Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
German Warplanes of the Second World War preserved, (Luftwaffe 1939-1945), Arado to Focke-Wulf

German Warplane Survivors of the Second World War (Luftwaffe 1939-1945), Arado to Junkers

During and after the end of the Second War a number of German Warplanes were captured and evaluated by the Allied forces.  Most of these aircraft were later scrapped and therefore only a handful have survived.  This is a partial list of aircraft that were known to have been collected, with a few photos of the German aircraft in RAF, USAAF and Soviet Air Force markings from the time of their capture.  Survivors where known are included along with a few photos of them in museums where found.

Data current to 22 March 2017.

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi-103R Reichenburg Re IV flying bomb on display on Air Force Day at RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario, 16 June 1947.  This piloted version of the "Buzz Bomb" was brought to Canada in 1945 by Captain Farley Mowat's Intelligence Collection Team.  This Re IV is currently preserved in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584067)

" .. the Fi 103 R was a piloted FZG -76 V 1 flying bomb test flown by Hanna Reitsch. Modifications include the addition of a four foot (1.2m) belly skid and basic eight-instrument cockpit containing a backless wooden seat and crude headrest. A stick controls the elevators and ailerons, the throttle was made of wood and a button controlled fuel flow. Frightening to fly, surely...."  Michael Bowyer on the RAE German aircraft and Equipment Exhibition, Farnborough, England October 1945

Second World War Aircraft Salvage

It has been said that the most important thing to learn about flying is how to land safely, and this of course applies to all operators of flying machines.  This is much more difficult to do when someone has been shooting at you and your machine has been banged up like a drum because someone has been shooting at you with cannon, machine guns and FlaK.  The combat  tion machines lost to the persistent perils of war need to be replaced, and to that end, when an airplane was written off during the Second World War, all efforts were made to recover and salvage parts and materials from shot down and crashed machines for recycling purposes.

Thousands of flying machines and weapons of war were assembled by the large numbers of combatant nations taking part in the conflict from 1939 to 1945, and a great number of them were lost in the battles that eventually brought the war to an end.  Post war, all participating nations quickly needed to get their economies back on a practical footing, and the race began in earnest to add as much surplus metal to the industries that put stoves, washing machines, cars, radios and all the conveniences of the future back in the market place.  Keeping old worn out warplanes on hand in large numbers served no practical purpose to the nations in need at that time, and the scrapping and destruction processes began almost as quickly as the war ended. 

A handful of visionaries thought some of the former “enemy” technology might be useful to future forces.  As the Cold War set in, it became increasingly obvious that if power were to remain in the hands of free nations, they had to be prepared to be armed with better equipment than that in the hands of potential aggressors.  In post-war 1945, Russian, British, French, Canadian and American technical experts began scouring Europe and Asia looking for any and all technology that could be of interest and benefit to the conquering nations.  In the case of aviation, technical intelligence was the priority, and to that end, key teams of experts were assembled and sent overseas to gather, collect and bring home captured foreign aircraft and equipment for evaluation and where useful, integration into future programs for the defence of the West.  Some of the aviation equipment captured or seized as war prizes made its way to Canada and other Commonwealth nations as well as the USA and USSR.  Their present status and location where known is summarized here.

Captured aircraft flown by the RAF and members of the RCAF were assigned an Air Ministry (AM) number.  The Axis aircraft flown by the Americans were initially given a Foreign Equipment (FE) number and later a Technical (T) number.  These numbers were primarily used to “identify aircraft of intelligence interest at their place of surrender in Germany or Denmark, and to clearly segregate such aircraft from the far larger number of aircraft which were to be destroyed as being of no further use.”

A typical airfield at the time of the surrender in May 1945 held perhaps 400 or more Luftwaffe aircraft of which perhaps ten were selected for evaluation in England, while a few others such as communications or trainer types were allocated for use by the RAF in Germany or to Allied governments for re-equipment of their own air forces.  Phil Butler, War Prizes, p. 75.

The collection of ex-Luftwaffe aircraft for evaluation had been initiated by the British Air Ministry’s Branch Al 2 (g), the group which had been the intelligence gatherer and collator of Luftwaffe aircraft information since before the start of the Second World War.  It was this group which, with assistance from the British wartime Ministry of Aircraft Production, had drawn up a “Requirements List” of items needed for evaluation in England after the war.

The list had been initiated during 1944 and was in the hands of Air Technical Intelligence teams in Europe prior to the German collapse in May 1945.  The list was amended as new requirements were identified; these amendments included previously unknown aircraft or items of equipment found on the ground by the intelligence teams.  With the end of hostilities the Air Technical Intelligence teams were reinforced by experienced pilots and engineers, many of them from the RAF Central Fighter Establishment (CFE) at Tangmere in England.  The personnel included members of the former No. 1426 Flight which had been incorporated into the CFE shortly before the end of the war.

It was quickly determined that it would be a good idea to conduct the ferrying of unfamiliar aircraft types by trained test pilots.  The business of selecting German aircraft and pilots to ferry them to England was handed over to the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE).  Wing Commander Eric M. Brown was placed in charge of the reception of German aircraft at Farnborough, and his superior, Group Captain Alan F. Hards, Commanding Officer experimental Flying at RAE, took over responsibility for the selection of suitable aircraft.  The servicing of aircraft prior to their delivery to Britain remained an RAF responsibility and this task was carried out by No. 409 Repair and Salvage Unit, based at Schleswig in northern Germany.

The Royal Aircraft Establishment was a British research establishment known by several different names during its history that eventually came under the aegis of England Ministry of Defence (MoD), before finally losing its identity in mergers with other institutions.  The first site was at Farnborough Airfield (RAE Farnborough) in Hampshire to which was added a second site RAE Bedford (Bedfordshire) in 1946.  During the Second World War, the Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment, then based at Helensburgh in Scotland, was also under the control of the RAE. Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Aircraft_Establishment.

The RAE set up an outpost at Schleswig, commanded by RCAF Squadron Leader Joe McCarthy, to co-ordinate the delivery of selected aircraft to Schleswig for overhaul, and to control the acceptance test flights of individual aircraft at the completion of their servicing routine.  The RAE then took over the delivery of the aircraft to England via one or more established staging posts in Holland or Belgium which were provided with jet fuel and other support facilities.

This list roughly includes most but not all of the aircraft used by the Luftwaffe during the Second World War.  Where possible, photos of aircraft at the time of their capture in their original markings are provided, followed by photos where available in RAF and/or USAAF service, and if preserved today as they are displayed in museums around the world.  Updates and particularly photos of these aircraft missing from the collection that can be shared freely on the net would be most welcome.

Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel Harold A. Skaarup 

Aircraft flown by the Luftwaffe during the Second World War

* Photo.  AGO Ao 192, Reg. No. D-OCTB, Tunis, 1939.  (Grésillaud Photo)

AGO Ao 192.  Twin-engined aircraft designed and built by AGO Flugzeugwerke in the 1930s.  A small production run of six aircraft followed three prototypes, these being used as transports.  The six production aircraft were acquired by the German state, with one being used as the personal transport of Robert Ley, the head of the German Labour Front, while others were used as transports by the Waffen-SS and at the test-centre at Rechlin.

Albatros Al 101.

Albatros Al 102 (prototype).

Albatros Al 103 (prototype).

* Photo.  Arado Ar 64, fighter biplane (prototype).  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Arado Ar 65F, fighter/trainer biplane (re-engined Ar 64), coded PF+NS.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Arado Ar 66, trainer/night attack.  The Ar 66 entered service with the Luftwaffe in 1933, serving as a trainer until well into the Second World War.  In 1943, the Luftwaffe set up a number of night harassment groups to operate on the Russian front.  The Ar 66, along with the Gotha Go 145, formed the main equipment of these groups.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Arado Ar 66 (Wk. Nr. unknown).  Remains of this aircraft are stored in the Flyhistorisk Museum, Stavanger Airport, Sola, Norway.

Arado Ar 67, fighter biplane (prototype).

* Photos 1 & 2.  Arado Ar 68, fighter biplane.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Arado Ar 69, 1933 biplane) trainer (prototype).

* Photo.  Arado Ar 76, fighter/trainer biplane (prototype), coded DA+BN.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Arado Ar 80, fighter (prototype).   (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Arado Ar 95, D-ODGY, coastal patrol and attack biplane floatplane with torpedo.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

 

* Photo.  Arado Ar 96, advanced trainer, coded +23.  The Ar 96 was used for advanced, night and instrument flying training.  On the evening of 28 April 1945, pilot Hanna Reitsch flew the head of the Luftwaffe Generaloberst Robert Ritter von Greim out from Berlin under Soviet fire in an Arado Ar 96 trainer from an improvised airstrip in the Tiergarten.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Arado Ar 96B

The Arado Ar 96B is a two-seat advanced flying trainer powered by a single Argus As 410A-1 inverted-Vee engine rated at 465 hp. It had a maximum speed of 205-mph at sea level, a cruising speed of 183-mph, a service ceiling of 23,295’, and a range of 615 miles. It had a wingspan of 36’1”, a length of 29’10”, and a height of 8’6”. It was armed with one 7.92-mm fixed forward-firing machinegun.  Paul Eden and Soph Moeng, The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 2002, p. 146.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Arado Ar 96B advanced trainer, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured at Husum.  Designated RAF AM120, this aircraft was scrapped at Woodley, England in 1947.  (RAF Photos)

Arado Ar 96B advanced trainer, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured at Husum.  Designated RAF AM123, this aircraft was scrapped at Woodley, England in 1947.

More than 11,500 Ar 96 were built by the end of the Second World War.  RCAF Squadron Leader Joe McCarthy test flew Arado Ar 96B, (Wk. Nr. unknown), RAF AM123, after the war at Husum.

Arado Ar 96B-1, (Wk. Nr. 425462), NU+CF, has been restored using parts of three wrecks and is currently displayed in the Deutsches Technik Museum in Berlin.  This Ar 96B-1 has a newly minted fuselage based on a pattern made from a wreck salvaged from a lake. The wings came from an Avia C.2B, built in Czechoslovakia after the end of the Second World War. Sweden provided a number of parts to the museum from Sweden, from an Ar 96, which had been lost in 1944. This aircraft was salvaged and flown by the Swedish Air Force until 1954.  Internet: http://www.thomasgenth.de/indexeng.html.

The Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin (German Museum of Technology), was founded in 1982 in Berlin, Germany.  This museum exhibits a large collection of historical technical artifacts. The museum’s main emphasis is on rail transport, but it also features exhibits of industrial, maritime and aviation technology. The museum also contains a science center called Spectrum. A Douglas C-47 Skytrain is on display on the roof within view of the Tempelhof Airport. The museum contains an enormous railway collection and a large aircraft section which includes a Messerschmitt Bf 110, Flak cannon, Junkers Ju 87 Stuka and a V-1 flying bomb.

Arado Ar 96B-1, (Wk. Nr. 4246), coded PI+OT, was lost on 13 March 1943 near Bomlo, Norway. It lay in more than 100’ of water until recovered 49 years later on 7 November 1992.  It is being restored by the Luftfartshistorik Museum in Sola for the Herdla Museum, Norway

An Arado Ar 96B-1 is on display in the Flyhistorisk Museum Sola, Norway.  The Flyhistorisk Museum, Sola (Sola Aviation Museum) is an aviation museum located in Stavanger Airport, Sola, near Stavanger, Norway.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 96B (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured by the USAAF, location and details unknown.  (Jerry Pinkowski Photo)

* Photo.  Arado Ar 96B-1, (Wk. Nr. unknown), Avia AG, Prague, 1943, 410a (340 hp) motor.  This aircraft is preserved in the Deutschestechnik Museum, Berlin, Germany.  (Karsten Palt Photo)

Arado Ar 96B-1, (Wk. Nr. unknown).  Remains of this aircraft are preserved in the Flyhistorisk Museum, Stavanger Airport, Sola, Norway.  

* Photos.  Arado Ar 197, designed for naval operations for the never-completed German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin.  One a few prototypes were built.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Arado Ar 197.

Arado Ar 199, seaplane trainer (prototype).

Arado Ar 396, advanced trainer variant of Ar 96.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 196, ship-borne reconnaissance/coastal patrol floatplane.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Arado Ar 196A-3 being loaded onto the German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee.  (Kriegsmarine Photo)

Arado Ar 196A

The Arado Ar 196A was a Luftwaffe two-seat coastal patrol and light attack aircraft powered by one BMW 312K nine-cylinder radial air-cooled piston engine. It had a top speed of 194-mph, a cruising speed of 166-mph, service ceiling of 22,965’, and a range of 497 miles. Loaded, it had a weight of 7,282 lbs. It had a wingspan of 40’ 10”, a length of 35’ 11-1/2” and a height of 14’7”. It was armed with two wing-mounted 20-mm MG FF cannon with 60 rpg plus one 7.9-mm MG 17 machinegun in the starboard side of the forward fuselage and one 7.9-mm MG 15 on a flexible mounting with 525 rpg; plus one ETC 50/VIII rack underneath each wing for a single 110-lb SC 50 bomb.[1]

The Ar 196A was loved by its pilots, who found it handled well both in the air and on the water. The first Arado Ar 196A to fall into allied hands was an example belonging to the German heavy cruiser KMS Admiral Hipper captured in Lyngstad by a Norwegian Marinens Flyvebaatfabrikk M.F. 11 seaplane of the Trødelag naval district on 8 April 1940 at the beginning of the Norwegian campaign. It was flown against its former owners with Norwegian markings. On 18 April 1940 it was flown to the UK by a Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service pilot. Not long afterwards the plane crashed while being flown by a British pilot while in transit to the Helensburgh naval air base for testing. At the end of the war, at least one other Ar 196A was left at a Norwegian airfield and kept in use as a liaison aircraft by the Royal Norwegian Air Force for a year on the West Coast.[2]

* Photo.  Arado Ar 196A-5 (Wk. Nr. 514), ship-borne reconnaissance/coastal patrol floatplane, captured at Schleswig.  Designated RAF AM92, this aircraft was scrapped at Felixstowe in 1947.  (RAF Photo)

One of the captured Ar 196A seaplanes was flown by RCAF S/L Ian Somerville.

Arado Ar 196A, (Wk. Nr .unknown), captured at Schleswig.  Designated RAF AM90, this aircraft was scrapped at Schleswig.

Arado Ar 196A-5, (Wk. Nr. 127), captured at Schleswig.  Designated RAF AM91, this aircraft was scrapped at Felixstowe in 1947.

Arado Ar 199A-0, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured at Schleswig.  Designated RAF AM93, this aircraft was scrapped at Schleswig.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 196A-3, ship-borne reconnaissance/coastal patrol floatplane.  This aircraft was operated by the Bulgarian Air Force.  It is displayed at the  Bulgarski Vozdushni Voiski Muzeum (Museum of Aviation and the Air Force), Plovdiv, Bulgaria.  (1GonZosft Photo)

Only three Ar 196A floatplanes still exist from the total production run of 526 aircraft, excluding the prototypes and pre-production aircraft. Ar 196A-3 (Werk-Nummer 75526)[3], coded as “White 3” (Serial No. 0219), is on display in the Bulgarski Vozdushni Voiski Muzeum in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, with Bulgarian insignia. This Ar 196A-3 is one of twelve the Bulgarian Navy operated during the Second World War from Varna on the coast.

Ar 196A-5, (Wk. Nr. 623167) coded +HG, T3+BH, belongs to the National Air & Space Museum. The Allies recovered two Ar 196A-5s found on board the German battlecruiser Prinz Eugen when she surrendered at Copenhagen, Denmark.

Ar 196A-5, (Wk. Nr. 623183) coded T3+CH is the second of these two aircraft, and is being restored by the U S Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida.

The Norwegian Historical Museum in Sola, Norway, has the fuselage frame of an Ar 196A-2 raised from the sunken German battleship Blücher.[4]

When the US Navy took custody of Prinz Eugen, they were more interested in the catapult system used to launch the floatplane rather than the Ar 196A-5 but they saved the two aircraft anyway. The Ar 196A-5, (Wk. Nr. 623167) in the NASM has only 14 hours of operational flying time and U S Navy pilots added just four more hours during testing and evaluation at the Naval Air Materiel Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The US Navy evidently repainted the airplane with markings copied from a different aircraft. That floatplane bore the code letters GA+DX (Wk. Nr. 68967). Today, the National Air & Space Museum‘s Ar 196A-5 still carries the bogus paint and markings of GA+DX. After years in storage, the Navy transferred the airplane to the Museum in 1961, where it is now preserved.[5]

Both of the Arado Ar 196A-5 floatplanes were recovered from the German cruiser Prinz Eugen by American forces survive.  Arado Ar 196A-5 (Wk. Nr. 623167) is in storage at the Paul E. Garber Facility of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, and awaiting restoration.  Ar 196A-5 (Wk. Nr. 623183) was stored with the National Museum of Naval Aviation (NMNA) at Pensacola, Florida.  This aircraft is currently on loan to the Aeronauticum Museum at Nordholz, Germany.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 196A-3 (Wk. Nr. 1003), parts stored in a Swedish Air Force Museum.  (Björn Atterberg Photo)

[1] David Donald, Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Aerospace Publishing London, 1994, p. 12.

[2] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arado_Ar_196.

[3] The Werk-Nummer is the German manufacturer’s serial number for each aircraft indicated here.

[4] Internet: www.preservedaxisaircraft.com.

