Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Canadian Warplanes 5: The Post War Piston Era, Avro Lancaster

Avro Lancaster, RCAF post war

Data current to 10 May 2020.

(RCAF Photo via Mark Allen)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM207), coded MN, in flight, post war.

The Canadian built Avro Lancasters were powered by four Packard Merlin 224 engines with 1,640 hp each.  These aircraft had a maximum speed of 442 kmh (275 mph), a cruising speed of 337 kmh ((210 mph), a service ceiling of 7,833 m (25,700 ft)  and a range of 4,071 km (2,530 miles).  Thousands of Canadian airmen and ground crew served with RCAF and RAF Lancaster squadrons in England, during the Second World War.  By late 1944, Canada's No. 6 Group, Bomber Command operated thirteen squadrons of Lancasters carrying the war to Germany.  At home, thousands more Canadians worked at Victory Aircraft in Malton (Toronto), Ontario to produce 430 Lancaster Mk. 10s, between 1943 and 1945.  Their role in the war from 1942 to 1945 is covered on a separate page on this website. 

Following the end of the Second World War, approximately 230 Lancasters served with the RCAF in several roles including, Arctic reconnaissance, maritime patrol and as a bomber.  Beginning in 1946, Avro Lancaster Mk. 10s were modified in Canada for service with the post-war RCAF.  Fourteen aircraft were modified to perform aerial and photo-reconnaissance missions; these would go on to perform much of the mapping of northern Canada until as late as 1962.  Throughout the 1950s, the RCAF operated seventy modified Lancasters, designated Lancaster 10MR/MPs, as Maritime Reconnaissance and Patrol aircraft in an anti-submarine role.  Modifications involved the installation of radar and sonobuoy operators' positions, removal of the rear and mid-upper gun turrets, installation of a 400-gallon fuel tank in the bomb bay to increase the patrol range, upgraded electronics, radar, and instrumentation, and a cooking stove in the centre section.  These Lancasters served throughout the 1950s, when they were replaced by the Lockheed Neptune and the Canadair Argus.

The Lancaster was officially retired from the RCAF at Downsview (Toronto), Ontario, in April 1964. 

 (British Columbia Archives Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, taking off at Comox, British Columbia, ca 1950s. 

 (DND Photo, PL53537 via Fred Paradie)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM126), coded AF-J, No. 404 Squadron, Maritime Lancaster.

Lancaster Mark variations include 10 AR (Aerial Reconnaissance/Arctic Reconnaissance), 10BR (Bomber Reconnaissance), 10C (Chinook engine test bed), 10MR (Maritime Reconnaissance), 10MP (Maritme Patrol/Maritime Photographic), 10SR (Search and Rescue), 10 DC (Drone Carrying/Controler/Carrier), 10O (Orenda jet engine development), 10P (Photographic Reconnaissance/Photographic Survey), 10N (Navigation Trainer), 10S (Standard/unmodified).

(RCAF Photo courtesy of the Canadian Aviation Preservation Association)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM128), coded AP-U.

 (DND Photos via Francois Dutil)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM207), coded MN, in flight.

(RCAF Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. KB976), in flight.

 (RCAF Photo via Mike Maehler)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM110), painted B110 on the nose, No. 404 Squadron, starting engine No. 3 at RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia with the fire guard standing by and the back door still open. 

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584032)

Avro Lancaster cockpit.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584365)

Avro Lancaster OSC camera  installation.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584855)

Avro Lancaster radio altimeter installation.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584318)

Avro Lancaster Shoran equipment.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584029)

Avro Lancaster installation and equipment.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584572)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM217), coded AK--, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 6 Sep 1951.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3586596)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM211), coded VC-DHZ, Air Navigation School, 8 Aug 1949.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207414)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM207), 2 Apr 1951.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584468)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM216), coded AP-D, 28 Dec 1959.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4236026)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, Reg. No. CF-IMF, Spartan Air Services Ltd.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3562607)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, Reg. No. CF-IMF, and de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito, Spartan Air Services Ltd.

 (DND Phot via Chris Charland)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MP (Serial No. KB959), coded AF-A, No. 404 "Buffalo" (MR) Squadron, RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3586595)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3586597)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10N,  (Serial No. FM208), coded VC-DHP, "Polaris", 8 Aug 1949.  FM208 came off the assembly line at Malton in July 1945, one of three converted to Mk. 10N, a flying classroom for navigator trainees.  It was stationed at Trenton. It was bought by Ajax Aircraft Ltd. on 28 May 1957, Reg. No. CF-KHH, with the intent to use it to fly fuel into northern Canada.  However, it sat at Dorval airport for years before eventually being scrapped. (Don Christopher)

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584699)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. 212), coded AK-A, 26 Aug 1952.

