first under Commander Nomura Suetsu, then under Iwaya Eichi.  (War Relics Eu)

Axis Warplane Survivors

A guidebook to the preserved Military Aircraft of the Second World War Tripartite Pact of Germany, Italy, and Japan, joined by Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia; the co-belligerent states of Thailand, Finland, San Marino and Iraq; and the occupied states of Albania, Belarus, Croatia, Vichy France, Greece, Ljubljana, Macedonia, Monaco, Montenegro, Norway, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Manchukuo, Mengjiang, the Philippines and Vietnam.

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