[5] Internet: http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/aero/aircraft.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 198 reconnaissance (prototype).  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Arado Ar 231, folding wing U-boat reconnaissance aircraft (prototype).  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Arado Ar 232 V1 & V2  twin-engine trasnport aircraft prototypes and research aircraft, powered by a pair of 1,193 kW (1,600 hp) BMW 801A/B engines.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Arado Ar 232Bs in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwafe Photos)

Arado Ar 232B-1

The Arado Ar 232 Tausendfüßler (Millipede), sometimes also called Tatzelwurm, was a Luftwaffe four-engine heavy transport aircraft powered by four 1,200-hp BMW-Bramo 323R-2 radial piston engines.  The Ar 232 was the first truly modern cargo aircraft, designed and built in small numbers by the German firm Arado Flugzeugwerke during the Second World War.  The design introduced, or brought together, almost all of the features now considered to be “standard” in modern cargo transport aircraft designs, including a box-like fuselage slung beneath a high wing; a rear loading ramp (that had first appeared on the October 1941-flown Junkers Ju 252 tri-motored transport); a high tail for easy access to the hold; and various features for operating from rough fields.  Although the Luftwaffe was interested in replacing or supplementing its fleet of outdated Junkers Ju 52/3m transports, it had an abundance of types in production at the time and did not purchase large numbers of the Ar 232.[1]

The Ar 232B had a maximum speed of 211-mph, a cruising speed of 180-mph, a service ceiling of 26,245’, and a range of 658 miles.  It had a maximum weight of 46,595-lbs at take-off.   It had a wingspan of 109’11”, a length of 77’2”, and a height of 18’8”.  The “Millipede,” was equipped with a pod-and-boom fuselage with a hydraulically operated rear-loading door.[2]

The most noticeable feature of the Ar 232 was the landing gear. Normal operations from prepared runways used a tricycle gear, but the struts could “break”, or kneel, after landing to place the fuselage closer to the ground and thereby reduce the ramp angle.  An additional set of ten smaller, non-retractable twinned wheels per side supported the aircraft once the primary gear was “broken”, or could be used for additional support when landing on soft or rough airfields.  The aircraft was intended to be capable of taxiing at low speeds on its small wheels, thus being able to negotiate small obstacles such as ditches up to 1.5 m (5 ft) in width.  The appearance of the row of small wheels led to the nickname “millipede”.  In flight, the main legs fully retracted into the engine nacelles, while the fixed support wheels remained exposed and the nose wheel only semi-retracted.

Normally operated by a crew of four, the pilot was the only member without two roles.  The navigator operated a 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine gun in the nose, the radio operator a 20-mm MG 151 cannon in a rotating turret on the roof, and the loadmaster a 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine gun firing rearward from the extreme rear of the cargo bay above the cargo doors.[3]

* Photos 1-5.  Arado Ar 232B-0, (Wk. Nr. 305002), RAF AM17.[1]  (RAF Photos)

Arado Ar 232B-0 (Wk. Nr. 305002) A3+RB,  previously flown by the Luftwaffe's "Special Duties" unit, KG 200 and captured at Eggebek in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM17 and pressed into service to ferry spare parts from occupied Europe to Farnborough, often flown by Squadron Leaders McCarthy and Somerville.  It was scrapped at RAF Sealand in 1948.

[1] This aircraft was the 7th Luftwaffe Arado Ar 232B-0 (A3+RB) of 3./KG 200 (3rd Sqn, 200th Bomb Wing, (it was a Special Operations Wing). The aircraft was surrendered to British forces at Eggebek, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, in 1945.  It was then flown to the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough (UK), for testing and was later scrapped.

Two of the B-0s were captured by British forces at the end of the war.  The Ar 232B-0s were test flown by Capt (N) Eric “Winkle” Brown, who gave the design excellent marks, they were used by the Royal Air Force on flights between England and Germany after the war.  RCAF S/L Joe McCarthy[4] flew these aircraft with the Royal Aircraft Establishment’s Foreign Aircraft Flight at Farnborough, UK at the end of the war.  None appear to have survived.

[1] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arado_Ar_232.

[2]David Donald, Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Aerospace Publishing London, 1994, p. 15.

[3] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arado_Ar_232.

[4] S/L McCarthy, DSO, DFC and Bar, had flown with the RAF’s famous Lancaster “Dambusters.”  After the war he chose to remain in the RCAF, finishing his service on Canadair CP-107 Argus ASW aircraft at Greenwood, Nova Scotia, in 1968.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Arado Ar 234 and Junkers Ju 88G in a bombed out hangar, Manching, Bavaria, Germany, May 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Arado Ar 234B V9 prototype seen with a 1,000-kilogram bomb on 15 Mar 1944.  (Note: the aircraft lacks a cockpit periscope).  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Arado Ar 234B

The Arado Ar 234B-2 Blitz was the world’s first operational jet-powered bomber, built by the German Arado company in the closing stages of the Second World War. It was powered by two Junkers Jumo 004B-1 axial-low turbojets, each with 1,984-lb thrust. The Ar 234 was produced in very limited numbers and was used almost entirely in the reconnaissance role, but in its few uses as a bomber it proved to be nearly impossible to intercept. It was the last Luftwaffe aircraft to fly over England during the war, in April 1945.

The Ar 234 was commonly known as Blitz (lightning), although this name refers only to the B-2 bomber variant] and it is not clear whether it derived from the informal term Blitz-Bomber (roughly, “very fast bomber”) or was ever formally applied. The alternate name Hecht (“pike”) is derived from one of the units equipped with this aircraft, Sonderkommando Hecht.[1]

The Blitz had a maximum speed of 461-mph, a cruising speed of 435-mph, a service ceiling of 32,810, and a range of 967 miles with a 1,100-lb bomb load. The aircraft weighed 11,464 lbs empty and 21,605 lbs with maximum bomb load. It has a wing span of 46’3”, a length of 41’5” and a height of 14’1”. It was armed with two fixed aft-firing 20-mm Mauser MG 151/20 cannon with 200 rpg.[2]

In July 1944 the fifth and seventh prototypes of the Ar 234 were subjected to operational evaluation in the reconnaissance role by 1/Versuchsverband Oberbefehishaber der Luftwaffe at Juvincourt, near Reims. Fitted with Walter RATO equipment, they defied interception during numerous sorties over Allied territory and were joined later by some Ar 234B-ls which, in small detachments, equipped experimental reconnaissance units designated Sonderkommandos Gotz, Hecht, Sperling and Sommer. Two other units, 1.(F)/33 and 1.(F)/100, were still operational at the war’s end. The bomber version first became operational with the Stabstaffel of KG 76, deployed during the Ardennes offensive, but at that stage of the war the number of sorties that could be mounted was limited severely by fuel shortage. Among the most noted bomber operations were attempts to destroy the Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine at Remagen, which was held by US troops. For 10 days from 7 March 1945 almost continuous attacks were made on this target until finally the bridge collapsed, but within two more weeks bomber operations had virtually come to an end for lack of fuel. The Ar 234 was also flown by Kommando Bonow, an experimental night-fighter unit which operated until the end of the war under the control of Luftflotte Reich.

Total construction of the Arado Ar 234 amounted to 274 aircraft, of which 30 were prototypes and 244 production aircraft.[3] A total of 210 Ar-234Bs and 14 Ar-234Cs were delivered to the Luftwaffe, but with Germany in chaos, only a handful ever got into combat. A final inventory taken on 10 April 1945 listed 38 in service, including 12 bombers, 24 reconnaissance aircraft, and 2 night fighters.[4]

On 24 February, an Ar-234B suffered a flameout in one of its engines and was forced down to a hard landing by an American Republic P-47 Thunderbolt fighter near the village of Segelsdorf. The jet was captured by the advancing Allies the next day. It was the first example of the type to fall into Allied hands largely intact.   Ar 234s “continued to fight in a scattered and ineffective fashion until Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945. Some were shot down in air combat, destroyed by flak, sometimes their own, or bounced by Allied fighters when they came in to land. Others performed their missions and then fled too fast for enemy fighters to follow, to land and then wait for scarce fuel to be found so they could fly other missions.”[5]

* Photo.  Arado Ar 234B-2, (Wk. Nr. 140173), F1+MT, III./KG76, brought down near Segelsdorf, Germany on 24 Feb 1945. This was the first of its type to be captured by the Allies. Fate unknown.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Arado Ar 234B-1 (Wk. Nr. 140476), 8H+HH, captured at Grove, Denmark.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM26, later VK877.  It was scrapped at Farnborough.  (RAF Photos)

Arado Ar 234B-2 (Wk. Nr. 140466), captured at Grove, Denmark.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM24.  It crashed at Farnborough on 27 Aug 1945.

Arado Ar 234B (Wk. Nr. 140608), captured at Grove, Denmark.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM25, later VK880.  It was scrapped at Brize Norton in 1948.

Arado Ar 234B (Wk. Nr. 140113), captured at Schlesweg.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM54, later VH530.  It was scrapped at Brize Norton in 1948.

Arado Ar 234B (Wk. Nr. 140356), captured at Stavanger, Norway.  Designated RAF AM226, this aircraft was scrapped at Farnboough, England.

Arado Ar 234B (Wk. Nr. 140141), captured at Stavanger, Norway.  Designated RAF AM227, this aircraft was scrapped at Brize Norton, England.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 234B (Wk. Nr. 140493), captured at Stavanger, Norway.  Designated RAF AM228, this aircraft was scrapped at Brize Norton, England.  (RAF Photo)

Arado Ar 234B (Wk. Nr. 140581), captured at Stavanger, Norway.  Designated RAF AM229, this aircraft was scrapped at Brize Norton, England.

Arado Ar 234B (Wk. Nr. 140107), captured at Schleswig.  Shipped to Oxfordness, England this aircraft was used as a ballistic target at Oxfordness, England.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Arado Ar 234B, (Wk. Nr. 140581) captured at Sola Airfield, Stavanger, Norway, still wearing Luftwaffe markings, being examined by RAF personnel.  (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Arado Ar 234B, (Wk. Nr. 140581) 8H+CH captured at Sola Airfield, Stavanger, Norway, being ground run.  The aircraft wears RAF markings and was one of ten Ar 234Bs surrendered at Stavanger, Norway.  Two of these went to the USAAF and one survives in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Museum, Chantilly, Virginia.  Four of the remaining Ar 234s were flown to Farnborough.  (RAF Photos)

Arado Ar 234B, (Wk. Nr. 140486), captured at Grove, Denmark.  Designated RAF USA 7, this aircraft may have been sent to France.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 234B, (Wk. Nr. 140311), USA 40, FE-1011, Wright Field, Oct 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-4.  Arado Ar 234B-1, (Wk. Nr. 140489), 8H+EH, Watson’s Whizzers 202, USA 5, USN (Bu No. 121445), Jane I.  This aircraft was scrapped at the Naval Air Test Center (NATC) Patuxent River, Maryland.  (USN Photos)

* Photos 1-7.  Arado Ar 234B-2, (Wk. Nr. 140312), coded F1+DR, allocated to the USA by the RAF as USA 50, redesignated FE-1010, later T2-1010, Wright Field, Ohio, ca 1945. This aircraft is now on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.  This Ar 234 B-2 was F1+DR, a detail not known when it was restored and painted as F1+GS.  (USAAF Photos)

After the war ended, a race began to collect advanced technology. Ar 234s were scattered all over Western Europe, and the British obtained about a dozen of them. The Soviets apparently only recovered one. For whatever reasons, the Ar 234 had been primarily used in the west.

The Ar 234C was equipped with four BMW 003A engines to free up Junkers Jumo 004s from use by the Me 262. The utilization of four engines improved overall thrust, especially in take-off and climb-to-altitude performance. 15 prototypes of the AR 234C were completed before the end of the conflict. Although Hauptmann Dieter Lukesch was preparing to form an operational test squadron, the Ar 234C was not developed in time to participate in actual combat operations.[6]

Four Ar 234s along with an assortment of other advanced Luftwaffe aircraft and shipped to the USA on the “jeep” carrier HMS Reaper. Three were given to the US Army Air Force and one to the US Navy, though the Navy’s aircraft turned out to be in permanently unflyable condition. One of the three obtained by the USAAF, (Wk. Nr. 140312), was put through intensive tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and ultimately handed on to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air & Space Museum, where it is now prominently on display.[7]

* Photos 1-3.  Arado Ar 234B-2, (Wk. Nr. 140312), USA 50, FE-1010, T2-1010, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.  (Kogo Photos)

Only one Ar 234 survives today. The National Air & Space Museum‘s Arado Ar 234B-2 Blitz bomber (US Navy Bu 140312), and coded F1+GS, is on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Virginia.[8] The aircraft is an Ar 234B-2 bomber variant carrying Werknummer (manufacturer’s serial number) 140312, and was one of nine Ar 234s surrendered to British forces at Sola Airfield near Stavanger, Norway. The aircraft had been operating with 9. Staffel III./Kampfgeschwader 76 (later reorganised as Einsatzstaffel) during the final weeks of the war, having operated previously with the 8th squadron, carrying the full-four-character Geschwaderkennung military code of “F1+GS” on the fuselage sides.(Kogo Photo)

This aircraft and three others were collected by the famous “Watson’s Whizzers” of the USAAF to be shipped back to the United States for flight testing. Two aircraft were given freely but a further two had been traded to Watson by Eric “Winkle” Brown (test pilot and CO of the Enemy Aircraft Flight at the RAE) in exchange for an interview with Hermann Göring who was then being held by the Americans.

The aircraft was flown from Sola to Cherbourg, France on 24 June 1945 where it joined 34 other advanced German aircraft shipped back to the USA aboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Reaper. Reaper departed from Cherbourg on 20 July, arriving at Newark, New Jersey eight days later. Upon arrival two of the Ar 234s were reassembled (including 140312) and flown by USAAF pilots to Freeman Field, Seymour, Indiana Indiana for testing and evaluation. 140312 was assigned the foreign equipment number FE-1010. The fate of the second Ar 234 flown to Freeman Field remains a mystery. One of the remaining two was reassembled by the United States Navy at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, for testing, but was found to be in unflyable condition and was scrapped.

After receiving new engines, radio and oxygen equipment, 140312 was transferred to Wright Field near Dayton, Ohio and delivered to the Accelerated Service Test Maintenance Squadron (ASTMS) of the Flight Test Division in July 1946. Flight testing was completed on 16 October 1946 though the aircraft remained at Wright Field until 1947. It was then transferred to Orchard Place Airport in Park Ridge, Illinois, and remained there until 1 May 1949 when it, and several other aircraft stored at the airport were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution. During the early 1950s the Ar 234 was moved to the Smithsonian’s Paul Garber Restoration Facility at Suitland, Maryland for storage and eventual restoration.

The Smithsonian began restoration of 140312 in 1984 and completed it in February 1989. All paint had been stripped from the aircraft before the Smithsonian received it, so the aircraft was painted with the markings of an aircraft of 8./KG 76, the first operational unit to fly the “Blitz”. The restored aircraft was first displayed at the Smithsonian’s main museum building in downtown Washington D.C. in 1993 as part of a display titled “Wonder Weapon? The Arado Ar 234”. In 2005 it became one of the first aircraft moved to the new Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Dulles International Airport.  Today, (Wk. Nr. 140312) is displayed next to the last surviving Dornier Do 335, an aircraft that had accompanied it on its voyage across the Atlantic Ocean aboard the Reaper over 60 years earlier.

This aircraft is displayed with a pair of Hellmuth Walter designed, liquid-fueled RATO units mounted under its wings. These RATO units may be the only surviving examples to be mounted on an aircraft.[9]

[1] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arado_Ar_234.

[2] David Donald, Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Aerospace Publishing London, 1994, p. 21.

[3] Internet: http://www.century-of-flight.freeola.com.

[4] Internet: http://www.faqs.org/docs/air/avar234.html.

[5] Internet: http://www.faqs.org/docs/air/avar234.html.

[6] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arado_Ar_234.

[7] Internet: http://www.axishistory.com.

[8] Internet: http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/aero/aircraft.

[9] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arado_Ar_234.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 234B-2, (Wk. Nr. 140355) captured by the Soviet Union during the first stage of  test flights at Puetnitz.  One aircraft Arado-234C and two Heinkel-162 were also shipped to Moscow for testing.  (Soviet Air Force Photo)

The Soviet Air Force tested Arado Ar 234, (Wk. Nr. 140355) in Germany in March 1945.  This aircraft's landing gear, wing, and some primary members of the fuselage had been damaged during a forced landing.  The aircraft was rebuilt at a repair plant in the town of Ribnitz, but one of its Junkers engines malfunctioned during its first flight in June 1945.  An Air Forces Scientific Research Institute brigade again repaired the aircraft and performed the first stage of flight-testing in Germany.  In January-February 1946, Major A G. Kubyshkin flew five Arado sorties.  During that time, two engines malfunctioned.   On 26 January, a port engine failed during climb-out and, exactly 1 month later, the starboard engine flamed out during the takeoff roll.  Fires occurred both times, but the aircraft were rescued.  Having had the opportunity to compare the German Jets, Soviet Engineer-Lieutenant Colonel A. G. Kochetkov thought that the Arado was more difficult to handle than the Me 262.