(USN Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MP, RCAF (Serial No. KB868), No. 405 Squadron, running up at NAS Jacksonville, Florida, Feb 1955.

 (DND Photo via James Craik)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MP, RCAF (Serial No. KB868), No. 405 Squadron.  KB868 previously served with No. 431 Squadron (SE-E) until Mar 1945.  It was flown back to Canada in June 1945, modified to Mk. 10MP and eventually scrapped in June 1955.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584509)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF, 28 May 1951.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584502)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, coded AK-A, 23 May 1951.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM211), coded GS-X, "Zenith".

(Nanton Bomber Command Museum Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10C, RCAF (Serial No. FM 209).  This aircraft was used as a jet engine test bed.  It was converted by Avro Canada as a Mk.10C test bed for two 3,000 pound thrust Avro Chinook TR.4 Mk. II axial-flow turbojets in outer nacelles in 1951 and scrapped in 1956.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3580433)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM211), coded DHZ, 2 May 1949.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584553)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM217), 18 Jun 1951.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584072)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF, 1947.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584103)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF, 1947.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584666)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. 217), 26 Aug 1952.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584476)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF, warming up, 2 Feb 1951.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643745)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10P, RCAF (Serial No. FM214), coded AK-B, No. 408 Squadron, Aug 1949.

 (RCAF Photo via Chris Charland)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10P (Serial No. FM215), coded AK-C, No. 408 "Goose" (P) Squadron, RCAF Station Rockcliffe, Ontario.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. FM 219), coded RX.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10N, RCAF (Serial Nos. KB973 and KB892), coded AJ.

 (DND Photo via Mike Kaehler)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM219), coded RX, No. 407 Squadron, along with a line-up of 407 Squadron Lockheed Neptunes at RCAF Station Comox, British Columbia. 

 (DND Photo via Francois Dutil)

Avro Lancaster Formation.

 (DND Photo via Francois Dutil)

Avro Lancaster (Serial No. FM199), coded MN.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10DC (Serial No. KB851) with Ryan Firebee drone KD-4656, 1962.  KB851 and KB848 were the only Lancaster Mk. 10DC's (DC-Drone Carrier).  They were coded PX-851 and PX-848 while with CEPE's Air Armament Evaluation Detachment at RCAF Station Cold Lake, Alberta.  KB848 had preiously served with CEPE at RCAF Station Uplands, Ontario.

(NDIL image PCN-1965)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10DC (Serial No. KB851) with Ryan Firebee drone KD-4656.

(RCAF Photo via Mike Kaehler)

Avro Lancaster with Ryan Firebee drone.

 (Ryan Aeronautical Company Photo via Benoit Thibeault)

Avro Lancaster with Ryan Firebee drone.

(RCAF Photo via Mike Kehler) 

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10P (Serial No. KB976).

  (RCAF Photo via Mike Kaehler)

Avro Lancasters on the line with No. 407 Squadron, RCAF Station Comox, British Columbia.

 (USN - NAS Jacksonville Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MP of No. 405 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force, at the Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida, in February 1955.  No. 405 Squadron had been reactivated on 31 Mar 1950 as No. 405 Eagle Squadron, as a maritime patrol squadron based at Greenwood, Nova Scotia.

 (RCAF photo via Mike Kaehler)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10N (Serial No. KB986) as Instructional Trainer A561 being towed out of the hanger at 2 Maritime OTU.

 (RCAF photo via Mike Kaehler)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10N (Serial No. KB986), Dunnville, Ontario.

Surviving Avro Lancaster Mk. 10s in Canada:

 (DND Photo via Mike Kaehler)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM104), No. 107 Rescue Unit, Summerside, Prince Edward Island, ca 1950s.

Lancasters assigned to the Search and Rescue role carried the RESCUE sign pained in red, initially on the bombay doors and later on the side of the fuselage edged in blue and enhanced with a florescent orange-red band, from 1952 to 1964.

(RCAF Photo via Mike Kehler) 

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10P (Serial No. KB104).

 (DND Photo via James Craik)

 (DND Photo via Mike Kaehler)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM104), coded CX, No. 107 Rescue Unit, ca 1950s.

