Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Japanese Warplanes of the Second World War preserved (1), Aichi to Kawanishi (Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service)

Japanese Warplanes of the Second World War preserved,

Aichi to Kawanishi

Imperial Japanese Army Air Service & Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

* Photo.  Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu fighter/ground attack aircraft, codenamed "Nick" by the Allies, of the 71st Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai being examined by an RAF Officer.  This was one of a number of aircraft abandoned at Kallang Airport, Singapore, Sep 1945.  (RAF Photo)

Air Technical Intelligence on Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service Warplanes of the Second World War

During and after the Second World War British Commonwealth, American and French forces engaged in air technical intelligence (ATI) collection and evaluation of captured Japanese aircraft. Allied ATI units were established at Calcutta in India in 1943 and at Saigon in French Indo-China in 1945.  The Calcutta unit collected and examined a number of badly damaged aircraft.  A few relatively complete aircraft were acquired, including examples of the Mitsubishi Ki-21-Ia (Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model 1A), codename “Sally”, Nakajima Ki-43-1A (Army Type 1 Fighter Model 1A Hayabusa (Peregrine Falcon)), codename “Oscar”, Mitsubishi Ki-46-III (Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1), codename “Dinah”, and Kawasaki Ki-48 (Army Type 99 Twin-engine Light Bomber Model 1A), codename “Lily.”  After the end of the war, collection continued and flyable examples of the Nakajima Ki-44-1a (Army Type 2 single-seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki), codename “Tojo”, the Mitsubishi J2M3  Interceptor Fighter Raiden (Thunderbolt) Model 11), codename “Jack”, the Mitsubishi G4M3 (Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 11), codename “Betty”, and the Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke” were obtained and flown.  The Saigon unit obtained a number of flyable aircraft that were on surrendered Japanese airfields in French Indo-China.  Many of the aircraft collected ended up as museum pieces.

Data current to 10 April 2017.

* Photos 1-3. Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 22 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, coded UI-105, flown by Japanese air ace Lieutenant Junior Grade Hiroyoshi Nishizawa from the 251st Kokutai over the Solomon Islands 7 May 1943.  The unit's aircraft have been hastily sprayed with dark green camouflage paint on the upper surfaces.  Nishizawa is credited with 87 aerial victories (36 shot down, 2 damaged and 49 shared damaged), although he personally claimed to have had 102 aerial victories at the time of his death.  He was lost as a passenger on a Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu (Helen) transport aircraft flying from Mabalacat on Pampanga on the morning of 26 Oct 1944 while being flown to ferry replacement Zeros from Clark Field on Luzon.  The Ki-49 transport was attacked by two Grumman F6F Hellcats of VF-14 squadron from the fleet carrier USS Wasp and was shot down in flames.  Nishizawa died as a passenger, probably the victim of Lt. j.g. Harold P. Newell, who was credited with a "Helen" northeast of Mindoro that morning.  (IJNAF Photos)

Japanese War Prizes in England

Several impressive Japanese aircraft are displayed at the Aerospace Museum at RAF Cosford in the UK.  The museum’s collection of Japanese aircraft comprises the only remaining Japanese aircraft transported to the UK after the Second World War.  At the end of the war, towards the end of 1945 a number of aircraft made up of Japanese Naval and Japanese Air force planes surrendered at Tebrau, a Japanese wartime airstrip in Malaysia.  The planes were flown by Japanese air-crews.  The British applied nationality markings and the acronym Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit - South East Asia (ATAIU-SEA).

* Photo.  Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, coded BI-I2, in flight with Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit - South East Asia (ATAIU-SEA) markings.  BI-12 was tested at Tebrau Air Base, Malaya, in 1946.  Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, coded BI-05 and another coded BI-06 were tested at Tebrau Air Base, Malaya, in 1946.

Primarily an RAF unit, ATAIU-SEA was formed during 1943 at Maidan, India, operating as a combined RAF/USAAF unit before the USAAF personnel were transferred to the United States.  By early 1946 ATAIU-SEA in Singapore had collected 64 Japanese Army and Navy aircraft, most in flyable condition, for shipment to the UK. However, lack of shipping space prevented this operation and only four eventually arrived in England to be put in display in museums.  The unit was disbanded at Seletar, Singapore on 15 May 1946.  (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 22 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke” cockpit in the RAF Museum, Duxford, England, still carrying its ATAIU-SEA markings.  (Mark Harkin Photo)