* Photo.  Arado Ar 234C four-engine variant.  The Soviet Union shipped one Arado-234C and two Heinkel-162 to Moscow for testing.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photos 1-6.  Arado Ar-234 V13 with BMW-003 engines, four-engine variants.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Arado E.381 Kleinstjäger (smallest fighter), a proposed parasite fighter aircraft.  Conceived by Arado Flugzeugwerke in December 1944, the E.381 was to have been carried aloft by and launched from an Arado Ar 234 "mother" aircraft.  It would then have activated its rocket engine, which would have propelled it to attack Allied bombers. Development was cancelled due to lack of funds and official support.  There were three proposed variants; each had fuel capacity for only two target runs, after which the pilot would have been required to glide without power to a landing on under-belly skids.  To survive close pursuits, the E.381 was designed with the narrowest frontal cross section possible to increase its chances of surviving shots from the front.  This also forced the pilot to lie in a prone position.  The cross-section was 0.45 square meters (4.8 sq ft), or approximately a quarter of the cross section of the Messerschmitt Bf 109.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photo.  Arado E.555, (model) bomber proposed by the Arado company in response to the Amerika Bomber project.  This was an initiative of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (Germany Air Ministry), RLM, to obtain a long-range bomber for the Luftwaffe that would be capable of striking the continental United States from Germany.  Requests for designs were made to the major German aircraft manufacturers early in the Second World War, long before the US had entered the war.  There were a several different configurations of the design considered, the most striking being the E.555-1.  This was a six-jet, angular flying wing design, with remotely operated turrets, and capable of carrying a large payload.  All of these projects were deemed too expensive and plans for development were abandoned in late 1944.  (Juergen Kleuser Photo)

Arado E.560, a series of multi-enginedmedium-range tactical bombers projected during the Second World War.  The  E.560 designs were part of the propaganda-based Wunderwaffeconcept.  None of the projected bombers were built as the project took place near the end of the Third Reich and was terminated by the end of the war in Europe.  The Arado E.560 designs were a development based on the Arado 234 and they share some characteristics with that plane.  Only five designs of Ar E.560 variants have survived; the remaining are unknown. Except for two variants which were propeller-driven aircraft, the other three E.560 designs were to be powered by turbojets.  The Ar E.560 2 was a four-engined bomber project powered by four-row radial propeller engines.  The Ar E.560 4 was to be a turbo-powered four engine jet with swept back wings.  The Ar E.560 7 was a smaller twin engine turboprop bomber with swept back wings.  The Ar E.560 8 was a six engine turboprop bomber with swept back wings.  The Ar E.560 11 was a four engine turbojet bomber with swept back wings.  They were all equipped with retractable tricycle undercarriage.  All of the Arado E.560 variants had a pressurized cockpit for a crew of two located at the front end of the fuselage.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Arado Ar 240, heavy fighter/attack (prototype) in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Arado Ar 440 heavy fighter/attack derived from Ar 240 (prototype).

 

* Photos 1-3.  Bachem Ba 349A-1 Natter in the vertical launch position in Germany, 1945.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Bachem Ba 349 Natter

The Bachem Ba 349A Natter is a single-seat part-expendable target-defence interceptor powered by one 3,748-lb thrust Walter HWK 109-509A-2 bi-propellant rocket motor and four 2,640-lb thrust Schmidding 109-533 booster rockets. It was launched vertically, and had a maximum speed of 497-mph, a climb-rate of 36,415 ft per minute and a service ceiling of 45,920’. It had a radius of action at 39,360’ of 25 miles. The Natter weighed 4,840 lbs at takeoff. It had a wing span of 12 feet, and a length of 20 feet.[1]

* Photos 1 -3.  Bachem Ba 349A-1 Natter recovered in Germany by American troops at St. Leonhard im Pitztal, Austria in May 1945.  (US Army Photos)

 (Aconcagua Photo)

* Photo.  Bachem Ba 349A-1 Natter replica on display in the Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany. This Natter is said to have been reconstructed partly from sub-assemblies that survived the end of the war. This machine is of the experimental type as launched from the steel tower and is painted to look like an M17.

* Photos 1-3.  Bachem Ba 349 Natter in the USA, being prepared for storage with the NASM. This Natter was recovered in Germany by American troops at St. Leonhard im Pitztal, Austria in May 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Bachem Ba 349 Natter on display in the USA, prior to being stored with the NASM.  This Natter was recovered in Germany by American troops at St. Leonhard im Pitztal, Austria in May 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Bachem Ba 349 Natter on display in the USA, prior to being stored with the NASM.  (SDASM Photo)

* Photo.  Bachem Ba 349 Natter on display in the USA.  (Edgar Diegan Photo)

* Photo.  Bachem Ba 349A-1, T2-1 in the Smithsonian Institute National Air and Space Museum’s Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility. This Natter was recovered in Germany by American troops at St. Leonhard im Pitztal, Austria in May 1945.    (Creanium Photo)

The Natter’s weapon systems were simple and potentially devastating. They comprised either a honeycomb loaded with 24 electrically fired 73-mm Föhn spin-stabilized unguided air-to-air rockets, or 33 R4M 55-mm spin-stabilized rockets, or (projected) two 30-mm MK 108 cannon each with 30 rpg .or 32 R40 air-to-air missiles located behind a jettisonable cover in nose section. The alternative, the Rheinmetall SG 119 consisted of six clusters, each cluster containing seven MK108 barrels grouped together in a cylinder with the clusters arranged about the Viper’s nose as in a revolver.

In April 1945, French armour advanced into Waldsee near Berlin, where the Natter’s were being assembled, and captured a great number of spare parts. Only a few days before the French arrived, fifteen rocket engines destined for Vipers had been thrown into Lake Waldsee to prevent their capture. The secret was not well kept however and all were later recovered.

Plans for mass production of the Ba 349 A-1 were authorized on 1 March 1945, but only a few Natters were actually completed. These were followed by the improved Ba 349 B-1 (Entwurf 2) interceptors which were to be produced at Waldsee, but few were actually completed.

One of the models was powered by a solid-fuel rocket to evaluate takeoff characteristics. Practical tests were carried out at Peenemünde, where a first test conducted during February 1945, proved unsuccessful. Willy A. Fiedler, a testing engineer working for the RLM, was sent to the Heuberg Hills to oversee the program. Erich Bachem is quoted after the war as having said that about twenty Vipers had been used for practical tests. Fifteen were of the A-series, and four B-series aircraft. All were constructed at Waldsee. Still others were assembled by the Wolf Hirth glider factory. Four additional Ba 349s, possibly of the B-series, were captured at the end of the war by Allied forces near St. Leonhard, Austria.[2]

Only two Bachem Natters are known to exist.   The NASM has an original Ba 349A-1 Natter. It appears that this machine was captured at St. Leonhard in the Pitztal, Austria in May 1945 by US troops. It was then shipped to Freeman Field, Indiana, for analysis. Captured equipment number T2-1 was assigned to the Natter and the USAF transferred it to the National Air Museum (now the NASM) on 1 May 1949.[3]

The Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany, displays a Ba 349A-1 which is a partial replica, and is restored in the colours and markings of one of the unmanned test aircraft. This machine is of the experimental type as launched from the steel tower and is painted to look like M17. The Natter displayed at the Deutsches Museum is said to have been reconstructed partly from sub-assemblies that survived the end of the war.

There are several static reproductions of Natters around the world, for example at the “Planes of Fame“, Chino, California and “Fantasy of Flight“, Polk City, Florida, USA.

* Photo.  Bachem Ba 349A-1, Fantasy of Flight Museum, Polk City, Florida.  (Author Photos)

[1] David Donald, Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Aerospace Publishing London, 1994, p. 23.

[2] Internet: http://www.century-of-flight.freeola.com.

[3] Internet: http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/aero/aircraft.

 

* Photos 1-3.  Paul Bäumgartl and Heliofly III/57 diagrams.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Baumgärtl Heliofly III/57

The Baumgärtl Heliofly III/57 and Baumgärtl Heliofly III/59 were 1940s experimental backpack helicopters designed and built by the Austrian-designer Paul Bäumgartl. Following on from his earlier experiments with strap-on autgyros the Heliofly III/57 was powered by two 8 hp (6 kW) Argus As 8 piston engines each driving a single-blade of the contra-rotating rotors. A problem with the supply of the As 8 engine forced a re-design to use one 16 hp (12 kW) engine, powering two rotors on a common co-axial shaft, with the engine driving one rotor directly and the other through gearing to overcome the torque effect.[1]

A further development was called the Helio- fly III/59, powered with a more powerful 16hp engine. Its dry weight was only 35kg and the takeoff weight was about 120kg. Baumgärtl had made several flights, but the desperate military situation by the end of the war put an end to his extraordinary project.

[1] Internet: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baumg%C3%A4rtl_Heliofly_III.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Blohm + Voss BV 40, glider interceptor (prototype).  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Blohm + Voss BV 138, flying-boat (early versions as Ha 138) in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

  

* Photo.  Blohm + Voss BV 138C, Hemnesfjorden, Norway, being serviced by its Luftwaffe crews.  (Karl Marth Photo)

* Photo.  Blohm + Voss BV 138C-1 reconnaissance seaplane, abandoned at Tromsø in Norway, 1945.  Possibly (Wk. Nr. 0310081), captured at Kastrup-See.  If so, this aircraft was designated RAF AM70, scrapped at Felixstowe, England in 1948.  (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Blohm + Voss BV 138C seaplane being pulled from the water at at Kirkenes, Norway, during the Second World War.  In the left background is a Heinkel He 115 float plane from Küstenfliegergruppe 406 coded K6+EH.  (USN Photo, NH 45564, Naval History and Heritage Command)

Blohm + Voss BV 138

The Blohm + Voss BV138 Seedrache (Sea Dragon), but nicknamed Der Fliegende Holzschuh ("flying clog", from the side-view shape of its fuselage) was trimotor flying boat that served as the Luftwaffe's main seaborne long-range maritime patrol and naval reconnaissance aircraft. A total of 297 BV 138s were built between 1938 and 1943. The aircraft was unusually powered by three engines, with one mounted high above the centerline driving a four-blade propeller, and one on each wing driving three-blade propellers.

The first of the 227 standard service variant, BV 138 C-1, began service in March 1941. Although various versions of the aircraft carried a variety of armament, the standard included two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons, one in a power-operated bow turret and one in a power-operated stern turret, up to three 7.92 mm MG 15 machine guns, and a 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine gun in the aft center engine nacelle. It could carry up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of bombs or depth charges (under the starboard wing root only) or, in place of these, up to 10 passengers. Several were later fitted with FuG 200 Hohentwiel low-UHF band search radar for anti-shipping duties. Some were converted for the minesweeper role, as the BV 138 MS variant, with the "MS" suffix signifying Minensuch (German for mine-clearing, literally mine-search), carried a circular ring-shape degaussing device, a hoop with the same diameter as the length of the fuselage (encircling the entire hull), and field-generating equipment, instead of weapons.

Blohm + Voss BV 138, flying-boat, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured at Kastrup-See.  Designated AM69, this aircraft was scrapped at Felixstowe.

Blöhm & Voss BV 138, flying-boat, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured at Kastrup-See.  Designated AM71, this aircraft was scrapped at Felixstowe.

* Photo.  Blohm + Voss BV 138 wreckage on display in the National Museum of Science and Technology (Danmarks Tekniske Museum) in Elsinore, Denmark. The wing spar is poised over the aircraft in the same position as it was, when the wreck was discovered in The Sound, off of Copenhagen.  (Uffe R.B. Anderson Photo)

No complete Bv 138s remain in existence. However, the wreck of one aircraft, sunk after the war in a British air show, was raised from the seabed of the Øresund Sound in 2000, and is on display at the Danish Technical Museum in Helsingør. In June 2013, a vessel from the Norwegian Geological Survey filmed a Blohm + Voss BV 138 at a depth of 35 m in Porsangerfjorden, Norway, not far from the Second World War German seaplane harbour in Indre Billefjord.[1]

[1] Internet: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blohm_%26_Voss_BV_138.

* Photo.  Blohm + Voss BV 139 long-range seaplane in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photos 1-8.  Blohm + Voss BV 141 asymetrical tactical reconnaissance aircraft in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Blohm + Voss BV 142, reconnaissance transport.   (Luftwaffe Photos)

Blohm + Voss BV 144, transport (prototype).

* Photos 1-3.  Blohm + Voss BV 155B V-2.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Blohm + Voss Bv 155B V-2

The BV 155 was designed to be a single-engine high performance fighter aircraft capable of capable of intercepting bombers at high altitudes and conducting reconnaissance as a secondary mission. One variant was also intended to operate from aircraft carriers with a tailhook system. The Bv 155 was powered by one Daimler-Benz DB 603 U engine and the Heinkel-Hirth TKL 15 turbo supercharger. It was armed with one MK 108 30-mm cannon in the nose and two 20-mm MG 151 cannons in the wing.

The BV 155 featured an armoured, pressurized cabin with an ejection seat, high aspect ratio laminar-flow wings, wide-track landing gear, and a very advanced, though troublesome and complex, propulsion system. An air scoop located on the underside of the fuselage at the trailing edge of the wing fed outside air to the TKL 15 turbo-supercharger. The supercharger compressed the air and fed it to an intercooler mounted above. A pipe semi-recessed into the left fuselage (visible below the cockpit and above the long exhaust pipe) fed the cooled, high-pressure air from the intercooler forward to the engine-driven supercharger.  Blohm + Voss designed the BV 155 to reach speeds of about 430-mph at over 50,000’.

* Photos 1-4.  Blohm + Voss BV 155B V-2, Farnborough, England. before being transferred to the USAAF, where it was designated USA FE-505.  (RAF Photos)

Blohm + Voss completed the BV 155B V1 (V for Versuch, German for experiment) and the first of three prototypes flew on 8 February 1945 out of newly armoured hangars at Finkenwerder, near Hamburg. On 8 February the V1 took to the air but the right radiator leaked badly and chief test pilot Helmut “Wasa” Rodig terminated the flight. Following repairs, the aircraft flew twice more on 10 and 26 February. Repairs followed each flight but it is doubtful that the airplane flew again after the 26th.

All work had stopped on the third prototype, BV 155 V3, as Blohm + Voss concentrated on finishing the V2, but the war ended first. The British Army occupied Hamburg on 3 May 1945 and found the three prototypes at the factory. British officials examined the V1 and decided it was airworthy then directed an RAF pilot to fly it to England. The airplane crashed shortly after takeoff from the factory and was destroyed.  The British gathered up V2 and V3 and shipped them to the test establishment at Farnborough, England, for evaluation. They seriously considered completing the V2 for flight test but in the end, simply displayed the aircraft in October-November 1945 and then stored it.

* Photo.  Blohm + Voss Bv 155B V2, USA FE-505, in storage at the Garber Facility, Paul E. Garber Facility in Silver Hill, Maryland.  (NASM Photo)

For years, the identification of the National Air & Space Museum's Bv 155B was mysterious. Historians knew the British shipped a Bv 155B to the US after the war and that the US Army Air Forces evaluated it at Wright Field, Ohio. They eventually transferred it (bearing Foreign Equipment Number FE-505) to the National Air & Space Museum. Most sources claimed this was the unfinished V3 prototype. In 1998, two restoration specialists reassembling the parts stored at the Paul E. Garber Facility in Silver Hill, Maryland, were amazed to discover nearly the entire V2 airframe. Except for wiring harnesses the factory never hooked up and other small parts, the aircraft appears to be 90-95% complete, including most of the propulsion system. German documents verify that the V3 was only half-finished at war’s end and the discovery of “V2” stamped into both sides of the windshield frame seemed to prove conclusively that the NASM aircraft is in fact the second prototype. The BV 155B V-2, (Wk. Nr. 360052) in the NASM is also the last surviving aircraft built by Blöhm und Voss during the company’s 12-year foray into aviation.[1]

[1] Internet: http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/aero/aircraft.

* Photo.  Blohm + Voss Bv 222 Wiking in flight.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Blohm + Voss Bv 222 Wiking

Three Blohm + Voss BV 222 Wikings were captured and subsequently operated by Allied forces: C-011, C-012, and C-013. C-012, captured at Sørreisa in Norway after the war along with V2, was flown by Captain (N) Eric Brown from Norway to the RAF station at Calshot in 1946, with RAF serial number VP501.  After testing at Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment at Felixstowe it was assigned to No. 201 Squadron RAF, who operated it up to 1947, when it was scrapped.

* Photos 1-3.  Blohm & Voss BV 222 Wiking, RAF C-012, (Wk. Nr. 330052), RAF VP501, R.  (RAF Photos)

Blohm + Voss BV 222 Wiking, transport flying-boats.  Several were flown by the RAF.  The white aircraft marked R is Bv 222C-012 (Wk. Nr. 330052), RAF VP501, captured at Sorreisa in northern Norway.  None of these aircraft have survived.  (RAF Photos)

* Photo.  Blohm + Voss BV 222 Wiking, transport flying-boat with American flag, designated USA C-011 or C-113, Trondheim Fjord, 27 Aug 1945.  (USN Photo)

* Photos 1-3. Blohm + Voss BV 222 seaplane at Trondheim, Norway, undergoing tests by the U.S. Navy, ca 1945-46.  This aircraft is one of two flown by the USN, designated USA C-011 and C-113.  (USN Photos)

BV 222, USA C-011 and C-013 were captured by US forces at the end of the Second World War. On 15 August and again on 20 August 1945, LCdr Richard Schreder of the US Navy performed test flights along with the Luftwaffe crew of one of the Bv 222 Wiking aircraft that had been acquired by the US. In two flights resulting in a total flight time of 38 minutes they experienced 4 engine fires. While many spare engines were available they were of substandard quality due to the lack of quality alloys near the end of the war, and caught fire easily. Since the aircraft was unairworthy with these engines, the aircraft was supposedly taken out to open water and sunk by a Navy Destroyer.

Other reports indicate the US captured aircraft were flown or shipped to the US. Convair acquired one for evaluation at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, the intensive studies leading to the hull design of their Model 117 which in turn led to the R3Y Tradewind. Their subsequent fate is unknown. The V2 aircraft briefly wore US markings in 1946. Strangely the V2 aircraft had identification markings given to her from the original V5 aircraft for Operation Schatzgräber.

V2 was later scuttled by the British who filled her with Bv 222 Wiking spare parts from the base at Ilsvika to weigh her down. V2 was towed to a position between Fagervika and Monk’s island where it is thought she now rests perfectly preserved on the seabed, owing to low oxygen levels in the water. There are plans to raise and restore this aircraft.[1]

[1] Internet: http://www.ww2aircraft.net/forum/aircraft-pictures/captured-aircrafts-uk-32131-3.html.

* Photos 1-3.  Blohm + Voss BV 238, flying-boat (prototype).  (Luftwaffe Photos)   

Blohm + Voss Ha 140 torpedo bomber flying-boat (prototype).