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM104), mounted on a pylon on the Toronto waterfront before being taken down for restoration.  FM104 has been transferred by the Toronto City Council to the British Columbia Aviation Museum, Sidney, on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

 (Author Photos)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM104), undergoing restoration in the Canada Air and Space Museum, Toronto, Ontario.  FM104 has been transferred by the Toronto City Council to the British Columbia Aviation Museum, Sidney, on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM104), built as a Mk. 10 at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario.  Flown to England in January 1945. Kept in reserve at No. 32 Maintenance Unit for RCAF No. 408 Squadron RCAF and RCAF No. 428 Squadron.  Returned to Canada 10 June 1945 in expectation of use with Tiger Force against the Japanese.  Converted in November 1945 to Mk. 10SR and assigned to No. 10 RU at Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland.  Converted to Mk. 10MR in April 1951 and assigned to No. 107 Unit at RCAF Station Torbay, Newfoundland.  Struck off 10 February 1964.  Displayed mounted on a concrete pylong on the harbourfont grounds of the Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, Ontario in 1964.  Purchased by RCAF Association and put on display in Coronation Park in 1965.  Ownership transferred to Heritage Toronto in 1990.  Moved to Toronto Aerospace Museum (later the Canadian Air and Space Museum) in 1999.  Following the museum's closure in 2011, the plane went into storage.  In the fall of 2018, FM104 was moved to the British Columbia Aviation Museum and will be restored by the museum in conjunction with Victoria Air Maintenance Ltd., at Victoria, BC.

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM136), coded NA-P, mounted on a pylon at the Calgary Airport, ca. 1977, before its restoration.

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photos)

 (Daniel Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM136), coded NA-P, No. 420 Squadron.  Aerospace Museum of Calgary, Alberta.

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM136), built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. 10.  Flown to England June 1945 but returned to Canada 29 August 1945. S erved as RCAF Maritime Reconnaissance plane with RCAF No. 404 Squadron at RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia and with No. 407 Squadron at RCAF Station Comox, British Columbia.  Flown to RCAF Station Fort Macleod in 1961 for scrap.  Purchased in 1961 by Lynn Garrison and put on display mounted on a concrete pylon in 1962 at entrance to the Calgary Municipal Airport, Alberta, as a memorial to those who trained under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.  Transferred to Calgary Aerospace Museum in 1992.  It wears the colours of (Serial No. KB895), which flown by Calgary's Ronnie Jenkins.

 (Joanna Poe Photo)

Avro Lancaster nose section art replica, port side, "Sugar's Blues" at the Bomber Command Museum of Canada, Nanton Alberta.

 (Eric Friedebach Photo)

Avro Lancaster nose section art replica, starboard side, "The 'Ell Cat" at the Bomber Command Museum of Canada, Nanton Alberta.

 (Author Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM159), coded RX, mounted on concrete pedestals, long before its restoration, ca 1981.  Now restored with four of its engines in running condition, FM159, coded F2-T, is named in honour of Canadian born, Ian W. Bazalgette, VC, No. 635 Squadron.  Museum centre-piece.  National Bomber Command Air Museum, Nanton, Alberta.

 (Tony Hisgett Photo)

 (Joanna Poe Photo)

 (National Bomber Command Museum Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM159), with all four engines running.  FM159 was built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. 10.  It was flown to England in May 1945 and returned to Canada in September 1945.  It was flown as an RCAF Maritime Reconnaissance aircraft from 1953 to 1958 with No. 103 Squadron, RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia and No. 407 Squadron at RCAF Station Comox, British Columbia.   It was flown to RCAF Station Vulcan, Alberta in 1960 for scrapping, but was pPurchased that year and moved to Nanton, Alberta for display, where it was mounted on a concrete pylon beside the main highway.   FM159 has undergone gradual restoration since the formation of the Nanton Lancaster Society in 1986, and all four engines now run.  It wears the colours of (Serial No. ND811) in honour of Ian Bazalgette, VC.

 (DND Photo via James Craik)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM212), coded EQ-W, in RCAF service.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584699)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM212), coded AK-A, in RCAF service.

 (John Meneely Photo, 1995)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM212), coded EQ-W, built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. 10.  Returned to factory, by then owned by Avro Canada, in 1948 and converted to a Mk. 10P.  Served with 9 Squadron, 418 Squadron and 408 Squadron. Struck off 9 October 1964.  Stored at RCAF Station Dunnville, Ontario.  Sold to the City of Windsor, Ontario and moved on barge.  Placed on display on a concrete pylong in Jackson Park.  Currently undergoing restoration by the Canadian Historical Aircraft Association.