* Photo.  Mitsubishi Ki-46-III Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane (C/N 5439), 8484M, of the 81st Sentai, 3rd Chutai IJAAF, codenamed "Dinah", at RAF Cosford, England.  In 1944-45, during the last days of the war, it was modified as a high altitude interceptor, with two 20-mm cannons in the nose and one 37-mm cannon in an "upwards-and-forwards" firing position.   It was stationed at tested at Tebrau Air Base in British Malaya, before its shipment to England in 1946.  5439 is now on display at RAF Cosford, England.  (Tony Hisgett Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Kawasaki Ki-100, RAF Museum Cosford, England.  (Paul Richter Photo 1, Aldo Bidini Photo 2)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Kawasaki Ki-100, RAF Museum Cosford, England.  (Fairlight Photo 1, Megapixie Photo 2)

At the end of the Second World War, 64 Japanese aircraft were selected for shipment to the UK, but due to limited shipping space only 4 made it to the UK.  These four aircraft included a Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter) codename “Zeke”, (the cockpit is now in the IWM), a Mitsubishi Ki-46-III (Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1), codename “Dinah”, 5439, a Kawasaki Ki-100-1a (Army Type 5 Fighter Model 1A), and a Kyushu K9W1 (Navy Type 2 Primary Trainer Momiji), codename “Cypress” (scrapped after accidental fire damage).  The Ki-46 and Ki-100 are today on display at the AMC.  The aircraft were sent via ship to No 47 MU, Sealand, for crating and storage, in February 1947.  In November 1985 they were transferred to RAF museum reserve collection RAF St Athan, before being moved to RAF Cosford in June 1989.  These aircraft were: Kawasaki Ki-100-1b (Army Type 5 Fighter Model 1A) (Serial No. 8476M); Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka Model 11 (Tail Number I-13); Mitsubishi Ki-46-III (Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1), codename “Dinah”  (Serial No. 5439); a Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, and a Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke” (Manufacture Number 3685), Tail Number Y2-176).  (Source: Steve Dodd, Cosford museum member)

Japanese Warplanes with RAF ATAIU-SEA markings

* Photo.  Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke” in flight, RAF, Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit, South East Asia.  'B1-12' is shown here bing operated by ATAIU-SEA at Tebrau, Malaya in 1946.  Once thought to be applied by the British the tail number is now known to be IJN original  and identifies IJN Air Group 381.  A second Zeke marked 'B1-01' was a  former 381 Ku Raiden in ATAIU-SEA ownership at Tebrau, Malaya.  (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke” (Serial No. 1303), RAF, TAIC II, metal finish.  This aircraft was captured on Saipan.  The legend 'AI 2G . . .' appears beneath the 'Technical Air Intelligence Center' beneath the cockpit.  This was the Air Ministry section responsible for German and Japanese air intelligence.  This aircraft was scheduled for delivery to ATAIU-SEA in India but it was eventually sent to the USA.  (RAF Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Mitsubishi G4M2 bomber, F1-11, codenamed "Betty", RAF, Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit, South East Asia ATAIU-SEA).  (RAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Mitsubishi J2M Raidens, codenamed Jack, originally from 381st Kokutai.  Captured at Malaya, BI-0I and BI-02 were tested at Tebrau Air Base in British Malaya in 1946.  These aircraft were flown and evaluated by Japanese naval aviators under close supervision of RAF officers from Seletar Airfield in December 1945.  RAF, Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit, South East Asia (ATAIU - SEA).  (RAF Photos)

Captured Japanese Warplanes flown by the TAIU-SWPA in Australia

* Photo.  Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 32 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”.  This aircraft was rebuilt and test flown by the Technical Air Intelligence Unit (TAIU) at Eagle Farm, Brisbane, Australia, using parts of five different aircraft captured at Buna, New Guinea.  The completed aircraft was test flown in mock combat against a Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V.  It was concluded that the “Zeke” was superior to the Spitfire below 20,000 feet.  In late 1943 the “Zeke” was shipped to the United States aboard the escort carrier USS Copahee.  It went to Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, where it was flown and evaluated.  (RAAF Photo)

Other Japanese aircraft acquired by the TAIU in Australia included two Nakajima Ki-43-1A (Army Type 1 Fighter Model 1A Hayabusa (Peregrine Falcon)), codename “Oscar”, and a Kawasaki Ki-61-II (Army Type 3 Fighter Model 1 Hien (Swallow)), codename “Tony”.  The “Oscars” were test flown in Australia in March and April 1944, and the “Tony” was shipped to NAS Anacostia later in 1944.

In June 1944 the US Navy personnel at the TAIU in Australia were transferred to NAS Anacostia and became the cadre for an expanded Technical Air Intelligence Center.  Collection of Japanese aircraft continued in 1943, 1944, and 1945, for analysis by the US Navy and the USAAF.  TAIUs operated in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, China, and, after the end of hostilities, in Japan.  Personnel of the Royal Australian Air Force participated, as they had earlier in the war.