* Photos 1 & 2.  Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann, biplane trainer on display in the Fantasy of Flight Museum, Polk City, Florida.  (Author Photos)

Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann, biplane trainer (Wk. Nr. 4477), GD+EG of Luftdienst, RAF DR626, seerved with the RAF Telecommunications Flying Unit (TFU) until it was struck off charge in Nov 1941.

* Photo.  Bücker Bü 133C Jungmeister, aerobatic biplane trainer, on display in the Fantasy of Flight Museum, Polk City, Florida.  (Author Photo)

Bücker Bü 180 Student, trainer.

Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann, trainer and light transport (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured at Husum.  Designated RAF AM121, this aircraft was likley scrapped at Woodley, England.

Bücker Bü 181C-3 Bestmann, trainer and light transport (Wk. Nr. 120417), captured at Husum.  Designated RAF AM121, this aircraft held Reg No. G-AKAX until it was scrapped at Denham, England in 1950.

* Photo.  Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann, trainer and light transport on display in the Fantasy of Flight Museum, Polk City, Florida. (Author Photo)

* Photo.  Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann, armed for the "tank busting" role carrying four Panzerfaust anti-tank grenade launchers from wing-mounted launchers (C-3 subtype).  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann

The Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann was a two-seater, single-engine aerobatic monoplane aircraft built by Bücker Flugzeugbau GmbH in Rangsdorf, near Berlin and extensively used by the Luftwaffe in the Second World War.  Over 4,000 Bü 181s were built. Only about 10 examples remain, none in flying condition.

The Bücker Bü 181 was named Bestmann after a German maritime term designating a member of the deck crew on coastal or fishing vessels. The prototype Bü 181 (D-ERBV) made its maiden flight in February 1939 with Chief Pilot Arthur Benitz at the controls. After official flight testing by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) the Bü 181 was nominated to be the standard primary trainer for the Luftwaffe. Series production of the Bü 181 commenced in 1940. The production types were designated B to C with only slight variations between each, and could be powered by the Hirth HM 500 A or B.

Although built primarily as a trainer for the Luftwaffe, the type also performed other duties such as courier & liaison. From March 1945 an order was issued to concentrate all the available Bü 181s to be converted either to the "tank busting" role carrying four Panzerfaust anti-tank grenade launchers from wing-mounted launchers (C-3 subtype), or to the night harassment role carrying three 50 kg bombs (B-3 subtype), most likely inspired by the Soviet female nocturnal Nochnye Vedmy units' campaigns from 1942 to V-E Day. These units saw very limited use in the final days of the war due to the war situation. However, some missions were carried out, achieving moderate success but at the price of severe losses. One restored Bestmann in the tank buster configuration is on display at the Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin. Test pilot, and sister-in-law of Claus von Stauffenberg, Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg was flying a Bücker Bü 181 when she was shot down and fatally wounded in 1945.[1]

The RAF flew two, Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann, (Wk. Nr. unknown), RAF AM121, captured at Husum and believed to have been scrapped at Woodley in England, and Bücker Bü 181C-3, (Wk. Nr. 120417), RAF AM122, also captured at Husum, Reg. No. G-AKAX, scrapped at Denham, England in 1950.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann, trainer and light transport, possibly USAF FE-4611, later T2-4611, or FE-4612, Freeman Field, Indiana, ca 1945.  FE-4611 is preserved in the NASM Paul E. Garber facility, Suitland, Maryland, and FE-4612 was scrapped at Freeman Field in 1946.  (USAAF photos)

Two were brought to the USA, Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann, (Wk. Nr. unknown), USA FE-4611, now on display in the NASM’s Garber facility, and FE-4612, which was scrapped at Freeman Field in 1946.

[1] Internet: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%BCcker_B%C3%BC_181.

Bücker Bü 182 Kornett, trainer (prototype).

* Photo.  DFS 108-49 Grunau Baby glider, (Wk. Nr. 031016), designated USA FE-2600, later T2-2600, at Freeman Field.  (US National Archives Photo 80G-4Z0983)

DFS 108-49 Grunau Baby glider, (Wk. Nr. 031016), shipped to the USA where it was designated USA FE-2600, later T2-2600.  This aircraft-NC, is on display in the NASM, Washington, D.C.  

DFS 108-49 Grunau Baby glider, (Wk, Nr. possibly 030240),  FE-2601 was sold as a surplus aircraft, possibly Reg. No. N69720.

* Photo.  DFS 108-14 Schugleiter SG38.  (Richard Peter, Deutsche Fototek)  

DFS 108-14 Schugleiter SG38, USA FE-5004 was scrapped at Freeman Field in 1946.  

DFS 108-14 Schugleiter SG38 FE-5005 was last reported at Wright Field in 1948, subsequent fate unknown but possibly in storage with the NASM.

* Photo.  DFS 230 Glider, Italy.  (Bundesarchiv Photo, Bild 101I-567-1519-18)

 

* Photo.  DFS 230 Glider, Gran Sasso, Italy.  (Bundesarchiv Photo, Bild 101I-567-1503A-02)

 * Photo.  DFS Glider in flight, Italy.  (Bundesarchiv Photo, Bild 101I-568-1530-13)

DFS 230 Glider

The DFS 230 Glider was a Luftwaffe transport glider operated by the Luftwaffe. It was developed in 1933 by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug (DFS - “German Research Institute for Sailplane Flight”) with Hans Jacobs as the head designer. The glider was the German inspiration for the British Hotspur glider and was intended for paratrooper assault operations. The glider could carry 9 soldiers with equipment or a payload of about 1,200 kg. The usual tug was a Ju 52 but tugs included Ju 87 and Ju 88 tow planes. They were used in the airborne assault landings at Fort Eben-Emael and Crete, as well as in North Africa and in the rescue of Benito Mussolini and for supplying the defenders of Festung Budapest, until 12 February 1945.[1]

 

* Photo.  DFS 230 Glider captured by the RAAF.  (RAAF Photo)

One DFS 230 was captured by the Royal Australian Air Force. One DFS 230C, (Wk. Nr. 36-16) fuselage frame is with the Museum fur Verkher und Technik, Berlin. DFS 230A-2, (Wk. Nr. 120-02), KA+1-52 is on display in the Luftwaffen Museum der Bundeswehr, Berlin-Gatow, Germany (this aircraft is a replica containing original parts). The airframe remains of a DFS 230C-1 are preserved in a museum in Banja Luka, and another is in the Historical Museum, Sarajevo, both in Bosnia-Herzegovina. A DFS 230C-1 fuselage frame is on display in the Military Museum, Belgrade, Former Yugoslav Republic. This glider participated in the raid on Marshal Tito’s partisan headquarters. An original restored DFS 230A-2 fuselage is on display in the Eben Emael Fortress Museum, Belgium. Parts of a DFS 230 fuselage frame are in a private collection/War Museum in Sfakia on the Island of Crete, Greece. A nearly complete fuselage is on display in the Musée de l’Air, France. This glider’s remains were recovered from Vassieux en Vercors. Parts of several different DFS 230C-1 are with the Musée de la Résistance du Vercors, Champigny-sur-Marne near Paris and the Ailes Anciennes in France. A DFS 230 fuselage frame was recovered from a mountain in Norway and is being preserved for a museum.[2]

 (MisterBee1966 Photo)

* Photo. DFS 230A-2, (Wk. Nr. 120-02), KA+1-52, replica containing original parts on display in the Luftwaffen Museum der Bundeswehr, Berlin-Gatow, Germany.

[1] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DFS_230-A.JPG.

[2] Internet: http://www.preservedaxisaircraft.com/Luftwaffe/dfs/dfs.htm.

* Photo.  DFS 228, rocket-powered reconnaissance aircraft (prototype).  (Luftwaffe Photo)

DFS 331, transport glider (prototype).

* Photo.  DFS 346, rocket-powered reconnaissance aircraft (project completed by Soviets).   (Soviet Air Force Photo)  

* Photo.  Doblhof WNF 342V-4 helicopter, USA FE-4615, later T2-4615.  This helicopter was sent to General Electric, Schnectady, New York, last reported in 1949.  (NARA Photos)

Doblhof WNF 342V-4 helicopter

The Doblhof WNF 342V-4 helicopter was the fourth prototype constructed by Friedrich von Doblhoff as the world's first tip jet powered helicopter.  This helicopter used a seven cylinder Sh 14A radial engine that had powered an earlier model designated the V3.  All four Doblhof prototypes used an Argus As 411 supercharger as an air compressor.  The V4 was a two-seat version with a faired fuselage (the  prototypes were all single seat).  The helicopter was designed with a twin boom layout and had a single vertical stabilizer mounted on top of a horizontal tail that ran between the booms.  The V4 had a gross weight of 1411 pounds and a rotor diameter of 32.68 feet.  Testing of the WNF 342 V4 took place in the spring of 1945, with 25 hours of flying conducted before the war ended.  As the Soviet Army approached Vienna on 3 April 1945, the engineers and mechanics loaded the WNF 342 V4 onto a trailer and drove West for 12 days on roads overcrowded with other refugees until they encountered the American forces.  The German design team was the team was interrogated  by Allied intelligence and engineering officers, and then the V4 prototype was crated and shipped to the USA for further evaluation.  Friedrich von Doblhoff went to work for McDonald Aircraft, becoming their chief helicopter engineer and and worked on the McDonald XV-1 convertiplane and  the McDonald model 120 flying crane which both used the jet rotor and the pusher propeller. Theodor Laufer who had done the detailed design of the jet rotor went to work for France's Sud Aviation, where he was responsible for the Djinn (Genie) jet helicopter.  A. Stefan who had done the structural design and most of the test flying of the WFN 342s, joined Fairey Aviation in great Britain and contributed in the design of several jet rotor aircraft including the Fairey Gyrodyne helicopter and the giant 48 passenger Fairey Rotodyne convertiplane.[1]

[1] Internet: http://tofast2.0lx.net/germanvtol/wnffolder/wnfbase.html?ckattempt=1.

* Photo.  Dornier Do 10 (Do C1) 1931 biplane fighter (prototype).  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Dornier Do 11, (Do F) 1931 medium bomber.

Dornier Do 12 Libelle seaplane.

Dornier Do 13, 1933 medium bomber (prototype).

Dornier Do 14, seaplane (prototype).

* Photo.  Dornier Do 16 Wal, reconnaissance flying-boat.  Replica of the Dornier Wal N25 at the Dornier Museum Friedrichshafen and a Dornier Plus Ultra in the el Complejo Museográfico Provincial "Enrique Udaondo" de Lujan, Argentina.   (Dornier Museum Friedrichshafen Photo, and Jesús Manuel Cuartero Photo) 

* Photos 1 & 2.  Dornier Do 17, Fliegender Bleistift, mail-plane/bomber/reconnaissance/night-fighter.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 17E-2, (Wk. Nr. 2095), shipped to the USA, where it was designated USA FE-2000, later T2-2000.  It was named "Axis Sally".  This aircraft was scrapped in Sep 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

Dornier Do 17Z, (Wk. Nr. 1160), coded 5K+AR, from III./KG3, has been recovered from the sea off the English coast.  On 26 August 1940, 5K+AR was taking part in a raid by KG2 and KG 3, targeting the RAF stations.  While flying over clouds, the aircraft became separated from the bomber formation and lost its bearings; it was then attacked by Boulton-Paul Defiant fighters of RAF No. 264 Squadron.  One of the Dornier's engines was disabled and the other damaged, so the wounded pilot, Feldwebel  (Flight Sergeant) Willi Effmert, elected to make a crash landing on the Goodwin Sands.  He and another crew member survived and were taken prisoner.  The other two crew were killed.  The aircraft was raised on 10 June 2013, and taken to RAF Cosford where it is being restored.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Dornier Do 18, 1935 bomber/reconnaissance flying-boat.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Dornier Do 19, Ural Bomber design competitor (prototype).

* Photo.  Dornier Do 22, torpedo bomber/maritime reconnaissance, Do 22K at Helsinki-Malmi airport, Finland.   (Sot.virk. Niilo Helander Photo)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 22Kj, (Wk. No. 306).  A Do 22Kj (Wk. Nr. 309) of the Yugoslav Naval Air Service defected to the Allies.  Designated RAF AX712, it flew on anti-submarine patrols.  (Australian War Memorial Collection Photo MED0321)

Dornier Do 23, medium bomber

* Photo.  Dornier Do 24T-3 seaplane on the water.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Dornier Do 24

The Dornier Do 24 was a Luftwaffe air-sea rescue and transport flying boat powered by three BMW-Bramo 323R-2 Fafnir nine-cylinder radial engines. With 1,000 hp each for takeoff. It had a maximum speed of 206-mph, a service ceiling of 24,605’, and a range of 2,920 miles. It weighed 20,723 lbs empty and could be loaded to 40,565 lbs. Its wingspan is 88’7”, its length is 72’4” and its height is 18’10”. It was armed with one 7.9-mm MG 15 machinegun in the bow and in the stern turrets and one 20-mm Hispano Suiza 404 cannon in a dorsal turret.[1]

* Photos 1 & 2.  Dornier Do 24, reconnaissance bomber flying boat in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photo.  A fuselage of a Dornier Do 24T-3 at the “Technik Museum Speyer”, Speyer, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It was salvaged from Lake Müritz, Germany, in 1991.  (Stahlkocher Photo)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 24T-3, (Wk. Nr. No. 5342), coded X-24, formerly EC-DAF, is on loan to the Militaire Luchtvaart Museum in the Netherlands from the RAF Museum, Hendon, UK.  (Happy Days Photo)

One Do 24T-3, (Wk. Nr. No. 3387), coded KS+FA, 65-11, N99222, is preserved in the Deutsches Museum, Flugwerft Schleißheim, Germany. This aircraft is displayed in Spanish AF SAR. Its wings are from another Do 24, (Wk. Nr. 5345).

Do 24T-3, (Wk. Nr. 5341), coded HD.5-2, 99240, is displayed in the Museo del Aire, Madrid, Spain.

Do 24ATT (T-3), (Wk. Nr. 5345), coded R-C2403) has been completely restored and is now flying actively. It was bought by SeaAir Inc. to be used as executive aircraft in the Philippine Archipelago. It was previously on show at Deutsches Museum Munich, and was the prototype for the Do ATT with 3 PT-6A turboprops.  There are partial remains of other Do 24s in other museums in Australia, France and Germany.[2]

Dornier Do 24T-3, (Wk. Nr. unknown), AM115, was test flown by RCAF S/L Ian Somerville on 16 July 1945 at Schleswig-See. This aircraft was allocated RAF Serial No. VM483 on 2 October 1945 while in service with the Royal Aircraft Establishment‘s Foreign Aircraft Flight at Farnborough, UK at the end of the war.

Dornier Do 24 (Wk. Nr. unknown) in Soviet Air Force markings.  (Soviet Air Force Photo)

[1] David Donald, Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Aerospace Publishing London, 1994, p. 35

[2] Internet: www.preservedaxisaircraft.com.

* Photos 1 -4.  Dornier Do 26, long-range seaplane in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Dornier Do 214, transport flying-boat (project).

Dornier Do 215, bomber/night-fighter.

* Photo.  Dornier Do 217M-1, Luftwaffe.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Dornier Do 217M

The Do 217M was a Luftwaffe twin-engine four-seat night-interceptor and intruder-fighter bomber. The aircraft was powered by two Daimler Benz DB 603A 1`2-cylinder liquid-cooled engines each rated at 1,750 hp for take-off and 1,850 hp at 6,889’. It had a maximum speed of 264-mph and a maximum cruising speed of 289-mph at 17,716’. Its service ceiling was 27,559’ and its normal range was 1,090 miles. The aircraft weighed 30, 200 lbs empty and 43,607 lbs fully equipped. Its wing span is 52’4”, its length is 62’ and its height is 16’5”. The Do 217N-2/R22 night fighter variant was armed with four MG 17 machineguns in the fuselage nose, four 20-mm MG 151 cannon in the lower nose and four 20-mm MG 151 cannon firing upwards from the central fuselage, tilted forward 70°.[1]

The Do 217M was developed from the Do 217K-1 bomber which introduced by Dornier in the autumn of 1942. The Do 217K-1 had a new glazed nose incorporating an unstepped revised cockpit and defensive dispositions. The Do 217M-1 was essentially a Daimler-Benz DB 603A-powered version of the Do 217K-1, and the similar Do 217M-5 was equipped with an under fuselage rack for an Hs 293 missile. The Do 217M-3 was a DB 603A-engined equivalent of the Do 217K-3, and the Do 217M-11 was an extended-span missile-carrying equivalent of the Do 217K-2.

Production of all versions of the Do 217 totalled 1,730, and these aircraft were last used in large scale bombing operations against the UK in early 1944. By the middle of the year the majority remaining in service were missile carriers, and these continued to operate with limited success until the end of the war.[2]

A Do 217M was abandoned by its aircrew over England on the night of 23 February 1944, but made a perfect belly-landing near Cambridge over 62 miles away from London. The aircraft was soon flying again in RAF markings.

RCAF S/L Joe McCarthy test flew Dornier Do 217M-1, (Wk. Nr. 56527), RAF AM106, while serving with the Royal Aircraft Establishment‘s Foreign Aircraft Flight at Farnborough, UK at the end of the war.  Three examples had been selected for evaluation in the UK from a group captured at Beldringe, Denmark.  Two arrived at Farnborough, AM106 (scrapped in 1945) and (Wk. Nr. 56158), AM107 (scrapped in 1955).  A rear fuselage is all that survives from the remains of a Do 217 on display in the Italian Air Force Museum.

Dornier Do 217M, (Wk. Nr. unknown), selected for evaluation after capture at Beldringe, Denmark.  This aircraft was designated  RAF AM105.  It was scrapped at Beldringe, England.