 (Griffin Library, Wheeler Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM213), Maritime Air Command, as it appeared while on display in front of the Royal Canadian Legion at Goderich, Ontario, on 23 May 1966.  It is now with the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario.  Built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. 10, it was stored at RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario from 1945 to 1950.  It was converted to a Mk. 10MR by de Havilland Canada.  FM213 served with No. 405 Squadron at RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia and No. 107 Rescue Unit at RCAF Station Torbay, Newfoundland.  It was struck off strength on 30 June 1964 and was stored at RCAF Station Dunnville, Ontario until purchased by the RCL.

 (Dave Miller Photo)

 (Dave Miller Photo)

 (Author Photo)

 (Svdmolen Photo)

 (Redkryptonite Photo)

 (Dave Miller Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM213), coded VR-A, as it appeared while on display in front of the Royal Canadian Legion at Goderich, Ontario, on 23 May 1966.  It is now with the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario.  Built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. 10, it was stored at RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario from 1945 to 1950.  It was converted to a Mk. 10MR by de Havilland Canada.  FM213 served with No. 405 Squadron at RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia and No. 107 Rescue Unit at RCAF Station Torbay, Newfoundland.  It was struck off strength on 30 June 1964 and was stored at RCAF Station Dunnville, Ontario until purchased and displayed at the Royal Canadian Legion in Goderich, Ontario.  It was then purchased by the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum (CWHM), Mount Hope, Ontario, and moved to Hamilton in November 1979.  FM213 was flown for first time after its restoration on 11 September 1988.  It wears the colours of (Serial No. KB726), No. 419 Squadron, in honour of Andrew Mynarski, VC.  Along with Britain's (Serial No. PA474), it is one of only two airworthy Lancasters.

 (Author Photo, ca 1974)

 (Author Photo, ca 1977)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10SR (Serial No. KB839), built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. 10.  Flown to England 1 January 1945.  Assigned to RCAF No. 431 Squadron, coded SE-G, and then to No. 419 Squadron, coded VR-D, "D Daisy." KB839 flew 26 sorties.  Returned to Canada 5 June 1945.  Sent to Avro Canada and converted to Mk. SR.  Served with No. 405 Squadron and No. 408 Squadron until 1961.  Stored at RCAF Station Dunnville.  Flown to RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia in 1964 and mounted on pedestal.  Later transferred to Greenwood Military Aviation Museum, CFB Greenwood, Nova Scotia.  Wears the colours of (Serial No. JB226), coded LQ-G, of No, 405 Squadron which was lost 18 November 1943.

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10SR (Serial No. KB839), CFB Greenwood.

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10SR (Serial No. KB839), painted as (Serial No. JB226), coded LQ-G, CFB Greenwood.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. KB882), over Edmundston, New Brunswick in the late 1940s.

 (RCAF Photo via Fred Paradie)

Avro Lancaster (Serial No. KB 882), coded NA-R, post-war with No. 408 Squadron, RCAF. 

In 2017, formerly retired after its Cold War service and more than 50 years on display in Edmundston, New Brunswick, Lancaster (Serial No. KB 882) was moved to its new home at the National Air Force Museum of Canada at CFB Trenton, Ontario, where it will be restored and placed alongside the museums' restored Handley Page Halifax (Serial No. NA 33).

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, RCAF (Serial No. KB882), Edmundston, New Brunswick.

(Author Photo) 

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, (Serial No. KB882), AR, Edmundston, New Brunswick.  This aircraft has been moved to the National Museum of the RCAF, CFB Trenton, Ontario as of Oct 2017.  

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10AR (Serial No. KB882), built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. 10.  Flown to England in 24 February 1945.  Assigned to No. 431 Squadron without code, and then to No. 428 Squadron, coded NA-R "Rabbit Stew".  Flew 19 sorties.  Returned to Canada 2 June 1945.  Stored in Alberta.  Sent to Avro Canada in 1952 and converted to Mk. 10P.  Served with No. 408 Squadron at RCAF Station Rockcliffe, Ontario.  Struck off 26 May 1964 Purchased in 1964 by City of Edmundston, New Brunswick.  Ownership transferred to the National Air Force Museum at CFB Trenton, Ontario.  KB882 was moved in September 2017.  Restoration work began immediately and will be completed by 1 April 2024, the 100th anniversary of the RCAF.  Will be restored as post-War Mk.10AR.