* Photo.  Mitsubishi G4M2 bomber, codenamed "Betty", found at the end of the war.  (USAAF Photo)

Captured Japanese airfields, particularly in the Philippines, were especially fruitful.  Many of the aircraft were shipped to the United Stated by escort carriers.  Their destinations were usually NAS Anacostia, Wright Field, or Freeman Field, Indiana. 

* Photo.  Nakajima Ki-44-1a (Army Type 2 single-seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki), (Serial No. 2068), codenamed “Tojo”, in the Philippines in TAIU-SWPA S11, USAAF markings.  It is shown here being tested by TAIU-SWPA at Clark Field in the Philippines in 1945 in natural metal finish with pre-war rudder stripes.  The uncoded serial number of this aircraft was 1068 and it was manufactured in July 1944.  (USAAF Photo)

Japanese aircraft acquired during those years included examples of the Mitsubishi A6M7 Model 63 Zero-Sen, (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codenamed “Zeke”, Kawasaki Ki-61-II (Army Type 3 Fighter Model 1 Hien (Swallow)), codenamed “Tony”, Nakajima Ki-44-1a (Army Type 2 single-seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki), codename “Tojo”, Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 Navy Interceptor Fighter Shaiden KAI, codenamed “George”, Nakajima Ki-84-Ia (Army Type 4 Fighter Model 1A Hayate (Gale)), codenamed “Frank”, Mitsubishi J2M3 (Navy Interceptor Fighter Raiden (Thunderbolt) Model 11), codenamed “Jack”, and Kawasaki Ki-45 (Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter Model A Toryu (Dragon Slayer)), codenamed “Nick” fighters; the Nakajima B5N2 (Navy Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber Model 1), codenamed “Kate”, Nakajima B6N2 (Navy Carrier Attack Bomber Tenzan (Heavenly Cloud)) Model 11), codenamed “Jill”, Yokosuka D4Y1 (Navy Type 2 Carrier Reconnaissance Plane Model 11 Susei (Comet)), codenamed “Judy”, and Mitsubishi G4M3 (Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 11), codenamed “Betty” bombers; the Douglas DC-3 L2D2/5, codenamed “Tabby” transport, and the Mitsubishi Ki-46-III (Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1), codenamed “Dinah” reconnaissance aircraft.  Some underwent flight evaluation.

After the conclusion of the Pacific War, most surviving Japanese aircraft were destroyed where they lay, usually by burning.  Those machines in more isolated areas were simply left to rot, often stripped of useful components by the indigenous population.   Some examples were shipped to Allied nations (primarily Australia, England and the United States) for technical study, but by the 1950s most of these had been sold for scrap.   With the rise of interest in aviation history during the 1970s, the surviving examples of Japanese Navy Air Force (JNAF) and Japanese Army Air Force (JAAF) aircraft were often repaired, restored, and placed on public display.  A few additional examples were recovered from former war zones and, in a few cases, renovated to high standards.  There are doubtless many more still corroding in jungle areas or under the sea which may one day be recovered and restored.[1]

“The Japanese Army and Navy forces as organizations were progressively demobilized and disbanded as soon as practical after their surrender in August 1945.  This short three-part article outlines the corresponding fate of their aircraft, a story beginning with the formation of Technical Air Intelligence Units (TAIUs) during 1943.”

“As in Europe, the Allies in the Pacific theatre were also keen to learn as much as possible about their opponents’ equipment. With Americans having the major involvement there, it was appropriate that they predominated in all such evaluation, particularly in respect of captured aircraft. It was agreed in this regard that the US Navy would lead a technical air intelligence joint organization which included USAAF, RAF and RN representatives.”

“Thereafter, the first TAIU was set up as a joint USAAF/USN/RAAF organization in Australia in early 1943.  This particular unit absorbed a small team from the Directorate of Intelligence, HQ Allied Forces, who were developing the Code Name system for Japanese aircraft they had started in 1942.  A second, known as the Allied TAIU for South East Asia (ATAIU-SEA), followed in Calcutta in late 1943 as a joint RAF/USAAF Allied unit.  Then, in mid 1944, the USN personnel from the TAIU in Australia were withdrawn to NAS Anacostia, near Washington DC, to become the TAIC (Technical Air Intelligence Centre), whose purpose was to centralise and co-ordinate work of test centres in the United States with work of TAIUs in the field.”

“The operation in Australia was reformed to function thereafter as TAIU for the South West Pacific Area (TAIU-SWPA) and eventually moved to the Philippines in early 1945.  Two other operations were also set up, TAIU for the Pacific Ocean Area (TAIU-POA) as a USN unit to trawl the various Pacific Islands for aircraft and TAIU for China (TAIU-CHINA) under control of Chiang Kai Shek’s Nationalists.”

“Aircraft test flown by the TAIUs before cessation of hostilities in August 1945:

TAIU (Australia) - approximately 5; TAIU-SWPA (Philippines) - over 20; ATAIU-SEA – None; TAIU- POA - None, but 14 sent to TAIC; TAIU-CHINA – 1; and, TAIC - at least 11.”