Dornier Do 217M-1, (Wk. Nr. 56527), selected for evaluation in England after capture at Beldringe, Denmark.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM106.  It was scrapped at Farnborough in 1946.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Dornier Do 217M-1, (Wk. Nr. 56158), RAF AM107, Farnborough.  (RAF Photos)

Dornier Do 217M-1, (Wk. Nr. 56158), U5+, KG2, selected for evaluation in England after capture at Beldringe, Denmark.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM107, 6158.  It was scrapped at Bovingdon, England, in 1955.  (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 217M captured by the USSR in Soviet service.  (Soviet Air Force Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Dornier Do 217N-1 night-fighter coded SO+QY, captured by the USAAF in May 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 217M-9, (Wk. Nr. 0040), KF+JN, captured at Flensberg.  Designated RAF AM7, this aircraft was modified with vertical tail fins and rudders later used in the Do 317.  It was scrapped at Flensberg in 1945.  (RAF Photo)

[1] David Donald, Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Aerospace Publishing London, 1994, p. 45.

[2] Internet: http://www.century-of-flight.freeola.com.

Dornier Do 317, Bomber B design competitor (prototype).

 (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Dornier Do 335V-1 (Wk. Nr. 230001), first prototype, bearing the Stammkennzeichen (factory radio code) of CP+UA, first flew on 26 October 1943.

Dornier Do 335A Pfeil

The Dornier Do 335 was a Luftwaffe tandem twin-engine ground attack/close support fighter-bomber manufactured by Dornier-Werk GmbH. Models: A-1 (Single-seat fighter) & A-6 (Night fighter).  It was armed with one 30 mm MK103 cannon with 70 rounds, firing through the front propeller hub, and two 15 mm MG151/15 cannon with 200 r.p.g. above the nose, plus one 1,102 lb (500 kg) bomb or two 551 lb (250 kg) bombs internally and 551 lb (250 kg) bombs on underwing racks.  The Do 335 was powered by a pair of Daimler-Benz DB 603G 12-cylinder inverted-vee, liquid cooled engine with 1,900 hp each.  It was equipped with two different propellers, type VDM, with a diameter of 3.50m (front), and 3.30m (rear).  Fuel for the Do 335 is stored in two separate tanks behind the pilot’s seat (port tank for forward engine and starboard tank for rear engine).  It had a wing span of 45’4”, a length of 13.8m (45’6”) and a height of 5m (16’4”).  The A-1 version weighed 16,314 lbs empty and 16,975 lbs loaded. The A-6 version weighs 25,800 lbs loaded.  It has a maximum Speed of 664 kmh (413-mph) and a sustained speed of 768 kmh (477-mph) with emergency boost.  Its range with maximum fuel is 2,060 km (1,280 miles), and with drop tanks 3,750 (2,330 miles).

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335V-2, (Wk. Nr. 230002), Stammkennzeichen CP+UB, with its engines being run up.  This aircraft's rear engine caught fire and it was written off on 15 April 1944.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

At least 16 prototype Do 335s were known to have flown, including V1–V12, (Wk. Nrs. 230001-230012) and Muster-series prototypes M13–M17, (Wk. Nrs. 230013-230017), on a number of DB603 engine subtypes including the DB 603A, A-2, G-0, E and E-1.  The first preproduction Do 335 (A-0s) starting with (Wk. Nr. 240101), Stammkennzeichen VG+PG, were delivered in July 1944.  Approximately 22 preproduction aircraft were thought to have been completed and flown before the end of the war, including approximately 11 A-0s converted to A-11s for training purposes.  Dornier Do 335A-0, (Wk. Nr. 240121) or (Wk. Nr. 240161), (to be confirmed), and Dornier Do 335A-12, (Wk. Nr. 240112), captured by American forces at Oberpfaffenhoffen, were transferred to the RAF.

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335A-0, reported as (Wk. Nr. 240121) and (Wk. Nr. 240161), (unconfirmed), captured at Oberpfaffenhoffen, Germany by US forces.  This single seat version was taken over by the RAF.  It is shown here being examined by American soldiers.  Designated RAF AM225, this aircraft was test flown until it waswritten off after a landing accident in Merville, France on 13 December 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

Dornier Do 335A-1, reported as (Wk. Nr. 240121), and (Wk. Nr. 240161), (unconfirmed), RAF AM225, was a single-seat version of the Pfeil, which had been surrendered at the Dornier Oberpfaffenhofen factory and flown to Neubiberg under US control. It was an unpainted aircraft, which had not been delivered to the Luftwaffe.  It was handed over to the British authorities on 7 September and flown from Neuberg to Reims where it became unserviceable. After repairs, it was test flown at Reims on 9 and 12 December, and then flown to Marville, France on 13 December where it made a forced landing with the nose wheel retracted, and was later scrapped.  The only Do 335 parts sent to the UK included a single-seat fuselage, which was also scrapped at Farnborough.[1] 

* Photo.  Dornier Do335A-12, (Wk. Nr. 240112) captured by American forces at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.  (Wk. Nr. 240112) was traded to the RAF where it became AM223.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-4.  Dornier Do 335A-12 Pfeil, (Wk. Nr. 240112) at Farnborough, England, summer 1945.  This aircraft crashed on 18 Jan 1946.  (RAF Photos)

The Do 335A-12 Pfeil, (Wk. Nr. 240112), was captured by US forces at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, in May 1945.  RCAF Squadron Leader Joe McCarthy had traded 15 Focke-Wulf Fw 190 single engine fighters to the USAAF for this aircraft (No. 112).  This aircraft had its iron cross markings removed and USAAF star and bar markings had been painted on it.  Joe put the RAF roundels on the aircraft over the star, but one can still see the bar under the roundel in this photo taken at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough in England.  Designated RAF AM223, it was test flown at war’s end by RCAF S/L Joe McCarthy with the Royal Aircraft Establishment‘s Foreign Aircraft Flight at Farnborough, UK.  This aircraft came to a tragic end when, during a familiarization flight on 18 January 1946 the rear engine caught fire and the elevator controls burnt through. The aircraft plunged vertically into a school at Cove, Hampshire, killing RAF Group Captain Alan F. Hards.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Dornier Do 335A-11.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335A-12, 121 in the factory, unfinished, one of 11 aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen, plus 9 aircraft partially assembled, November – April 1945) and captured by American forces at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, May 1945.  20 Do 335A-1 aircraft included (Wk. Nrs. 240113, 240161-240170), intact, and (Wk. Nrs. 240301-240309), partially assembled.  Four partially assembled Do335A-4 (of 10 aircraft scheduled for January – February 1945) were also captured at Oberpfaffenhofen, (Wk. Nrs. 240310-240313).  One Do 335A-10, (Wk. Nr. 240111), which had flown in late Nov 1944 was captured.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335A, 107, overhead view of a factory fresh Pfeil on the tarmac.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

The A-1 version had a service ceiling of 37,400’ and the A-6 version had a service ceiling of 33,400’. The Do 335A-1 was armed with two 15-mm MG 151/15 machine guns above the nose and one 30-mm Mk 103 cannon firing through the propeller hub. The Do 335A-6 was armed with two 20-mm MG 151/20 machine guns above the nose and one 30-mm Mk 103 cannon firing through the propeller hub. The Do 335B-2 was armed with two 20-mm MG 151/20 machine guns above the nose, two 30-mm Mk 103 cannon mounted in the wings and one 30-mm Mk 103 cannon firing through the propeller hub. Avionics for the Do 335B-2 included a FuG 125a blind landing receiver and FuG 25a IFF.[1]

* Photo.  Captured Dornier Do 335A Pfeil. An American test pilot familiarizes himself with the controls of a USAAF-marked Dornier Do 335A Pfeil at a captured Luftwaffe airfield, surrounded by the wreckage of other German aircraft.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335A, (Wk. Nr. 240161), USA FE-1012, later T2-1012.  (USAAF Photo)

As far as is known, the Pfeil never entered into combat, although US pilots reported seeing the strange aircraft in the sky during sorties over Germany, and the Erprobungskommando was forced to send aircraft into a sky which could not be guaranteed as being free of hostile aircraft. In its single-seat version it was one of the fastest piston-engined fighters ever built, with a claimed top speed of around 475-mph (765 km/h). Despite this high performance, it was the much slower two-seat night-fighter version which would probably have proved the most effective if the war had continued. Equipped with excellent radar and powerful weapons, and blessed with good visibility, combat persistence and performance, the night-fighter would have wreaked havoc against the RAF bomber streams.

Flying the Pfeil was an experience, thanks to its high performance and unusual configuration. While the performance provided an exhilarating ride for the pilot, the configuration prompted some doubts. His main concern was the ejection seat, the Do 335 being only the second production type to feature this (after the Saab J21). Before firing the seat, explosive bolts which held the upper vertical tail surface and rear propeller were fired to clear a way for the egressing pilot. Despite the ejection seat, he had to jettison the canopy manually. As another safety feature, the lower vertical tail surface was jettisonable in case a wheels-up landing was attempted. The upper tailfin and the rear propeller were equipped with explosive bolts to separate them from the fuselage to avoid impacting the pilot in the case of ejection.[2]

When the US Army overran the Oberpfaffenhofen factory in late April 1945, only eleven Do 335A-1 single seat fighter-bombers and two Do 335A-12 conversion trainers had been completed. In his book The Big Show, French ace Pierre Clostermann claims the first Allied combat encounter with a Pfeil in April 1945. Leading a flight of four Hawker Tempests from No. 3 Sqn, RAF, over northern Germany, he intercepted by chance a lone Do 335 flying at maximum speed at treetop level. Detecting the British aircraft, the Luftwaffe pilot reversed course to evade. In spite of the Tempest’s considerable speed (equal to a North American P-51D Mustang's), the RAF fighters were not able to catch up or even get into firing position.[3]

[1] Phil Butler, War Prizes, p. 108.

* Photos 1-4.  Dornier Do 335B-2 prototype, (Wk. Nr. 230018), ex-RP+UB, (14/18), armed with an additional pair of Rheinmetall-Borsig Maschinenkanone MK103 30-mm autocannon, transferred to France and painted in Armée de l'Air markings.  (Armée de l'Air Photos)

   

* Photos 1-4.  Dornier Do 335V-17, B6 prototype, (Wk. Nr. 230016), coded RP+UE, No. 2, was transferred to France in the fall of 1945 and painted in French Armée de l'Air markings.  It was damaged in a landing accident and written off.   (Armée de l'Air Photos)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335A Pfeil being loaded on HMS Reaper for shipment to the USA.  (USN Photos)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335A-0 Pfeil (Arrow) (Wk. Nr. 240102), coded VG+PH, tail number 102, at Freeman Field, Indiana post war.  A second Do 335A (Wk. Nr. 240161), USA FE-1012 was probably scrapped at Freeman Field in 1946.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Dornier Do 335A-0, (Wk. Nr. 240102), coded VG+PH at NAS Norfolk.  This aircraft went to the USN Tactical Test Division at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland where it was allocated USN (BuNo. 121447) and examined from Dec 1945 to 31 Mar 1947, then stored at NAS Norfolk until 1961.  It went to the Smithsonian, and was eventually sent to Germany on 10 Oct 1974 to the original makers for refurbishment.  It was displayed in Deutsches Museum, Munich for a few years and then returned to the Smithsonian.  It is now on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  (USN Photos)

* Photo. Dornier Do 335A-02, (Wk. Nr. 240102), VG+PH, USN (BuNo. 121447), on display in the National Air and Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Washington-Dulles International Airport, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Ishaan Dalal Photo)

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335A-02 Pfeil, (Wk. Nr. 240102), VG+PH, USN (BuNo. 121447), on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Guinog Photo)

The Do 335A-1 is on display in the National Air and Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Washington-Dulles International Airport, Chantilly, Virginia, was the second Do 335A-0, designated A-02, with construction number (Werk-Nummer 240102) and factory registration VG+PH. It was built at Dornier’s Rechlin-Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, plant on 16 April 1945. It was captured by Allied forces at the plant on 22 April 1945.

After checkout, it was flown from a grass runway at Oberweisenfeld, near Munich, to Cherbourg, France. During this flight, the Do 335 easily out-climbed and outdistanced two escorting North American P-51D Mustangs, beating them to Cherbourg by 45 minutes. Under the US Army Air Force’s “Project Sea Horse,” two Do 335s were shipped to the United States aboard the Royal Navy ship HMS Reaper together with other captured Luftwaffe aircraft, for detailed evaluation.  This aircraft was assigned to the U.S. Navy, which tested it at the Test and Evaluation Center, Patuxent River Naval Air Station, Maryland.  The other aircraft, Dornier Do 335A, (Wk. Nr. 240161), with registration FE-1012 (later T2-1012), went to the USAAF at Freeman Field, Indiana, where it was tested in early 1946.  Its subsequent fate is unknown, and VG+PH is the only Do 335 known to exist.

Following Navy flight tests in 1945-48, the aircraft was donated to the Smithsonian’s National Air Museum in 1961 but was stored at NAS Norfolk until 1974. It was then returned to Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, where the Dornier Company restored it to original condition in 1975. The return trip to Germany required an exemption under U.S. laws concerning the export of munitions. The Dornier craftsmen doing the restoration, many of whom had worked on the original aircraft, were astonished to find that the explosive charges fitted to blow off the tail fin and rear propeller in an emergency were still in the aircraft and active, 30 years after their original installation!  The Do 335 was put on static display at the 1-9 May 1976, Hannover Air show, and then loaned to the Deutsches Museum in Munich, where it was on prominent display until returned to Silver Hill, Maryland, in 1986.[4]

* Photo.  Dornier Do 335A-02 Pfeil, (Wk. Nr. 240102), VG+PH, USN (BuNo. 121447), as restored by the Deutsches Museum.  (Dornier Photo)

[1] Internet: http://www.Warplanesresourcegroup.org/LRG/do335.html.

[2] Internet: http://www.century-of-flight.freeola.com.

[3] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dornier_Do_335.

[4] Internet: http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/aero/aircraft.

Dornier Do 435, (project).

Dornier Do 635, (project).

FGP 227, ¼ scale flying model of the Blöhm & Voss BV 238, flying-boat built to provide data for the development of the BV 238. Captured at Travemunde, this aircraft was designated RAF AM78.  It was scrapped at Felixstowe, England.

Fieseler Fi 5 1933 acrobatic sportsplane/trainer.

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 98, 1936 biplane ground attack (prototype).  (Im Auftrag des Fieseler Flugzeugbau Kassel - Archiv der Gerhard-Fieseler-Stiftung)

 

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, being wheeled into position by its German launch crew.  (Bundesarchiv Photo Bild 146-1975-117-26)

Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76

The Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76, was a small, fixed-wing pilotless aircraft powered by a pulsejet engine mounted above the rear fuselage. In effect, it was the world’s first operational cruise missile, and incorporated a simple flight control system to guide it to its target, an air log device to make it dive to the ground after travelling a preset distance and a warhead packed with high explosive. The first of these weapons landed in the London area in the early hours of 13 June 1944.[1]

The V-1 (Vergeltungswaffe Eins, or Vengeance Weapon One), name was given to it by Josef Goebbels’ Propaganda Ministry, but the original Air Ministry designation was Fieseler Fi 103, after its airframe designer, the Fieseler company. The missile also had the cover names of Kirschkern (Cherry Stone) and Flakzielgerät (Flak Target Device) 76 (FZG 76).  Powered by a simple but noisy pulsejet, thousands were launched on British and continental European targets from June 1944 to March 1945. [2]

There are at least 54 Fi 103 Flying bombs on display in museums around the world, including a V-1 on display in the Deutsches Technik Museum in Berlin.[3]

Australia.   Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in The Australian War Memorial in Canberra, Australia.

Belgium.   Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, (two), are with the Stampe et Vertongen Museum at Antwerp International Airport.  One is complete (Wk. Nr. 256978), that had been used as instructional material by the Germans, and one is in partial condition because it had been shot down but did not explode.

* Photos 1-3.  Canada.  Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Atlantic Canada Aviation Museum in Halifax, Nova Scotia.  (Author Photos)

Canada.   Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, preserved in the Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario,

Denmark.  Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in The Danish Defence Museum Tøjhusmuseet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

* Photo.  England.  Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display at Eden Camp Museum, Malton, England.  (ECM Photo)

England.  Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, (Wk. Nr. 442795), is on display at the Science Museum, London.  It was presented to the museum in 1945 by the War Office.

 

* Photo.  England.  Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the IWM, London.  (Florestan Photo)

* Photo.  England.  Fieseler Fi 103, V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, mounted on a partial ramp section, at the Imperial War Museum Duxford.  The museum also has a partially recreated launch ramp with a mock–up V-1 displayed outside.  (Martin Richards Photo)

England.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in addition to a V2 rocket at the RAF Museum Hendon, north London.

* Photo.  England.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in front of a V2 rocket in the RAF Museum Cosford.  (Rept0n1x Photo)

England.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display at the Aeropark at East Midlands Airport.

* Photo.  France.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, wreckage being examined by a Canadian soldier and a member of the French Resistance (F.F.I.), Foucarmont, France, 5 September 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3239436)

* Photo.  France.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display at Place de la mairie exposition de V-1, 22 Sep 1945.  (Musée de la Reddition, G. Garitan Photo)

* Photo.  France.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Museum of Air and Space Paris, Le Bourget, France.  (Pline Photo)

* Photo. France.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Musée de l’Armée, les Invalides Museum, Paris.  (Ben pccs Photo)

France.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in The Grand Bunker Museum in Ouistreham, Caen, near Sword Beach, Normandy.

* Photo.  France.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display beside the Blockhaus d'Éperlecques, near Saint-Omer.  Although this was intended as a V2 launch site the museum on the site has a display devoted to the V1, including a V1 cruise missile and an entire launch ramp.  (Alan Darles Photo)

France.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in Val-Ygot at Ardouval, north of Saint-Saëns.  This site was disabled by Allied bombing in December 1943, before completion.  There are remains of blockhouses, with a recreated launch ramp and mock V1.

France.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in La Coupole, near Saint-Omer.  This V-1 is on loan from the Science Museum in London, England.