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10, nose section with twin .303-inch Browning machineguns, preserved in the Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10AR (Serial No. KB944), preserved in the Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.  KB944 was built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. 10.  Flown to England 8 March 1945 as Mk. 10.  Assigned to No. 425 Squadron, coded KW-K.  Did not fly any sorties and returned to Canada 15 June 1945.  Stored at RCAF Station Fort Macleod, Alberta.  Converted to Mk. 10SR by Fairey Aviation, Easatern Passage, Nova Scotia. Served with No. 404 Squadron at RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia.  Struck off January 1957.  Stored at RCAF Station Dunnville, Ontario.  Restored by the RCAF.  Purchased by National Aviation Museum in May 1964.  This aircraft is painted in the colours of (Serial No. KB760), of No. 428 Squadron.

 (David Merrett Photo)

Avro Lancaster B Mk. 10 (Serial No. KB889).  This Canadian built Lancaster was delivered to Britain in March 1945 and returned to Canada that June without seeing any service.  KB889 was later converted for Maritime Reconnaissance use.  Struck off charge by the RCAF in 1965, the aircraft was displayed in Ontario before being sold to prolific warbird collector Doug Arnold in the UK in 1984.  The aircraft was put on the UK register as G-LANC, but was never flown.  It was sold in 1986 to the Imperial War Museum, Duxford, UK.  The aircraft was restored over eight years to static condition, and has been on display since 1994 as NA-I.

 (Alan Wilson Photo)

Avro Lancaster B Mk. 10 (Serial No. KB889), c/n 37190.  Canadian built in early 1945, she was delivered to the UK in March, but returned to Canada in June for service with the Royal Canadian Air Force.  Retired in 1965, she went on display at the ‘Age of Flight’ museum at Niagara Falls until moved by barge to Oshawa for a planned restoration to fly.  Stored until 1984, she then made a second journey to the UK, but this time not under her own power.  Owned by Doug Arnold’s Warbirds of Great Britain, she was stored first at Blackbushe and later Bitteswell, at some point going on the British civil register as G-LANC.  In 1986 she was sold to the Imperial War Museum (IWM) and arrived at Duxford in May 1986.  A full and complete restoration, both inside and out, was then carried out to a very high standard and was completed in 1994.  She wears the markings of 428 Squadron and represents (Serial No. KB743), a Lancaster B Mk. 10 lost on the night of 18th/19th August 1944, during an operation to Bremen.  KB743 was actually the only aircraft lost that night, from the 288 taking part in the operation.  She is on display in the ‘AirSpace’ hangar at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford Airfield, Cambridgeshire, UK.  26 Jan 2018.

 (RAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster bombing Bremen, Germany, 18 Aug 1944.

Avro Lancasters in Canadian service, data bank:

            The four-engine Lancaster was developed from the Avro Manchester, and became the premier heavy bomber for the RAF during the Second World War.  Lancasters were built in Canada under licence by Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  The first Canadian built “Lanc” flew overseas in September 1943.  The Lancaster was designed to carry a maximum internal load of 18,000 pounds.  On a range of 1,000 miles its normal load was 14,000 pounds. A number of Bomber Command versions were modified to carry the 22,000 pound “Grand Slam,” the heaviest bomb load lifted by any bomber during the Second World War.  The four basic Lancasters were the Mk. I with four Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines, the Mk. II with four Bristol Hercules VI air-cooled radial engines, the Mk. III essentially the same as the Mk. I but with four Packard-built Merlin engines, and the Canadian manufactured Mk. 10, a version of the Mk. III fitted with Packard-built Merlin engines.  (Wikipedia)

 (RAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. II with four Bristol Hercules VI air-cooled radial engines.

 (RAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. II (Serial No. SS689), coded -S, with radial engines.

The first Lancaster combat mission came on 2 March 1942 and the first bombing raid on Essen, Germany, followed 8 days later.  The Lancaster Mk.1 was fitted successively with Merlin XX engines and remained the only version in service throughout 1942 and 1943.  In Canada, Victory Aircraft Limited of Malton, Ontario, manufactured 430 Lancaster Mk. 10s that had Packard built Merlin 28’s of 7,400 built.  After the war a number of Lancasters conducted photo-survey operations in the high arctic.  Lancasters were also employed on search and rescue duties towards the end of their post-war RCAF service.  