“When war ended the Allies felt it necessary to assess the state of technological development still remaining intact in Japan.  Although work of other TAIUs ended speedily, that of ATAIU-SEA and TAIU-SWPA continued to gather selected material for further evaluation; in order to do this the former moved to Singapore, with a flying unit at Tebrau in Malaya, and the latter to Japan itself.”

* Photos 1 & 2. Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, painted in green cross surrender markings.  (USAAF Photos)

“There were two periods of so-called green cross flights by Japanese aircraft after capitulation.  The first lasted from about 19th August to 12th September 1945, covering flights of surrender delegations and flights of surrendering aircraft to assembly points.  The second period lasted from 15th September to 10th October 1945, covering general communications and taking surrender details to outlying forces. The longest survivors of these operations were probably those few that found their way into the Gremlin Task Force (see Part 3); the rest were destroyed.”

“By early 1946 ATAIU-SEA in Singapore had gathered some 64 Army and Navy aircraft, most in flyable condition, for shipment to the UK for further evaluation.  An unknown number of these aircraft were actually test flown at Tebrau. Lack of shipping space prevented this shipment and only four eventually arrived in England for Museum purposes.  In any event, funds for testing captured war material were by then severely restricted and most such work already stopped.”

“By the end of 1945 TAIU-SWPA teams had scoured the Japanese mainland and other territories to gather together in Yokohama Naval Base four examples of every Japanese aircraft type never previously tested by the Allies; one of each was to be for the USAAF, USN, RAF and Museum purposes.”

“In the event, those for the RAF have not been accounted for and of the remainder some 115 arrived in America during December 1945, 73 to Army bases and 42 to Naval bases.  Once again funds and interest for further testing were drying up rapidly and only six of the aircraft were actually flown there, four by the Army and two by the Navy.  Out of the 115 total, plus 11 TAIC aircraft already there, 46 are in US Museums, about two thirds of the remainder were scrapped and the rest are probably still corroding away somewhere out of sight.”[1]


[1] Data from an article by Peter Starkings, originally published in JAS Jottings, 1/3, 1995.

USN and USAAF Air Technical Intelligence Units in the Pacific Theatre

The US Navy was also engaged in ATI in the Pacific Theatre[1].  A joint ATI group with members from the US Navy, US Army Air Forces, Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), and Royal Navy was formed in Australia in 1942.  Later, some US Navy personnel of the group were withdrawn to the United States where they formed a Technical Air Intelligence Unit (TAIU) at Naval Air Station Anacostia, near Washington, DC.  The Anacostia TAIU was supported by other Navy air stations such as those at North Island, San Diego, California, and Patuxent River, Maryland.

 * Photo.  Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke” coded V-173, shown where it crash-landed on a beach en route from Taiwan to Saigon in 26 November 1941.  This aircraft was removed by the Chinese forces and hidden until it could be assessed by Allied Intelligence, becoming USAAF EB-2, later EB-200.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-2.  Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, captured, restored and parked on an airfield in China.   On 26 November 1941, this A6M2, (Serial No. 3372), coded V-173 of the Tainan Naval Air Corps force landed near Teitsan airfield.  It was made airworthy at Kinming by American engineers and flown in Chinese markings with the number P-5016.   Coded EB-2, this aircraft eventually made its way to Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, in July 1943, and was renumbered EB-200.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, captured, restored and parked on an airfield in China.   On 26 November 1941, this A6M2, (Serial No. 3372), coded V-173 of the Tainan Naval Air Corps force landed near Teitsan airfield.  It was made airworthy at Kinming by American engineers and flown in Chinese markings with the number P-5016.   Coded EB-2, this aircraft eventually made its way to Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, in July 1943, and was renumbered EB-200.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zeke” (Serial No. 4593), Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 21, coded DI-108, as discovered at its crash site on Akutan Island, Alaska by USAAF forces.  On 3 June 1942, Flight Petty Officer Tadayoshi Koga left the flight deck of the IJN Carrier Ryujo in his Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 21 fighter as part of a task force assigned to attack Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands.  His A6M2, which had been built in February, was on its first operational mission.  On his way back to the Ryujo, Koga found that two bullets had punctured his fuel supply and he informed his flight commander that he intended to land on Akutan Island, designated as an emergency landing field.  Koga did not make the landing field and instead made a forced landing in a marsh.  The aircraft flipped over, breaking the pilot’s neck and killing him.  Five weeks later, a US Navy Consolidated PBY Catalina, making a routine patrol, discovered the Japanese fighter upside down in the marsh.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-6.  Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 22 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, coded DI-108, being recovered from its crash site on Akutan Island, Alaska by USAAF forces.  This aircraft was designated TAIC 1.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 22 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, coded DI-108, (Serial No. 4593), Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 21, coded DI-108, designated TAIC 1.  North Island NAS, fall 1944, after the plane was flown back to California from Anacostia NAS, and used as a training tool by the ComFAirWest training operation flying against squadrons headed west.  It was damaged at NAS North Island on 10 Feb 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