* Photo.  Germany.  Rheintochter Anti-Aircraft Missile, Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, and Henschel Hs 293 air to surface missile, on display in the German Museum of Technology Berlin, Germany.  (Ricardo Reis Photo)

* Photo. Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Deutsches Museum, Munich.  (Softeis Photo)

Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, being restored in the Militarhistorisches Museum (MHM) Flugplatz-Gatow (previously known as the Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr), Berlin-Gatow.

The Netherlands.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Overloon War Museum in Overloon.

The Netherlands.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Museum Vliegbasis Deelen in Schaarsbergen.

New Zealand.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Auckland War Memorial Museum, Auckland.

New Zealand.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Museum of Transport and Technology, Auckland.

Sweden.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Arboga Missile Museum.

* Photo.  Switzerland.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in the Schweizerisches Militärmuseum Full; Aargau, Switzerland.  (SMF Photo)

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display at Freeman Field, Indiana, late in 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display at the US Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, Oklahoma.  (duggar11 Photo)

United States.  JB-2 Loon, on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio.  It was donated by the Continental Motors Corporation in 1957.

United States.  JB-2 Loon, on display at the NASM's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display as a war memorial in Greencastle, Indiana.

 

* Photo.  United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb  and a V2 rocket are on display in The Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.  (Kowloonese Photo)

United States.  JB-2 Loon engine is on display in The Planes of Fame air museum at Chino Airport in Chino, California.  The JB-2 engine has been restored to fully function.

United States.  JB-2 Loon, on open-air display at the Museum of Alaska Transportation and Industry in Wasilla, Alaska.

United States.  JB-2 Loon, also on open-air display at the Point Mugu Missile Park at Naval Air Station Point Mugu in California.

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display iat the Air Zoo in Portage, Michigan.

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, and a V2 rocket are on display in the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas.

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display at the Fantasy of Flight aviation museum in Polk City, Florida

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display in The U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama in their Rocket Park.

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, (Wk. Nr. 121536), is on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum, in Tucson, Arizona.  (Josh Hallett Photo)

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, on display outside at the southwest corner of the Putnam County Courthouse in Greencastle Indiana.

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103 V-1, FZG 76 flying bomb, and one Fieseler Fi 103 Re IV Reichenberg are on display at the Flying Heritage Collection, Paine Field, Everett, Washington.

* Photo.  Fi 103R Reichenberg Re III, trainer version.  (USAAF Photos)

Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re III

The Reichenberg Fi 103A-1/RE-III was the trainer version of the RIV. The front position was for the flight instructor. Two fuselages were found by the allied forces at the end of the War, at Tramm, near Dannenbergbut, Germany. Length: 8 m (26.24 ft) Wingspan: 5.72 m (18.76 ft) Loaded weight: 2,250 kg (4,960 lb) Power plant: 1 × Argus As 014 pulse jet, 350 kgf (770 lbf). Performance: Max speed: 800 km/h (500 mph (in diving flight) Cruise speed: 650 km/h (400 mph). Range: 330 km (205 miles).

The idea of putting a pilot in the Fi 103 V1 for special operations was proposed by Hanna Skorzeny, Otto Skorzeny and Heinrich Lange. Lange sought to form a special group of pilots who if need be would sacrifice themselves. At the same time the DFS were looking into such a idea since 1943, because tests using the Me P.1079 (Me 328) had found it was unsuitable. In 1944 the DFS was given the go ahead to develop such a weapon, given the code name "Reichenberg". With in fourteen days the DFS had designed, built, and tested the five different models needed to convert the volunteer pilots.  By October 1944 about 175 R-IVs were ready for action.

Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re I: Two man unpowered trainer

Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re II: Two man powered trainer

Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re III: One man powered trainer

Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV: Operational model

Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re V: Powered trainer for the He 162 with a shorter nose

The Re I was towed in to the air by a Henschel Hs 126, all the rest were air launched from the Heinkel He 111 H-22.  Volunteers were trained in ordinary gliders in order to give them the feel of unpowered flight.  The pilots then progressed to special gliders with shortened wings which could dive at speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph).  After this, they progressed to the dual-control Re II.

Training began on the Re I and Re II and although landing the aircraft on a skid was difficult, it handled well, and it was anticipated that the Leonidas Squadron would soon be using the machines.  Albert Speer wrote to Hitler on 28 July 1944 to say that he opposed wasting the men and machines on the Allies in France and suggested it would be better to deploy them against Russian power stations.

The first real flight was performed in September 1944 at the Erprobungsstelle Rechlin, the Reichenberg being dropped from a He 111. However, it subsequently crashed after the pilot lost control when he accidentally jettisoned the canopy.  A second flight the next day also ended in a crash, and subsequent test flights were carried out by test pilots Heinz Kensche and Hanna Reitsch.  Reitsch herself experienced several crashes from which she survived unscathed.  On 5 November 1944 during the second test flight of the Re III, a wing fell off due to vibrations, but Heinz Kensche managed to parachute to safety, albeit with some difficulty due to the cramped cockpit.

By October 1944 about 175 Fi 103 Reichenberg Re IV's were ready for combat with some 60 Luftwaffe personnel and 30 personnel from Skorzeny's commando unit, who joined Leonidas Staffel 5.II/KG 200(Heinrich Lange's special unit led by himself) to fly the aircraft in to combat.  Werner Baumbach assumed command of KG 200 in October 1944, however, the whole operation was shelved in favour of the "Mistel" program.  Baumbach and Speer eventually met with Hitler on 15 March 1945 and managed to convince him that suicide missions were not part of the German warrior tradition, and later that day Baumbach ordered the Reichenberg unit to be disbanded.  (Wikipedia) 

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV with British troops in 1945.  (RAF Photo)

Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV

The Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg IV was basically a manned version of the Fieseler Fi 103, V-1 flying bomb.  The Fi 103R-IV had simple flight instruments in the cockpit and the canopy had guidelines for calculating the correct dive angle for attacks. The Reichenberg was powered by one 772-lb thrust Argus 109 014 pulse-jet engine. It had a maximum speed of 404-mph. Its wing span was 18’9”, and its length was 26’3”.[4]   It was armed with an 850 kg warhead

In theory, this wasn’t a Kamikaze-style suicide weapon, since the pilot was intended to bail out after aiming the aircraft/missile at its target.   In practice, this would have presented certain difficulties, since the cockpit was placed directly underneath the jet intake.   Attacks were to be carried out by the “Leonidas Squadron”, Group V of the Luftwaffe’s Kampfgeschwader 200.

The engine was the same one used on the V-1, one 2.94 kN As 109-014 pulse-jet.  Versions planned were the Fi 103R-I and R-II training gliders, R-III powered trainer, and R-IV operational version. About 175 were built, and a few test flights were made by the R-III, but none flew operationally.[5]

The Leonidas Squadron, part of KG 200, had been set up as a suicide squadron. Volunteers were required to sign a declaration which said, “I hereby voluntarily apply to be enrolled in the suicide group as part of a human glider-bomb. I fully understand that employment in this capacity will entail my own death.” Initially, both the Messerschmitt Me 328 and the Fieseler Fi 103 (better known as the V-1 flying bomb) were considered as suitable aircraft, but the Fi 103 was passed over in favour of the Me 328 equipped with a 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) bomb.

However, problems were experienced in converting the Me 328 and Heinrich Himmler wanted to cancel the project. Otto Skorzeny, who had been investigating the possibility of using manned torpedoes against Allied shipping, was briefed by Hitler to revive the project, and he contacted famous test pilot Hanna Reitsch. The Fi 103 was reappraised and since it seemed to offer the pilot a slim chance of surviving, it was adopted for the project.

The project was given the codename “Reichenberg” after the capital of the former Czechoslovakian territory “Reichsgau Sudetenland” (present-day Liberec), while the aircraft themselves were referred to as “Reichenberg-Geräte” (Reichenberg apparatus).

In the summer of 1944 the DFS (German Research Institute for Sailplane Flight) at Ainring took on the task of developing a manned version of the Fi 103, and an example was made ready for testing within days and a production line was established at Dannenberg.

The V-1 was transformed into the Reichenberg by adding a small, cramped cockpit at the point of the fuselage that was immediately ahead of the pulsejet’s intake, where the standard V-1’s compressed-air cylinders were fitted. The cockpit had basic flight instruments and a plywood bucket seat. The single-piece canopy incorporated an armoured front panel and opened to the side to allow entry. The two displaced compressed-air cylinders were replaced by a single one, fitted in the rear in the space which normally accommodated the V-1’s autopilot. The wings were fitted with hardened edges to cut the cables of barrage balloons.

It was proposed that a He 111 bomber would carry either one or two Reichenbergs beneath its wings, releasing them close to the target. The pilots would then steer their aircraft towards the target, jettisoning the cockpit canopy shortly before impact and bailing out. It was estimated that the chances of a pilot surviving such a bailout were less than 1% due to the proximity of the pulsejet’s intake to the cockpit.[6]

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV (Wk. Nr. 6/2080), BACP91, on display at Farnborough, England, Nov 1945.  (RAF Photo)

England.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV (Wk. Nr. 6/2080), BACP91, is currently display at the Lashenden Air Warfare Museum, Headcorn, Kent, UK,  This Fi 103R-4 was captured at the Danneburg V1 factory in the American zone & returned to the UK in 1945.  It was displayed at the German Aircraft Exhibition at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough from 29 Oct to 9 Nov 1945.

The Fi 103R-4 then passed through a number of army Bomb Disposal units until discovered by the museum in 1970 stored outside in a very poor condition.  The bottom of the cockpit had rusted through & the back of the V1 was broken and it was due to be scrapped.  It was acquired by the museum & moved to Headcorn.  The museum carried out temporary repairs & did a cosmetic paint job to buy time until the funds & expertise were available to carry out a proper restoration.

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV piloted flying bomb at RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario, 9 June 1951.  This piloted version of the "Buzz Bomb" was brought to Canada in 1945 by Captain Farley Mowat's Intelligence Collection Team, shown here on display on Air Force Day, 16 June 1947.  This aircraft has recently been put on display in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584520)

* Photo.  Canada.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV piloted flying bomb in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.  This is the same R4 as the one shown at RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario in 1949.  (Author Photo)

 (Chriusha Photo)

* Photo.  France.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV in the museum La Coupole at Helfaut-Wizernes; Pas-de-Calais, France.  The Re IV is on loan from the city of Antwerp, Belgium, and is on display in the entrance hall.

The Netherlands.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV, (Object Nr. 007606), on display in the Nationaal Militair Museum,Verlengde Paltzerweg 1  3768 MX Soest.  Property of the Leger en Wapen Museum, Delft. Netherlands.

Switzerland.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV in the Schweizerisches Militärmuseum, Full, Switzerland.

 (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV piloted version of the V1 flying bomb, being handled by American  troops.

 (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV piloted version of the V1 flying bomb, examined by American troops.

 (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re IV piloted version of the V1 flying bomb, USA FE-082, on display at Freeman Field, Indiana, post war.

[1] David Donald, Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Aerospace Publishing London, 1994, p. 54.

[2] Internet: http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/aero/aircraft.

[3] Internet: http://www.thomasgenth.de/indexeng.html.

[4] David Donald, Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Aerospace Publishing London, 1994, p. 54.

[5] Phil H. Butler, War Prizes, and Carl-Fredrik Guest, Under the Red Star – Luftwaffe aircraft in the Soviet Air Force (Airlife Ltd., 1993), pp. 106-109.

[6] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fieseler_Fi_103R_Reichenberg.

[7] Internet: www.preservedaxisaircraft.com.

United States.  Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg Re 1V flying bomb is on display in the Flying Heritage Collection, Paine Field, Everett, Washington.

Towards the end of 1943 consideration was given in Germany to possible use of piloted missiles for precision attacks on targets such as warships & other high profile targets like Buckingham Palace & the Houses of Parliament.

Design work was carried out by Deutsches Forschungsinstitut fur Segelfug (German Gliding Research Institute) & the modification of standard V1’s for testing purposes was carried out by the aircraft manufacturer Henschel, under the code name of Reichenberg. Initial test flights were carried out at Larz where the first two aircraft crashed killing the pilots. Test flying was thereafter carried out by Hanna Reitsch & Heinz Kensche.

Two factories were set up to manufacture piloted V1’s, one at Dannenberg & the other at Pulverhof both using slave labour. They produced approximately 175 piloted Fieseler Fi 103R-4’s before production ceased. 70 pilots were under training when the project ceased in October 1944 owing to a shortage of fuel for training & political differences within the German High Command. The operational Fi 103R-4’s were to have been operated by 5/KG200 & was to be known as the Leonidas staffel.

 (Deutsches Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-567-1503C-04 Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156 Storch.  This is the aircraft used by Otto Skorzeny in the raid on Grand Sasso, Italy to fly Mussolini out of captivity.  The RAF collected a total of 145 Storch post war, including 62 found in Germany, 31 in Denmark, and 52 in Norway.  Of these, 60 were destroyed, 3 went to England and 82 went to BAFO or to Other Allies, including 64 to France, 17 to Norway and one to Holland (the Netherlands).

 (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156 C-3/Trop Storch, (Wk, Nr. 5620), NM+ZS, commandeered by the RAF Air Officer Commanding, Western Desert, Air Vice Marshal Arthur Coningham, as his personal communications aircraft.  The photograph was probably taken at Air Headquarters, Ma'aten Bagush, Egypt.

 (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, STOL reconnaissance aircraft, RAF VX154, being boarded by Royal Air Force Air Vice-Marshal Harry Broadhurst, Air Officer Commanding the Desert Air Force, at the Advanced Headquarters of the DAF at Lucera, Italy.  Broadhurst acquired the captured German communications aircraft in North Africa, had it painted in British markings and used it for touring the units under his command. Broadhurst took command of the DAF in January 1943, becoming (at the age of 38) the youngest Air Vice-Marshal in the Royal Air Force.  He continued flying the Storch while commanding the 2nd Tactical Air Force in North-West Europe.

 (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156C-3 Storch, RAF VP546.  This Storch was maintained in flying condition at Farnborough until 1955, when it was grounded, due to lack of spare parts.  It was used for a large variety of different projects.  These included aircraft-carrier deck landings (on HMS Triumph in 1946, flown by ‘Winkle’ Brown), formation flying with helicopters to allow air-to-air photography of rotor blade behaviour, glider-towing, and routine communications flying. 

 (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156C-7 Storch, (Wk. Nr. 475149), VD+TD, STOL reconnaissance aircraft captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF AM99, this aircraft was shipped from Birkenhead, England to Capetown, South Africa on the SS Perthshire on 20 Oct 1946, arriving on 6 Nov.  It is now on display at the South African National Museum of Military History, Saxonwold, Johannesburg, South Africa.

 (Alan Wilson Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156C Storch (Wk. Nr. 475099), VD+TD, built by Mraz in Czechoslovakia and assigned to an unknown unit.  This aircraft is believed to have been surrendered in Flensburg at the end of the war.  Recorded as being in service with the RAE at Farnborough in September 1945 as Air Min 99, 475099 was shipped from Birkenhead, England to Capetown, South Africa on the SS Perthshire on 20 Oct 1946, arriving on 6 Nov.  South African Air Force Museum. Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

Fieseler Fi 156C Storch, (Wk. Nr. 2008), captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF AM100, this aircraft was scrapped at Brize Norton in 1947.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Fieseler Fi 156C Storch, (Wk. Nr. 475081), captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF AM101, later VP546, this aircraft is on display in the RAF Museum, Cosford.  (Rept0n1x Photos)

MS 505 Criquet, Reg No. D-EGTY post-war version of the Fi 156 built in France.  This aircraft flies with the Fliegendes Museum (Flying Museum), located in Großenhain, Germany.

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, (Wk. Nr. unknown), EA+WD, Reg No. G-EAWD, Deutsches Museum Flugwerft Schleissheim, Germany.   (Überflieger89 Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156 Storch on display in the Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany.  (Softeis Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, GM+AI, restored and currently flying in civilian hands in England.  (Tony Hisgett Photos)

 

 (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, STOL reconnaissance aircraft in USAAF markings. 

Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, (Wk. Nr. unknown), medical version, Reg No. YU-COE.  This aircraft is preserved in the Yugoslavian Aviation Museum, Belgrade, Serbia.

Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, (Wk. Nr. unknown).  This aircraft is located in the Fantasy of Flight Museum, Polk City, Florida.

 (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 256 Storch, Luftwaffe 5-seat version. 

Fieseler Fi 256A-0 Storch, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured at captured at Leck, Nordfriesland, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.  Designated AM68, this aircraft was scrapped at Kenley, England.

* Photo.  Fieseler Fi 167, ship-borne torpedo bomber biplane.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Flettner Fl 184 reconnaissance helicopter (prototype).

* Photos 1 & 2.  Flettner Fl 282 Kolibri, reconnaissance helicopter.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-5.  Flettner Fl 282V-23 Kolibri, reconnaissance helicopter, USA FE-4613, later T2-4613, tested in the USA.  This helicopter was damaged in an accident in April 1948.

  

* Photos 1 & 2.  Flettner Fl 282V-12 Kolibri, reconnaissance helicopter, USA FE-4614, later T2-4614, tested in the USA.  This helicopter was used for spare parts to service FE-4613.  (USAAF Photos)

One Flettner Fl 282 was captured at Rangsdorf, Germany by Soviet forces.  Two, which had been assigned to Transportstaffel 40 (TS/40), the Luftwaffe's only operational helicopter squadron at Mühldorf, Bavaria, were captured by U.S. forces.  One of these two, Fl 282 V-10, (Wk. Nr. 28368) has parts including a partial airframe with rotor head and wheels preserved in the Midland Air Museum, Coventry, England.  Flettner Fl 282 V-23, (Wk. Nr. 280023), CI+TW, USA FE-4613, later T2-4613, may be with the National Museum of the USAF, Dayton, Ohio.  Flettner Fl 282V-12, (Wk. Nr. 280008), CJ+SF, USAF FE-4614, later T2-4614 was also tested in the USA.  It was used as a source of spare parts for FE-4613, also reported as sold in 1955.