The Mk. B 10 was a Canadian-built B III with Canadian and US-made instrumentation and electronics.  On later batches the heavier Martin 250CE was substituted for the Nash & Thomson FN-50 mid-upper turret, mounted further forward to maintain centre of gravity balance.  Canada was a long term operator of the Lancaster, utilising modified aircraft in post-war maritime patrol, search and rescue and photo-reconnaissance roles until 1964.  The last flight by the RCAF was flown on 4 July 1964 at the Calgary International Air Show.  (Wikipedia)

Following exemplary service with the RCAF’s No. 6 Group in Bomber Command, the Lancaster was used post-war in Canada for photo-reconnaissance, air-sea rescue and maritime patrols. The last Lancaster was retired from RCAF service on 1 April 1964.  The Lancasters of the CWHM and the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF) in England are the only two flying today.

There are 17 largely complete examples of Lancasters in the world and a at least eight Lancaster survivors in Canada including one in the ASMC, Calgary, Alberta, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM136), NA-P, 420 Squadron.  NLAM, Nanton, Alberta, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. 7841), (Serial No. FM159), F2-T, in honour of VC winner Ian W. Bazalgette, 635 Squadron.  Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM118), fuselage and parts in storage.  CA&SM, Ottawa, Ontario, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. KB944).  CH2A, Windsor, Ontario, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10P (Serial No. FM212), camouflage, EQ-W, formerly mounted on a pylon in Jackson Park, now stored indoors and under restoration.  CWHM, Mount Hope, Ontario, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. CX213), (Serial No. FM213), painted with (Serial No. KB726), C-GVRA.  BCAM, Sidney, BC, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM104).  Edmundston, New Brunswick, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10AR (Serial No. KB882).  GMAM, CFB Greenwood, Nova Scotia, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. KB839), 696, silver.  Resolute Bay, Northwest Territories, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. FM221).

FM136 was part of the second production batch of 130 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  Serial numbers in this batch included FM100-FM229.  Aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 28, 38 or 224 engines.  TFM 136 was manufactured in 1945 by Victory Aircraft, assigned to No. 20th and 30th Maintenance Units in England, never issued to active Squadron.  Returned to Canada and converted to Maritime Reconnaissance.  The aircraft was taken on strength by No. 404 ‘Buffalo’ (MP) Squadron (Greenwood, Nova Scotia) as RX-136.  Transferred to No. 407 ‘Demon’ (MP) Squadron, CFB Comox, British Columbia.  Struck off strength April 1961.  Lancaster FM136 was purchased from Crown Assets Disposal Corporation by Lynn Garrison, in 1961.  He created The Lancaster Memorial Fund to see the aircraft displayed, in 1962, on a pedestal at McCall Field, Calgary, as a memorial to those who trained under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.  It was subsequently moved to the Aerospace Museum of Calgary in 1992.  A new shelter was built for it in 2007.  Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avro_Lancaster.

FM159 was flown to England May 1945 Stored at No. 32 Maintenance Unit awaiting assignment to a squadron.  Returned to Canada September 1945.  Modified to Mk. 10MR (Maritime Reconnaissance), No. 407 Squadron (RX-159), No. 103 Rescue Unit.  Part of the second production batch of 130 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  Serial numbers of this batch included FM100-FM229.  Aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 28, 38 or 224 engines.  On display at the Nanton Lancaster Society Air Museum, Nanton, Alberta.

FM118 was flown to England April 1945.  Stored at No. 32 Maintenance Unit awaiting assignment to a squadron.  Returned to Canada June 1945.  Part of the second production batch of 130 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario, Canada.  Serial numbers of this batch included FM100-FM229.  Aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 28, 38 or 224 engines.  The majority of the fuselage is in storage at the Nanton Lancaster Society Air Museum, Nanton, Alberta.  Other surviving pieces can also be found in storage with the BCATP Museum, Brandon, Manitoba.

KB944 was flown to England March 1945.  No. 32 Maintenance Unit, 425 Squadron (KW-K).  Returned to Canada 15 June 1945.  Part of the first production batch of 300 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.   KB944 was built in Canada in 1945 by Victory Aircraft.  Later that year, after briefly serving overseas, it was put into stored reserve in Canada where it went on to spend most of the following years, except for a brief period in 1952 serving with 404 Maritime Patrol Squadron at Greenwood, Nova Scotia.  In 1964 the RCAF refurbished this aircraft and placed it in the CA&SM.  Aircraft has been fully restored to its wartime configuration and is on public display at the CA&SM, Ottawa, Ontario.