This single-seat fighter was probably one of the greatest prizes of the Pacific war.  Hardly damaged, it was recovered by US Navy personnel and shipped to Naval Air Station (NAS) North Island, California, where it was repaired and exhaustively tested.  It was first flown at North Island in September 1942.  Over the next several months it made mock combat flights against US Navy Grumman F-4F Wildcat and Vought F4U Corsair aircraft and USAAF Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Bell P-39 Airacobra, Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, and North American P-51 Mustang aircraft.  The pilots of the USAAF aircraft were from the Proving Ground at Eglin Field, Florida.  Information gathered during testing of the A6M2 prompted the American aircraft manufacturer Grumman, to lighten the Grumman F4F Wildcat and to install a larger engine on the Grumman F6F Hellcat.[3]

* Photos 1-11.  Mitsubishi A6M2 Model 22 Zero-Sen (Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter), codename “Zeke”, coded DI-108, (Serial No. 4593), Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 21, coded DI-108.   Koga's A6M2 Zero-Sen went to Anacostia, where it was restored and flown by the USN.  Koga’s crashed aircraft, while resurrected temporarily, did not in fact survive the war.  Following its tests by the Navy in San Diego, the Zero was transferred from Naval Air Station North Island to Anacostia Naval Air Station in 1943 (becoming TAIC 1).  In 1944, it was recalled to North Island for use as a training plane for rookie pilots being sent to the Pacific.  As a training aircraft, the Akutan Zero was destroyed during an accident in February 1945 at North Island.  While the Zero was taxiing for a takeoff, a Curtiss SB2C Helldiver lost control and rammed into it.  The Helldiver’s propeller sliced the Zero into pieces.  Only small bits (instruments) still exist in museums in Washington and Alaska.   (USN Photos)


[1] Data from an article by Peter Starkings, originally published in JAS Jottings, 1/3, 1995.

[2] Phil Butler, War Prizes, p. 165.

[3] Internet: http://www.aviation-history.com/mitsubishi/zero.html.

Japanese Warplanes of the Second World War examined by the USAAF and US Navy

* Photos 1-3.  Aichi D1A, Navy Type 94/96 Carrier Bomber, codenamed Susie.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1-15.  Aichi D3A1 dive-bomber.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photo.  Aichi D3A2, codenamed "Val" on display in wrecked "as found" condition on display inside the National Museum of the Pacific War in Fredericksburg, Texas.  (Author Photo).

* Photo.  Aichi D3A2 Model 22_Val, (3179), Reg. No. N3131G. A currently under restoration at the Planes of Fame Museum in Chino, California.  (Alan Wilson Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Aichi B7A2 Ryusei, codenamed "Grace".  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2. Aichi B7A2 Ryusei, codenamed "Grace", (Serial No. 816) captured by the US and test flown in 1946 by the US air intelligence unit ATAIU-SEA.  Shipped to the USA it is shown here in USN markings, No. 52, USAAF FE-1204, currently in storage in the Paul E. Garber facility, Suitland, Maryland.  Aichi B7A2, USAAF FE-1206 was scrapped at Middletown, Pennsylvania.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Aichi E13A Navy Reconnaissance Seaplane, codenamed "Jake".  In service with the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1941 to 1945.  Numerically the most important floatplane of the IJN, it could carry a crew of three and a bombload of 250 kg (550 lb).  Eight examples were operated by the French Naval Air Force during the First Indochina War from 1945-1947, while others may have been operated by the Royal Thai Navy.  One example was captured by New Zealand forces and  flown by the RNZAF personnel in theatre, but it after one of the aircraft's floats leaked, it sank and was not repaired.  (IJNAAF Photos 1 & 2, IWM Photo 3)

* Photos 1-4.  Aichi E16A Zuiun (Auspicious Cloud), two-seat Naval reconnaissance floatplane operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy, Allied reporting name "Paul", shown here in USN markings.  There do not appear to be TAIC or FE numbers alloctated for this aircraft.  (USN Photos)

* Photo.  Aichi M6A1 Seiran (Clear Sky Storm or Mist on a Fair Day) Japan,ca 1944.  (IJNAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Aichi M6A1 Seiran (Clear Sky Storm or Mist on a Fair Day) being examined by USN sailors at Nagoya, Japan, Sep 1945.  (USN Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Aichi M6A1 Seiran (Clear Sky Storm or Mist on a Fair Day) on display in the Paul E. Garber facility, Suitland, Maryland before being moved to the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.  (Author Photos)