 

* Photo.  Flettner Fl 282 helicopter and Messerschmitt Me 163 FE-500 at Freeman Field, Indianna.  (USAAF Photo)  * Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Achgelis Fa 223E (V14) Drache (Dragon) transport helicopter, (Wk. Nr. 22300014), captured at Ainring, Germany. Designated RAF AM233, later VM479.  This helicopter was the first to fly across the English Channel.  VM479 crashed at Beaulieu, England on 4 Oct 1945. (RAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke Achgelis Fa 223 Drache, transport helicopter in Luftwffe markings, captured.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Focke Achgelis Fa 223 Drache, transport helicopter in USAAF markings.  (USAAF Photos)

In January 1945, the German Air Ministry assigned three Drachen to Transportstaffel 40 (TS/40) at Mühldorf, Bavaria, the Luftwaffe's only operational helicopter squadron, equipped with at least five Flettner Fl 282s as well as the Drachen.  TS/40 relocated to various sites before ending up at Ainring in Austria, where one of the Drachen was destroyed by its pilot to prevent it being captured and the other two were seized by US forces.  The US intended to ferry captured aircraft back to the USA aboard HMS Reaper, but only had room for one of the captured Drachen. The RAF objected to plans to destroy the other, the V14, so Gerstenhauer, with two observers, flew it across the English Channel from Cherbourg to RAF Beaulieu on 6 September 1945, the first crossing of the Channel by a helicopter.  The V14 later made two test flights at RAF Beaulieu before being destroyed on 3 October 1945, when a driveshaft failed.

Focke Achgelis Fa 266 Hornisse, helicopter (project)

Focke-Achgelis Fa 269, tilt rotor helicopter (project)

* Photo.  Focke Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze, autogyro kite, with Fieseler Fi 156 Storch behind it, in the RAF Museum Cosford, England.  (Yachtman Photo)

* Photo.  Focke Achgelis Fa 330 A-1 Bachstelze autogyro kite, (Wk. Nr. 100436), USA FE-4617, later T2-4617, National Museum of the USAF.  (Stahlkocher Photo)

Focke Achgelis Fa 330, USA FE-4616, later T2-4616, was sent to Eastern Rotorcraft, Pennsylvania in 1947.

Focke Achgelis Fa 330A-1, USA FE-4618, (Wk. Nr. 100404), USA FE-4618, later T2-4618, was lost in the waters off McDill AFB during trials in Sep 1948.  

Focke Achgelis Fa 330A, USA FE-5038 was sent to Cal-Aero in 1948, its subsequent fate is unknown. 

* Photo.  Focke Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze, autogyro kite, Stephen F. Udvar-Hazy Centre, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Bill McChesney Photo)

Focke Achgelis Fa 330, RAF Museum, Cosford.  (MilborneOne Photo)

Focke Achgelis Fa 330 survivors may also be found in the Imperial War Museum, Duxford, and in the RAF Millom Museum,  England, the Deutsches Tecknikmuseum, Munich, Germany, and in Le musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, Paris, France.

Focke Achgelis Fa 336, 1944 scout helicopter (project).

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 44 Stieglitz, trainer biplane, on display in the Pima Air & Space Museum, Tucson, Arizona.  (Author Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 56 Stösser, parasol monoplane trainer.

* Photos 1-3.  Focke-Wulf Fw 57, heavy fighter and bomber (prototype). (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 58 Weihe, transport/trainer.   (Luftwaffe Photo)

 

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 58C-2/U6 Weihe, (Wk. Nr. 2093) captured at Fassberg.  Designated RAF AM117, this aircraft was scrapped at Farnborough.   (RAF Photos)

Focke-Wulf Fw 61, twin rotor helicopter (prototype).

  

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 62 ship-borne reconnaissance biplane float-plane.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 159, fighter (prototype).  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Ta 183, wind tunnel model.  (airwar.ru Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 186, reconnaissance autogyro (prototype).

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 187 Falke heavy fighter (prototype) in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photos 1-6.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger fighter in Luftwaffe service.  Roughly 28 original Fw 190s survive in museums or in the hands of private collectors around the world.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-3 Würger, (Wk. Nr. 313), single chevron, Stab III./JG2, flown by Oblt Arnim Faber.  This aircraft landed in error at RAF Pembrey in South Wales on 23 June 1942.  The Fw 190 was designated RAF MP499.  It was the first of its type to fall into Allied hands, and after its capture it was taken by road to Farnborough and flown extensively in comparative trials with Allied fighters.  It was struck off charge (SOC) in Sep 1943.  (RAF Photos)    

* Photos 1-6.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-3 Würger, (Wk. Nr. 313), repainted as RAF MP499.  It was SOC in Sep 1943.  (RAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-4/U8, (Wk. Nr. 7155), H+ from II./SKG10.  Designated RAF PE882, this aircraft crashed in Oct 1944.  (RAF Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-4/U8, (Wk. Nr. 7155), repainted as RAF PE822, this aircraft crashed in Oct 1944.  (RAF Photos)   

* Photos 1-3.  Mistel S3A, Focke-Wulf Fw 190A, (Wk. Nr. 733682), designated RAF AM75 combined with Junkers Ju 88A-6, (Wk. Nr. 2492), designated AM77.  The Focke-Wulf Fw 190A is preserved in the Imperial War Museum, London, England, while the Junkers Ju 88A-6 was scrapped at Farnborough.  (RAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8/R6, (Wk. Nr. 733682), RAF AM75 on display in the Imperial War Museum, London, England.  This aircraft was captured at Tirstrup, Denmark where it was found mounted on top of a Junkers Ju 88A-6 bomber, (Wk. Nr. 2492), RAF AM77, as part of a Mistel S3B combination.  This aircraft has faired-over gun ports and a belly-mounted ETC-501 bomb rack.  The Ju 88 was scrapped at Farnborough.  (Gustav Gullberg Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Mistel S3A designated RAF AM75 combined Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. unknown) with Ju 88H-1, (Wk. Nr. unknown). Both aircraft were scrapped at Schleswig.  One of three Mistel combinations captured at Tirstrup.  (RAF Photos)

Mistel S3A designated RAF AM76 combined Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. unknown) with Ju 88H-1, (Wk. Nr. unknown). Both aircraft were scrapped at Schleswig.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190. 11./JG 1, 1+-, captured at Skrydstrup, Denmark, May 1945.  (RAF Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-4/U8, (Wk. Nr. 5843), "Red 9" from 1.SKG10, RAF PM679.  This aircraft crashed on 25 June 1944 and the remains were used for spare parts.  (RAF Photos)

* Photos 1-9.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-5/U8, (Wk. Nr. 2596), "White 6" from 1.SKG10, flown by Unteroffizier Werner Ohne operating from St. Omer, France.  Ohne landed accidentally at the RAF airbase at Manston on the night of 21 May 1943 and was quickly taken into custody.  After capture, the aircraft was designated RAF PN999.  This aircraft had a temporary black finish which was removed and British roundels added.  PN999 was probably scrapped after July 1946.  (RAF Photos)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A, (Wk. Nr. unknown), RAF NF754 and Fw 190A, (Wk. Nr. unknown), RAF NF755 were used in England for spare parts.  Both were later scrapped at Tangmere.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8/U1, (Wk. Nr. 580058), captured at Kastrup.  Designated RAF AM36, this aircraft was likely scrapped at Kastrup.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190S-1, (Wk. Nr. 582044), captured at Kastrup.  Designated RAF AM37, this aircraft crashed at Sonning, England on 30 Nov 1945.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8/U1, (Wk. Nr. 580392), captured at Kastrup.  Designated AM40, this aircraft was scrapped at Schlesweg.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8, RCAF JFE.  (RCAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-F8/R15, (Wk. Nr. unknown), TD+SI, in Luftwaffe service.   The aircraft had an enlarged fin and lengthened tailwheel leg.  Gun armament was restricted to wing-root mounted MG 151s.  It carried the LTF 5b torpedo on an adapted ETC 501 rack.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8/R15, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured at Travemunde where it had been flown by the Luftwaffe Torpedowaffen Versuchsanstalt (TVA) on operational trials.  Flown to Farnborough on 19 July 1945 this aircraft was designated RAF AM111.  It was scrapped at Cranfield, England, ca. 1950.  (RAF Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 171747).  Designated RAF AM230, this aircraft was crashed in England on 30 Aug 1944.  The remains were scrapped at Little Rissington, England.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter captured by British forces having RAF roundels painted on it by German prisoners post war.  (Luftwaffe Photo, left, RAF Photo, right)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190 with freshly painted RAF roundels in a German hangar, post war.  (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  French-built NC.900 (Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8) in Armée de l’Air markings.  In the immediate postwar period, the French Armée de l’Air operated a number of Fw 190 fighters (designated NC.900).  65 NC.900s were built in 1945 and 1946 by the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre (S.N.C.A.C.) at Cravant, France.  (Armée de l’Air Photos)

* Photos.  NC.900 (Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8), (Wk. Nr. 730923) preserved at the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, Le Bourget, France.  The NC.900 No. 62 on display in the Musée de l'Air at Le Bourget is a Focke-Wulf 190A-8 made to represent an A-7.   It is painted in the colours of Oberst Josef Priller, Luftwaffe Kommodore of JG 26, who accumulted 101 victories, many of them in Fw 190s.  (Pine Photo, left, Roland Turner Photo, right)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 173056), coded "White 14", I./JG11, Reg. No. N91169 (53116656), was originally built at the Focke-Wulf factory in Marienburg in 1944,.  White 14 ended its service in Rheims, France, where it was buried at the train yards after being stripped of parts.  It was restored by Don Hansen, Piping Analysis Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana.  Its first flight with a Russian-sourced radial engine took place on 9 October 2011. 

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-4, (Wk. Nr. TBC).  This composite aircraft is being restored to Fw 190A-8 configuration with all original parts including an original BMW801S radial engine in the Militarhistorisches Museum (MHM) Flugplatz-Gatow (previously known as the Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr), Berlin-Gatow.  It is armed with MG 131 cannon.  Painted in RLM mottle camouflage.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw-190s at the end of the Second World War, April-May 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-5, Red 10, at the Auto & Technik Museum, Sinsheim, Germany.   (Clemens Vasters Photo, left, Valder137 Photo, right)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 170393), "Yellow 11", coded 6./JG1 is preserved in the Luftfahrtmuseum, Laatzen, Lower Saxony, Hannover, Germany.  This aircraft is a new built Flug Werk airframe (c/n 990000).  The largest original part is the tailplane from Fw 190F-8, (Wk. Nr. 583958).  The original Yellow 11 was flown by Feldwebel Alfred Bindseil in April 1944.

Focke-Wulf 190 A-3, (Wk. Nr. 122219), IV./JG 5.  This aircraft was recovered from an underwater location and is currently being rebuilt for the Norwegian Air Force Museum, Oslo, Norway.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-6/R6, (Wk. Nr. 550214), PN+LU, possibly flown by III./NJG 11 as it was fitted with a FuG 217 Neptun radar system, designated RAF AM10.  This aircraft was built by the Ago factory in mid-1943.  Initially displayed in the UK, this aircraft was shipped from Birkenhead, England to Capetown, South Africa on the SS Perthshire on 20 Oct 1946, arriving on 6 Nov.  It is now on display at the South African National Museum of Military History, Saxonwold, Johannesburg, South Africa.    (Alan Wilson Photo, left, Nolween Photo, centre, Colin Dodds Photo, right)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 681497), "White 11" of 5./JG 4 at St. Trond airfield, Belgium, circa 1 January 1945. This aircraft was flown during on 1 January 1945 during Operation Bodenplatte by Corporal Walter Wagner who was hit by flak during the attack over St. Trond airfield.  The engine died and he had to make an emergency landing.  The weapons have obviously been removed.  The photo was taken by the resident USAAF 404th Fighter Group.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F, (Wk. Nr. 681237) at St Trond after being taken over by the USAAF 404th Fighter Group.  This aircraft had force-landed during Operation Bodenplatte, a Luftwaffe attack on Allied airfields in France and Belgium on 1 Jan 1945.  It was then painted red, but was not flown.   (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-8.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8 piloted by Gefreiter Walter Wagner, of 5. II/JG4 was slightly damaged by Allied anti-aircraft fire and was forced to land at the airport of St-Trond on 1 January 1945.  Wagner had taken part in an attack on 404 Fighter Group 508 Squadron’s airfield at St-Trond, Belgium during Operation Bodenplatte, a front wide attack to destroy allied aircraft on the ground.  This aircraft was captured and painted overall bright orange-red to distinguish it from enemy Focke-Wulf Fw 190s. The aircraft’s code, 00–L, is likely related to the Belgian national code for aircraft registration purposes. The L may have been for its intended pilot, Leo Moon, the Squadron’s CO.  It appears the aircraft was never flown and was left behind when the 404th left St-Trond.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A that was captured at Gerbini and then flown by the 85th Fighter Squadron, 79th Fighter Group of 12th Air Force. The 79th FG is the same unit that captured and flew the Messerschmitt Bf 109 Irmgard.  To avoid any possibility of the aircraft being taken to be the enemy, the aircraft was painted overall red with yellow wings and red wingtips as well as a yellow fuselage band and horizontal stabilizer.  It carries USAAF markings as well as the flying skull emblem of the 85th FS.   (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-5, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured in Sicily by the USAAF.  This aircraft was painted by the 325 Fighter Squadron (FS) with a bright red cowling and red, white and blue stripes on the tail fin and an American star over an orange square on the fuselage.  It was flown by 1st Lt. Jack Shafton of 317 FS from Lesinia airbase near Foggia.  The plane was immediately grounded by Colonel Chester L. Sluder (commander of the unit between 1 April 1944 and 11 September 1944) due to worn out tires.  After Sluder's departure from command, several pilots tried to start the aircraft, but during taxiing the canopy fell off and the plane was eventually abandoned.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-5, (Wk. Nr. unknown), captured and flown by the 85th fighter squadron, 79th fighter group of 12th USAAF in Mediterranean Theatre of Operations (MTO).  The aircraft is painted red overall with yellow wings with red wingtips and yellow horizontal stabilizers with red tips. It has US markings (white star in blue roundel) in a broad yellow fuselage band. The plane also bears the squadron insignia of the 85th fighter squadron (flying skulls), "Jones Flying Circus".  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190G-3, (Wk. Nr. 160057), one of two captured by ground crews of the 85th Fighter Squadron, 79th Fighter Group at Gerbini Airfield on the Island of Sicily, in September 1943.  It was painted in a striking white scheme with red spinner, cowling, fuselage band and USN striped tail.  It was shipped to the United States in January 1944, where repairs were made.  Later, in 1945 while in the USA, this aircraft was repainted in a standard USN 3-tone non-specular, intermediate blue and insignia white scheme.  It was test flown by the Technical Air Intelligence Unit (TAIU) at NAS Anacostia, then moved to NAS Patuxent River in February 1945.  (USN Photo)

 

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190, (Wk. Nr. 181550), B, captured in North Africa, was flown by the USAAF 85th FS, 79th FG.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-3, (Wk. Nr. unknown), USAAF EB-101 test flown in the USA in 1944.  This aircraft was later renumbered USA FE-497, later T2-497.  It was scrapped at Wright Field in 1946.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190, possibly captured in Italy, USAAF markings ca 1943.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8, Germany, ca 1945.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photos 1-11.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190G-3, (Wk. Nr. 160016), DN+FP, EB-104, later renumbered USA FE-104, later FE-125 and then T2-125, in flight over Wright Field, Ohio, and on the ground at Freeman Field, Indiana, May 1945.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F, White 10, USA FE-113, being flight tested by the U.S. Navy Naval Air Test Center Patuxent River, Maryland (USA), circa in March 1944.  The aircraft received U.S. markings and a standard U.S. Navy camouflage, with the armament apparently removed.   It was damaged beyond repair 12 Sep 1945 after a crash at Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania en route to Freeman Field, Indiana.  (USAAF Photos)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190F, (Wk. Nr. unknown) USA FE-114, tested at Freeman Field, Indiana post-war, fate unknown.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190F, (Wk. Nr.unknown), USA FE-115, tested at Freeman Field, Indiana post-war, fate unknown.

* Photos 1 - 4.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8, (Wk. Nr. unknown), factory No. 12053, USA FE-116, later T2-116 in the USA.  This aircraft went to Park Ridge, Pennsylvania where it was scrapped in 1946.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8/R1, (Wk. Nr. 931884), initially coded "Yellow 10" from I./SG2.  This aircraft was shipped to the USA and designated FE-117.  It is restored and currently painted as "White 7", on display in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia.  (Kogo Photo, left,  Nick-D Photo, right)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 739447), Reg. No. N447FW, on display in the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum, McMinnville, Oregon. (airforcefe Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8 (Wk. Nr. 732183), from 12./JG 5 as flown by Ltn Rudi Linz, a German ace with 70 victories.  This aircraft was shot down over Norway by a British Mustang during the 'Black Friday' raid on 9 February 1945.  The aircraft is displayed in the Cottbus Hangar of the Military Aviation Museum in Pungo, Virginia.  (Joanna Poe Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-9, (Wk. Nr. 980574), Reg. No. NX190RF, on display in the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.  (Patrick Mack Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-2, (Wk. Nr. 5476) from JG 5, owned by Wade S. Hayes and currently located in Texas USA.  It is thought to be one of the oldest Fw 190s still in existence.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-5, (Wk. Nr. 151227), from IV/JG 54.  This aircraft crashed in Voibakala forest, near Saint Petersburg in 1943.  It was discovered in 1989.  Now airworthy, with the Flying Heritage Collection, Paine Field, Everett, Washington.  (Goshimini Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-6, (Wk. Nr. 550470), from I./JG 26.  Owned by Malcolm Laing and located in Lubbock Texas.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 173889), from 7./JG 1.  This aircraft is owned by Mark Timken, currently under restoration.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 350177), from 12./JG 5.  This aircraft is located at the Texas Air Museum in Rio Hondo, Texas.