FM212 was retained in Canada during the war.  Modified to Mk. 10P (Photographic Survey), No. 408 Squadron, coded MN.  Part of the second production batch to 130 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  Serial numbers in this batch included FM100-FM229. Aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 28, 38 or 224 engines.   this Lancaster has been renamed “Bad Penny” to commemorate the first RAF Lancaster to fly into Holland during Operation Manna to save the Dutch from starvation in the closing days of the Second World War, 29 April 1945.  On 29 April, 2007 (to coincide with the 62nd anniversary of Operation Manna) FM212 was removed from storage in Jackson Park and towed to the Sears parking lot of Devonshire where it was on display and open for tours through the aircraft.  On 13 May 2007, FM212 was towed from Devonshire Mall to Windsor Airport where it is on display and undergoing extensive restoration to return the aircraft back to a flight worthy status over the next few years. 

FM213 was retained in Canada during the war.  Modified to Mk. 10 MR (Maritime Reconnaissance), No. 107 Rescue Unit (CX-213).  Returned to storage during 1958.  Part of the second production batch of 130 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  Serial numbers of this batch included FM100-FM229. Aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 28, 38 or 224 engines.  This aircraft was retired from active duty with the RCAF on 6 November 1963, and then stored at Dunnville, Ontario.  FM213 had 4,392.3 hours on the airframe when it was handed over.  It would probably have been sold for scrap metal except for the intervention of The Royal Canadian Legion in Goderich.  The aircraft was acquired by the CWHM in 1978, underwent a ten-year restoration, and has remained flyable since 1988.  Restored and maintained in flying condition by Canadian War Plane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario, it is flown in the paint scheme of (Serial No. KB726), VR-A, it is known as the “Mynarski. Memorial Lancaster in honour of Canadian VC recipient Andrew Mynarski.

FM104 was flown to England in January 1945, Stored at Maintenance Unit awaiting assignment to a squadron.  Returned to Canada June 1945.  Modified to Mk. 10MR (Maritime Reconnaissance), No. 10 Rescue Unit.  Part of the second production batch of 130 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario, Canada. Serial numbers of this batch included FM100-FM229. Aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 22, 38 or 224 engines.  FM105 was donated to the City of Toronto in 1964 and placed on a pedestal on Lakeshore Drive.  After sitting outside for 36 years, the aircraft was removed from the pedestal and placed on loan to the Canadian Air and Space Museum, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  The aircraft is now with the BCAM, Sidney, BC.  With spare parts from the remainder of FM118, it is planned to be complete as a museum quality piece in 2015.  Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avro_Lancaster.

KB882 was flown to England May 1945.  No. 32 Maintenance Unit, 434 Squadron, 428 Squadron (NA-R).  Returned to Canada 2 June 1945.  Modified to Mk. 10AR (Aerial Reconnaissance), No. 408 Squadron, coded AK.  Part of the first production batch of 300 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  Serial numbers of this batch include KB700-KB999.  The first 75 aircraft of this batch were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 38 engines.  The remaining 225 aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 224 engines.  Deliveries commenced to England in September 1943 and were completed in May 1945.  Average rate of production was approximately 4 aircraft per week.  KB 882 was built by Victory Aircraft in 1945 and delivered to Britain.  The aircraft joined No. 428 Squadron in March of that year.  Flown on six operational sorties over Germany, the aircraft was returned to Canada in June 1945 and entered storage.  In 1952 the aircraft was modified to Mk 10P configuration and flew with No. 408 Squadron.  In 1964 the aircraft was purchased by the City of Edmundston, New Brunswick and has since been on outside display at the Municipal Airport.  It is now with the NMRCAF, CFB Trenton, Ontario.