* Photo.  Aichi M6A1 Seiran (Clear Sky Storm or Mist on a Fair Day) on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.  (Eric Salard Photo)

The Aichi M6A Seiran (Clear Sky Storm or Mist on a Fair Day) was a submarine-launched attack floatplane.  It was intended to operate from I-400 class submarines whose original mission was to conduct aerial attacks against the United States.  A single M6A1 has been preserved and resides in the Udvar-Hazy Center of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum.  It is located in the Washington, DC suburb of Chantilly, Virginia near Dulles International Airport.  The Seiran was surrendered to an American occupation contingent by Lt Kazuo Akatsuka of the Imperial Japanese Navy, who ferried it from Fukuyama to Yokosuka.  The US Navy donated it to the Smithsonian Institution in November 1962.  Restoration work on the Seiran began in June 1989 and was completed in February 2000.  There does not appear to be an FE or T2 number for this aircraft.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan.  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Kawasaki Ki-10 Army Type 95 Fighter), codenamed Perry.  The Ki-10 was the last biplane fighter used by the IJAAF, serving from 1935 to 1940.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-5.  Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (code name Nick) in IJAAF service.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos.  Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (code name Nick) captured at Cape Glouster, New Britain in 1944.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (code name Nick) captured by US forces being prepared for flight testing at Clark Field in the Philippines.  This aircraft is possibly (Serial No. 3303), TAIC-SWPA S14, designated USAAF FE-325 and later T2-325, which was scrapped at Freeman Field in 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-8.  Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (Serial No. 3303), codenamed "Nick",TAIC-SWPA S14.  This aircraft was captured at Fujigaya and later shipped to the USA.  It was designated USAAF FE-325 and later T2-325.  This aircraft was test flown at Freeman Field, Ohio until it was scrapped in 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-8.  Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter (Serial No. 3303), codenamed "Nick", USAAF FE-325 and later T2-325.  This aircraft was test flown at Freeman Field, Ohio until it was scrapped in 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu (Serial No. 4268), codenamed Nick, shipped to the USA and shown here at Middletown Air Depot in 1946.  Designated USAAF FE-701, the fuselage of this aircraft is now on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc Toryu (Serial No. 4268), USAAF FE-701, fuselage on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  This is the only surviving Ki-45 KAIc.  It was one of about 145 Japanese aircraft brought to the United States aboard the carrier USS Barnes for evaluation after the end of the Second World War.  It underwent overhaul at Middletown Air Depot, Pennsylvania, and was test-flown at Wright Field, Ohio, and Naval Air Station Anacostia in Washington, D.C.  The United States Army Air Forces donated the Toryu to the Smithsonian Institution in June 1946.  Only the fuselage is currently on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, alongside the Nakajima J1N and Aichi M6A.  (IJAAF Photo 1, Steven Duhig Photo 2)

* Photos 1-12.  Kawasaki Ki-48 Army Type 99 Twin-engined Light Bomber, codenamed "Lily", IJAAF.  (IJAAF Photos)  

* Photo.  Kawasaki Ki-48 Army Type 99 Twin-engined Light Bomber, codename "Lily" captured by US forces.  This is possibly one of two Ki-48 shipped to the USA.  USAAF FE-1202 scrapped at Middletown or FE-1205, which was scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Kawasaki Ki-48, captured and placed in service with the Republic of China Air Force, Taiwan.  (ROCAF Photo)

* Photo.  Kawasaki Ki-48 in Chinese Liberation Army Air Force colours on display in the China Aviation Museum in Datangshan, China.  Some of the parts of the airplane are reproduced.  (Calflieer001 Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-48 is reported to be on display in the Indonesian Air Force Museum.

* Photos 1-3.  Kawasaki Ki-48-II replica on display in the Great Patriotic War Museum, Moscow, Russia.  (Mike1979 Russia)

* Photos 1-10.  Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien Army Type 3 Fighters.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien Army Type 3 Fighter captured with flight test markings.  (USAAF Photo)

 

Kawasaki Ki-61-1-Tei Hien Army Type 3 Fighter, captured and flown by USMC VMF 322 at Okinawa in May 1945.  This aircraft is painted in a very colourful finish of dark blue and white with the USMC emblem in red on the vertical fin.  The rudder and fin are painted in red.  (USMC Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-61-1a Ko Hien Army Type 3 Fighter  (Serial No. 263), codenamed Tony.  This aircraft was originally seizou bangou 263 captured at Cape Gloucester and test flown as 'XJ 003'at Eagle Farm, Brisbane, Australia and designated TAIC 9, before being shipped to the USA.  Although seizou bangou (?) is often referred to as a 'serial number' the term means, literally, 'manufacturer production series number' and as stencilled on the airframe was coded by one of three known methods to provide a level of deception about how many aircraft had been produced. This aircraft was shipped to the TAIU at Anacostia in the USA.  Of the three Ki-61s brought to the USA in 1945, USAAF FE-313 and FE-316 were scrapped at park Ridge ca. 1950, and TAIC 9 crashed at  Yanceyville, North Carolina on 2 July 1945.  (USAAF Photos) 