* Photo.  Focke Wulf 190A-4, (Wk. Nr. 142310), "Black 2" flown by Unteroffizier Helmut Brandt of the I./JG54 "Grunherz" was captured by the Soviets on 13 January 1943 after air combat and a forced landing on the ice of Lake Ladoga in the USSR. Helmut Brandt shot off his propeller blades with a cannon round, thanks to a synchronizer failure, and he was unable to get his aircraft to his side of the front line.  After lending on the ice of Lake Ladoga he tried to escape on skis, but was caught by Russian patrols.  (Soviet Air Force Photo)

* Photo.  Focke Wulf 190A-4, (Wk. Nr. 142310), repainted in Soviet Air Force markings as it appeared while being tested at the Soviet Air Force Scientific Research unit.  It was also placed on display at a "BNT exhibition in TsAGI".  Its subsequent fate is unknown.  (Soviet Air Force Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Focke-Wulf Fw 109A-4, (Wk. Nr. 2362), IV/JG51 Group, 6+1, early 1944.  This aircraft was captured near Newel in the USSR in Oct 1943 and flown by many Soviet Flight Research Institute pilots.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 580967) captured by the Soviet Union in Feb 1945 and test flown at NII-VVS in the USSR.

During special trials conducted by the Soviet Air Forces Scientific Research Institute captured Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 682011) and Fw 190A-8, (Wk. Nr. 580967), were flown against Yak-3, Yak-9u and La-7 fighters.  The engagements demonstrated that new tactical procedures were needed to counter German aircraft flying at low levels. The Focke-Wulfs usually ingressed at low altitudes and regressed at treetop level at maximum speed, making it hard to counter-attack in time. The pursuit became more complicated, because the gray matte paint concealed the German aircraft against the background of the landscape.  In addition, German pilots employed engine reheat at low altitudes. It was determined that the Focke-Wulf could deliver 582 km/h, i. e. neither the Yak-3 (the aircraft at the Air Forces Scientific Research Institute developed 567 km/h) nor the Yak-9U (575 km/h) could overtake them.  Only the La-5 reached 612 km/h in augmented mode, but the speed margin was insufficient to reduce the range between the two aircraft to a distance permitting aimed fire.  Based on test results, the institute leadership issued recommendations: it is necessary to echelon the fighters in patrols at different altitudes. The mission of the pilots on the higher tiers would be to disrupt the bombing and to attack the enemy fighter escort, while the lower patrol aircraft, having the capability to overtake in a shallow dive, probably would be able to intercept the ground-attack aircraft themselves.  (Soviet Air Force Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw190A-8, new-build aircraft privately owned, "White 11", JP7645827.  In 1997, a German company, Flug Werk GmbH, began manufacturing new Fw 190 models as reproductions.  By 2012 almost 20 had been produced, most flyable, a few as static display models, with airworthy examples usually powered by Chinese-manufactured Shvetsov ASh-82 radial powerplants, which have a displacement of 41.2 litres, close to the BMW 801's 41.8 litres.  (Aldo Bidini Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190S8 two-seat training version of the Fw 190F-8/U1, White 30, in Luftwaffe service.  The aircraft was used as a high-speed transport for senior officers or for conversion training.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8/U1 (Fw 190S8) two-seat training and high speed transport (Wk. Nr. 584219), Black 38, RAF AM29.  This aircraft was built by Arado at the Warnemünde factory, and was an FW 190 F-8 converted to two-seat standard.  Captured in Grove, Denmark, North of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany by British forces in May 1945.  It is shown here shortly after it was flown to Farnborough in the UK on 2 Sep 1945 and repainted with RAF markings.  In Luftwaffe service, it operated with training units, and carried the letters HRZ.  It was exhibited at various locations, and now resides in the RAF Museum at Hendon, England. (RAF Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190S8 two-seat training version of the Fw 190F-8/U1 (Wk. Nr. 680430), RAF AM29, shown here as "Black 38" on display in the RAF Museum, Hendon, England.  (Les Chatfield Photo)

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190S8 two-seat training version of the Fw 190F-8/U1, (Wk. Nr. 584219), Black 38, designated RAF AM29, on display in the RAF Museum, Hendon, England.  (RuthAS Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190 D-9 appears to be a late production aircraft built by Fieseler at Kassel.  It has a late style canopy; the horizontal black stripe with white outline shows that this was a II. Gruppe aircraft.  (USAAF Photo)

* Photos 1 - 4.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9 in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, JG26, (Wk. Nr. 600651) captured at Straubing, Germany, May 1945.  (USAAF Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 500618) captured at Flensburg was designated RAF USA 15.  This aircraft was likely scrapped at Flensberg.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-13/R11, (Wk. Nr. 836017), coded "Yellow 10" from I./JG26, captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF USA 14, this aircraft was shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper, where it was designated USA FE-118, later T2-118.  This aircraft was with the Champlin Collection in Arizona, and then the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington.  It is now with the Flying Heritage Collection, Paine Field, Everett, Washington.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-5.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-13/R11, (Wk. Nr. 836017) ,"Yellow 10," from 1./JG 26 as flown by Major Franz Götz.  Captured at Flensberg in May 1945, this aircraft was designated RAF USA 14, and shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper.   It was then numbered USA FE-118, later T2-118.  Previously with the Champlin Air Museum in Arizona, this aircraft has been restored and is on display in the Flying Heritage Collection, Paine Field, Everett, Washington.  (Goshimini Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-13/R11, (Wk. Nr. 836017) ,"Yellow 10," from 1./JG 26 as flown by Major Franz Götz.  USA FE-118.  Previously with the Champlin Air Museum in Arizona, this aircraft is on display in the Flying Heritage Collection, Paine Field, Everett, Washington.  (PanGalacticGargleBlasterr Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 211018), "White 14" from II./JG26, shipped to the USA.  This aircraft was designated USA FE-119, later T2-119.  It was destroyed in a crash at Freeman Field, Indiana, on 22 Sep 1945.  (USAAF Photo) 

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 210079), 12+, "Black 12", flown by Leutnant Theo Nibel in the 10. / JG 54, and lost due to a bird strike on the morning of 1 Jan 1945 during Operation Bodenplatte.  Remains shown here at Farnborough, England, late 1945.  (RAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 601088), JG 26, captured by the RAF at Flensburg.  Designated RAF USA 12, this aircraft was shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper.  It was alloted USA FE-120, later T2-120.  It was restored by the NASM and is now on display at the National Museum of the USAF, Dayton, Ohio.  (NMUSAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 401392), "Black 5", JG26, captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF USA 13, this aircraft was shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper and allotted USA FE-121, later T2-121.  In the first photo taken at Newark, the number 31 is visible just forward  and above the horizontal stabilizer referring to its loading position on HMS Reaper.  The third photo shows Ken Chilstrom Wright Field test pilot, sitting in the cockpit with Bob Baird standing near the wing.  This aircraft was scrapped at Freeman Field, Indiana, ca. 1946.  (USAAF Photos)

* Photos 1-3.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 401392), "Black 5", JG26, captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF USA 13, this aircraft was shipped to the USA on HMS Reaper and allotted USA FE-121, later T2-121.  It was scrapped at Freeman Field, Indiana, ca. 1946.   (USAAF Photos)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 210968), from 2./JG 26.  This aircraft is under restoration for the Luftwaffe Museum in Berlin, Germany.captured at Flensburg.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 210596), captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF AM98, this aircraft was shipped from Birkenhead, England to Capetown, South Africa on the SS Perthshire on 20 Oct 1946, arriving on 6 Nov.  After acceptance by the SAAF it was stored at 15 Air Depot, Snake Valley and during 1950 it was  sold to the Benoni Technical College as an instructional airframe.  It was scrapped in 1953.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw-190D-12, CS+IA, 1945.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

* Photos 1-3.  Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9 flown by Soviet Baltic Fleet Air Force pilots in June 1945. The war was already over when this aircraft arrived for testing in the USSR.  The flight tests suggested the Soviet La-5 was superior to the Dora in many respects.  (Soviet Air Force Photos)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9, (Wk. Nr. 211028), coded Black 8, 14/JG26 was preserved in England after being recovered from Germany in 1996.  This aircraft was registered on 21 May 2003, by Glenn R. Lacey of Epsom, Surrey, as G-DORA.  (Wk. Nr. 211028) is currently with the Fighter Factory at Virginia Beach, USA, as the Lacey collection no longer exists.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-3, (Wk. Nr. 670071), from 1./SchG 1. This aircraft is being restored for the Flugplatz Museum of Cottbus, Germany.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8, (Wk. Nr. 5415), aunder restoration in New Zealand and owned by the Old Flying Machine Company.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8, (Wk. Nr. 930838), a Fw 190 F-8, currently in storage at the Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum in Belgrade.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190F-8, (Wk. Nr. 931862), from 9./JG 5, the "White 1+0" as flown by Unteroffizier Heinz Orlowski.  It was built by Norddeutsche Dornier at Wismar in June 1944, and transferred to the Luftwaffe on 13 July 1944. This aircraft was shot down by North American P-51D Mustangs over Norway in the "Black Friday" engagement.  It was recovered in the early 1980s from a Norwegian fjord.  Originally under restoration in Kissimmee, Florida, USA by The White 1 Foundation, it was transferred to The Collings Foundation in 2012, and is expected to be returned to airworthy status.

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Ta 152H, high altitude fighter, CI+XM, in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photos 1-6.  Focke-Wulf Ta 152H-1 high-altitude fighter, (Wk. Nr. 150168), captured at captured at Leck, Nordfriesland, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM11. It was scrapped at Farnborough, England in 1946.  Four of these aircraft were found by the RAF in Germany and one in Denmark.  Four were reported as destroyed, with AM11 being the only one sent to the UK, but Ta 152H-0/R-11 (Wk. Nr. 1500010), coded CW+CJ, "Green 4", JG301 now with the NASM in the USA came from the RAF collection.  (RAF Photos)

* Photos 1-6.  Ta 152H-0/R-11 (Wk. Nr. 1500010), coded CW+CJ, "Green 4", JG301, USA 11, Reg. No. 32, T2/FE-112, with the NASM.  This Ta 152 is the only existing example of this fighter in the world today.  Definitive information about the NASM Ta 152 has always been lacking but research conducted late in 1998 may have revealed the airplane’s true identity as Werk-Nummer 150010, not 150003 or ‘020 as has been widely reported. This places the airframe toward the end of the range of pre-production H-0 models, a variant marking the transition from the Ta 152 prototypes to full production Ta 152H-1 airplanes.  It was probably built at Focke-Wulf’s production facility at Cottbus, Germany, in December 1944, and delivered to Erprobungskommando Ta 152 at Rechlin, Germany, for service testing.  As with most Ta 152s produced, ‘020’ was apparently transferred to Jagdgeswader (fighter squadron) JG 301 in early 1945.  A green ‘4’ was painted on the fuselage and this may have been the squadron identification and radio call sign “Green 4” but much remains unknown about this aircraft.  The initial information suggesting the aircraft was (Wk. Nr. 150020), was based on a type plate in the fuselage, which only designated a component.  The aircraft has a wooden tail and only (Wk. Nr. 150003) and (Wk. Nr. 150010) were fitted with this and on historical photos the overpainted remains of the code CW+CJ is visible which belongs to (Wk. Nr. 150010).  (Wk. Nr. 150020). was coded CW+CT.  Data courtesy of Peter W. Cohausz.  National Air and Space Museum, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Washington Dulles International Airport, Chantilly, Virginia.  (USAAF Photos)

As the Soviets rolled over eastern Germany, many Luftwaffe pilots took off and steered their mounts west.  They preferred to be captured by the West.  The British recovered “Green 4” in Aalborg, Denmark, at the end of hostilities.  They turned the airplane over to “Watson’s Whizzer’s, the American unit charged with collecting Luftwaffe aircraft for further study. Lt Harold McIntosh flew ‘020 to Melun, France, where it was loaded aboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Reaper and shipped Newark Army Airfield, New Jersey. From Newark, McIntosh flew this Ta 152 to Freeman Field, Indiana. The airplane was later transferred to Wright Field, Ohio, to undergo extensive flight testing as Foreign Equipment number FE-112 (later changed to T2-112). After testing, the Army stored the aircraft and then turned it over to the National Air Museum in 1960.

In 1998 Museum restoration staff were treating deteriorated sections of the wooden aft fuselage, fin, rudder, and right elevator when they discovered several interesting items that offered tantalizing glimpses into the airplane’s shadowy past.  Extensive wood rot was found in where the horizontal stabilizer joins the vertical fin. The restoration staff speculated that during testing at Wright Field, pilots and engineers became concerned that the wooden tail may have been weakened by defective glues or sabotage.  They strengthened the entire area with steel plate.  However, this work may have compromised flight safety because it required moving the horizontal stabilizer forward several inches, exacerbating a tail-heavy condition already known to the Germans.  The restoration specialist removed the steel plate and rebuilt the tail to the original German configuration.

After comparing photographs with the aircraft, the staff determined the British painted over some of the original Luftwaffe markings. The US Army Air Force then stripped and repainted part of the airplane but NASM technicians carefully sanded through the layers of Allied paint to reveal previous markings and much of the original German paint.  They found the old Foreign Equipment number, RAF markings, the Reich Defence tail bands of JG 301 (fighter wing 301), and the original Nazi swastika.  The staff also found 20-mm MG 151 gun mounts and fittings in the upper cowling.  However, these were not normally found in H-0 models, suggesting this airframe may have been destined to become a C-1 variant.

* Photos 1-6.  Focke-Wulf Ta 154, Moskito night-fighter in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photo.  One slightly damaged Ta 154 is known to have been captured at Lage, Germany, by the 54th Air Disarmament Squadron and is reported to have been shipped to the USA on board the SS Richard Gatling.  No FE number was assigned, its fate is unknown.  (USAAF Photo)

     

* Photos 1-8.  Focke-Wulf Fw 189 Uhu tactical reconnaissance aircraft in Luftwaffe service.  (Luftwaffe Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 189 Uhu tactical reconnaissance aircraft found by American troops near Salzburg, Austria. (USAAF Photo)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 189A-3 Uhu, (Wk. Nr. 0173), 3X+AA, captured at Grove, Denmark.  This aircraft was designated RAF AM27.  It was scrapped at Gosport, England, in 1947.  (RAF Photos)

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Fw 189 Uhu in Soviet markings.  (Soviet Air Force Photo)

The Soviet Union evaluated captured Fw 189s and made copies post war.  The Focke-Wulf Fw 189 was called the "frame" by Red Army and was assessed to have excellent all-round visibility, good stability and responsiveness, and the ability to maintain steady flight on one engine.  Despite its low speed (300 km/h) this aircraft performed its combat duties until the end of the war. Soviet examiners noted "The aircraft's excellent visibility cuts down on the possibility of surprise fighter attacks.  Its high maneuverability allows gunners to prepare to beat off an attack only if the attacking aircraft is detected in time. In combat turns, the fighter will always be in the field of fire of its rear guns. The Fw 189 can bank at speeds of 180-200 km/h. The maneuver Fw 189 crews commonly use to break off combat is to descend in a spiral to low altitudes and remain there, hedge-hopping."6" Engineer-Major M. S. Dmitriyev, who examined the Fw 189 in detail, also noted the crew comforts provided: carefully thought-out arrangement of navigational equipment and radios; side-by-side seating of navigator and pilot, making their work easier without intercom; and efficient cockpit heating.  The aircraft could also perform light bombing missions. It turned out to be very easy to put onto a target.

Focke-Wulf Fw 191, Bomber B design competitor (prototype)

  

  

* Photos 1 - 4.  Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor.  (Luftwaffe Photos) 

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-4/U1 Condor, (Wk. Nr. 0137), GC+AE. This Condor was the personal aircraft of Heinrich Himmler and later Grand Admiral Doenitz. This aircraft was found intact at Achmer in 1945 and flown to Farnborough on 3 July 1945.  Designated RAF AM94, this aircraft was flown in the UK.  It was scrapped at Farnborough in 1946.  (RAF Photos)

Focke-Wulf Fw 200C Condor, (Wk. Nr. 0240), captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF AM95, this aircraft was scrapped at Schleswig.

Focke-Wulf Fw 200A-02 Condor, (Wk. Nr. 2984), OY-DAM and G-AGAY, RAF DX177, flown in the UK until scrapped in Jan 1942.

Focke-Wulf Fw 200C, (Wk. Nr. 081), captured at Flensburg.  Designated RAF AM97, this aircraft crashed at Schleswig on 28 Feb 1946.

* Photos 1-3.  Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 Condor, (Wk. Nr. 0034), F8+OW, landed at Chkalovskaya near Leningrad in April 1943.  This aircraft was test flown by Soviet Engineer-Major Gribakin and Colonel Kabanov in the USSR.  It was later put on display in Moscow.  (Soviet Air Force Photos) 

* Photos 1 & 2.  Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, transport and maritime patrol bomber in Luftwaffe Service.  (Luftwaffe Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 Condor, (Wk. Nr. 0063), F8+CL of 3/KG40, later transferred to 7/KG40 and coded F8+BR ditched near Trondheim, Norway on 22 Feb 1942.  Recovered in 1999, this aircraft is being restored in the Deutsches Technikmuseum, Berlin, Germany.

Focke-Wulf Fw 300, proposed version of Fw 200 (project)

Focke-Wulf Ta 400 (project), intended for long range bombardment of strategic objects in the  marine war in the Atlantic.

* Photo.  Focke-Wulf Triebflügeljäger, experimental project (model).  (Luftwaffe Photo)

German Warplane Survivors of the Second World War from Gotha to Junkers may be viewed on the next page on this website.