* Photos 1-5.  Kawasaki Ki-61-1a Hien Army Type 3 Fighter  (Serial No. 263) assigned USAAF code number XJ003 and TAIC 9, test flown in the USA post war.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Kawasaki Ki-61-1a Hien Army Type 3 Fighter  (Serial No. 2210), This aircraft was the last remaining Tony in Japan and was put on display at Yakota Air Base, which is still a functioning USAF base today.  It was initially set up on the base in Japanese markings after being captured at Yakota at the end of the war.  Sometime in 1947, it was deemed offensive to American personnel and repainted in bogus USAF markings (with the new red bar used in USAF flashes after 1 January 1947).  Apparently it was easier to mark them as American at that time than to dispose of them.  In 1953, the Tony was returned to the Japanese people through civilian representatives of the Japan Aeronautic Association (Nippon Kohkuh Kyohkai).  They moved it to Hibiya Park in Tokyo near the Imperial Palace for display.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2. Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien (Tony), Kobi Port terminal, Japan.  (Hunini Photos 1 & 2, TRJN Photo 3)

* Photo. Kawasaki Ki-61-II-Kai (Serial No. 5017 ) is on static display at the Tokko Heiwa Kaikan Museum in Chiran Kagoshima Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan.  (Goshimini Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-61-II-Kai (Serial No. unknown). owned by Kermit Week’s Fantasy of Flight museum at Polk, Florida.   It is currently stored and in need of restoration.

Kawasaki Ki-61-I-Otsu (Serial No. 640), being restored to flying condition and will become part of the Military Aviation Museum collection in Virginia Beach, Virginia. 

* Photo.  Kawaskai Ki-96 Experimental Twin-engine single-seat fighter.  (IJAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-7.  Kawasaki Ki-102b "Randy".  This aircraft has the number 106, which may refer to the loading number for the aircraft carrier that brought it, as one of three Ki-102b which were shipped to the USA.  Ki-102b USAAF FE-308 was scrapped at park Ridge ca. 1950; Ki-102B FE-309 was scrapped at Middletown in 1946, and Ki-102b FE-310 was scrapped at Newark in 1946.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Nakajima Ki-106, No. 302, a wooden airframe version of the Ki-84.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-8.  Nakajima Ki-106, No. 301, a wooden airframe version of the Ki-84, shipped to the USA where it was designated USAAF FE-301, later T2-301.  This aircraft was an new production prototype produced by Tachikawa in 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Kawanishi N1K1 Kyufu (strong wind) floatplane, IJNAF.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photo.  Kawanishi N1K1 Kyufu (strong wind) (Serial No. unknown).  One shipped to the USA after the war was designated USAAF FE-324.  It was scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950.  (USN Photo)

* Photo.  Kawanishi N1K1 Kyufu (strong wind) (Serial No. 565), when it was on display at NAS Willow Grove, Pennsylvania.  This aircraft is now with the National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida.  (USN Photo)

* Photo.  Kawanishi N1K Kyofu (strong wind), Allied reporting name “Rex”, on display in immaculate condition at the National Museum of the Pacific War in Fredericksburg, Texas.  (Author Photo)

* Photo.  Kawanishi N1K4-J Shiden Kai, IJNAF, prototype.  (IJNAF Photo)

* Photo.  Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden (Serial No. 5511), test flown by the TAIU-SWPA, TAIC (S) 7, in USAAF markings.  This aircraft crashed at Clark Airfield, Luzon, Philippines, 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden (Violet Lightning), (Serial No. 7102), code-named George, TAIC-SWPA, S9, at Clark Field, Luzon, Philippines, 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden (Serial No. 7287) and (Serial No. 7317) were captured and taken to United States on the carrier USS Barnes. The Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service land-based version of the N1K1 floatplane.  Assigned the Allied codename “George”, the N1K1-J was considered by both its pilots and opponents to be one of the finest land-based fighters flown by the Japanese during the Second World War.  The N1K1 possessed a heavy armament and, unusual for a Japanese fighter, could absorb considerable battle damage. 

* Photo.  Kawanishi N1K2-J, USAAF markings being run up with the assistance of Japanese workers.  (USAAF Photo)

At least three Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 aircraft survive in American museums.  Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai (Serial No. 5128) is in the National Museum of Naval Aviation in Pensacola, Florida.  Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai (Serial No. 5312), a fighter-bomber variant equipped with wing mounts to carry bombs, is on display in the Air Power gallery at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio.  The N1K2-Ja is painted as an aircraft in the Yokosuka Kokutai, an evaluation and test unit.  Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai (Serial No. 5341), USAAF FE-305 is on display at the National Air and Space Museum’s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.

* Photos 1-3.  Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai Model 21 (Serial No. 5312) on display in the National Museum of the USAF.  (Goshimini Photo 1, Valder137 Photos 2 &3)

Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21 (Serial No. 5128), USAAF FE-306 on display in the National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida.  (Greg Goebel Photo 1, R.C. Dick Jenkins Photo 2)

 

* Photos 1-3.  Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai Model 21, on display in the Shikoku Museum, Japan.   This is an authentic N1K2-J Shiden-Kai from the 343 squadron.  After the aircraft was damaged in battle, its pilot landed on 24 July 1945 in the waters of the Bungo Channel, but he was never found; by the time of the aircraft’s recovery from the seabed in the 1970s, he could be identified only as one of six pilots from the 343 squadron who disappeared that day.  (Bouquey Photos)

* Photo.  Kawanishi H6K Type 97 seaplane, code-named Mavis wearing green cross surrender markings.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Kawasaki Ki-100-1b Type 5 fighter.  Four were shipped to the USA, Ki-100-1b designated USAAF FE-312 was scrapped at Park Ridge, ca. 1950, Ki-100-1b (Serial No. 13012), FE-314 was broken up at Patterson AFB in 1959, FE-315 was scrapped, and FE-317 was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950.  One was shipped to the UK.  (IJAAF Photos)

 * Photo.  Kawasaki Ki-100-1b Type 5 fighter, RAF Museum Cosford, England.  (Aldo Bidini Photo)

Kawasaki Ki-108 Experimental High Altitude fighter, codenamed Randy.  (IJAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Kugisho P1Y1-C Ginga, IJAAF.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Kugisho P1Y1-C Ginga in USAAF markings.  Three Kugisho (Yokosuka) P1Y1 were shipped to the USA in 1945, USAAF FE-170 and FE-1701 were scrapped at Newark.  Kugisho P1Y1 (Serial No. 8923), FE-1702 is stored with the NASM.  (USAAF Photo) 

* Photos 1-8.  Kyushu J7W1 Shinden, found at the factory where it was built in Japan in 1945.  One J7W1 Shinden was shipped to the USA, USAAF FE-326.  This aircraft is preserved in the Smithsonian Institution.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Kyushu Q1W1 patrol bomber, codenamed Lorna. IJAAF.  (SDA&SM Photos)

* Photos 1-7.  Kyushu Q1W1 patrol bomber, codenamed Lorna. IJAAF.  (IJAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Kyushu Q1W1 patrol bomber, codenamed Lorna in USAAF markings.  Four Kyushu Q1W1 were shipped to the USA for flight testing in 1945.  Kyushu Q1W1, USAAF FE-4800 was scrapped at Park Ridge ca. 1950, FE-4805 was scrapped at Middletown, FE-4810 and FE-4811 were scrapped at Newark.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Kokusai Ki-86A (Allied code name "Cypress") in 1945. This plane was a German Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann which was licence-produced in Japan.  Approximately 1037 Ki-86s were built for the Imperial Japanese Air Force and 339 Kyushu K9W1 for the Imperial Japanese Navy.  (USN Photo)

Kyushu K9W1 Navy Type 2 Primary Trainer Momiji, codenamed “Cypress” built for the Imperial Japanese Navy.  One was collected by the RAF and flown at the ATAIU-SEA airfield at Tebrau, Malaya in 1945.  It was scrapped after accidental fire damage.

 

* Photos 1-4.  Kawanishi H8K2 Type 2 flying boat.  (IJNAF Photos)

* Photo.  Kawanishi H8K2 Type 2 flying boat (Serial No. 426) in Washington State post war.  Four H8K2 aircraft survived until the end of the war.  One of these, an H8K2 (Serial No. 426), was captured by U.S. forces at the end of the war and was evaluated before being eventually returned to Japan in 1979.  It was on display at Tokyo's Museum of Maritime Science until 2004, when it was moved to Kanoya Air Base in Kagoshima.  (USN Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Kawanishi H8K2 Type 2 flying boat (Serial No. 426) on display at Kanoya Air Base in Kagoshima.  (Max Smith Photo 1, Miya.m Photos 2 & 3)

The submerged remains of an H8K can be found off the west coast of Saipan, where it is a popular scuba diving attraction.  Another wrecked H8K lies in Chuuk Lagoon, Chuuk, in Micronesia.  This aircraft is located off the south-western end of Dublon Island.