KB839 was flown to England January 1945.  No. 32 Maintenance Unit, No. 431 Squadron, No. 419 Squadron (VR-D).  Returned to Canada 5 Jun 1945.  Modified to Mk. 10AR (Aerial Reconnaissance), No. 408 Squadron, coded AK.  Patch of the first production batch of 300 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  Serial numbers of this batch included KB700-KB999.  The first 75 aircraft of this batch were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 38 engines.  Whilst the remaining 225 aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 224 engines.  Deliveries commence to England in September 1943 and were completed in May 1945.  Average rate of production was approximately 4 aircraft per week.  Built by Victory Aircraft and delivered to No. 419 Squadron in January 1945.  The aircraft completed 26 sorties, wearing the code letters VR-D.  It was twice damaged by German anti-aircraft fire.  It returned to Canada after the end of the war in Europe, initially for service against Japan but was modified after the war to Mk 10AR Arctic Reconnaissance specification.  After being struck off charge in 1963, the aircraft was preserved at CFB Greenwood, Nova Scotia.  It has received several restorations and is now displayed outside at the GMAM, CFB Greenwood, Nova Scotia.

FM221 was retained in Canada during the war.  Modified to Mk. 10BR (Bomber Reconnaissance) in 1948, coded VP-DDR.  Aircraft crashed at Resolute Bay, Northwest Territories, Canada, 23 Sep 1950.  The wreckage is still visible.

Lancaster B Mk. I (Serial No. PA474)  “City of Lincoln” has been flown by the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight in the UK since 1973.  The paint scheme is periodically changed to represent notable Lancasters, and the aircraft is currently flown as (Serial No. EE139) “Phantom of the Ruhr”, wearing the codes HW-R on the port side and BQ-B on the starboard side.

Canadian Lancaster survivors overseas: Imperial War Museum, Duxford, Cambridgeshire, UK, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. 10 (Serial No. KB889).  North Weald Airfield, Epping, Essex, UK, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X (Serial No. KB994).  Private owner, Florida, USA, Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X (Serial No. KB976).  

KB889 was flown to England March 1945.  No. 32 Maintenance Unit, 428 Squadron.  Returned to Canada 4 June 1945.  Modified to Mk. 10MR (Maritime Reconnaissance), No. 408 Squadron, coded AR.  Part of the first production batch of 300 aircraft ordered from Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  Serial numbers in this batch included KB700-KB999.  The first 75 aircraft of this batch were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 38 engines.  The remaining 225 aircraft were equipped with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 224 engines.  Deliveries commenced to England in September 1943 and were completed in May 1945.  Average rate of production was approximately 4 aircraft per week.  KB889 was delivered to Britain in March 1945 and returned to Canada that June without seeing any service.  This aircraft was later converted for Maritime Reconnaissance use. Struck off charge by the RCAF in 1965, the aircraft was displayed in Ontario before being sold to prolific warbird collector Doug Arnold in the UK in 1984.  The aircraft was put on the UK register as G-LANC, but was never flown.  Sold in 1986 to the Imperial War museum, the aircraft was restored over eight years to static condition, and has been on display since 1994, coded NA-I.  KB889 has been completely restored to its wartime configuration and is currently on public display at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford, England. 

KB976 was part of the first production batch of 300 aircraft ordered for Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario.  It was flown to England May 1945, but saw no action, serving with No. 32 Maintenance Unit, 405 Squadron (LQ-K).  Returned to Canada 17 June 1945.  Modified to Mk. 10 Aerial Reconnaissance, 408 Squadron (MN-976).  KB 976 was struck off charge in 1964.  Lancaster KB976 made the last official flight as an RCAF aircraft on 4 July 1964 at the Calgary International Air Show with F/L Lynn Garrison, as Captain, and F/L Ralph Langemann as co-pilot.  Lynn Garrison then purchased KB976 from Crown Assets Disposal Corporation as an addition to his historic collection.  He created the Air Museum of Canada in April, 1964.  KB976 was sold for an abortive conversion to a fire bomber.  Sold in 1974 to the Strathallan Collection in Scotland, KB976 was flown across the Atlantic and then statically displayed until 1987.  Bought by collector Charles Church, the aircraft was moved to Woodford for restoration to airworthy condition, where the airframe was damaged in a hangar collapse.  The rebuild was abandoned and the aircraft was later sold to Doug Arnold before finally being bought by Kermit Weeks in 1992.  The aircraft has since been stored at his Fantasy of Flight museum in Florida awaiting restoration. 

KB994 was flown to England in June 1945, where it served with No. 32 Maintenance Unit, 408 Squadron (EQ-K).  Returned to Canada 16 June 1945.  Aircraft was struck off Charge from the RCAF 22 Jan 1947.  On a farm in Alberta until acquired by 408 Squadron Museum, CFB Edmonton, Alberta, 1984-1988.  Sold to Charles Church and shipped to Manchester, England.  Registered as G-BVBP, stored dismantled at Bedford, Biggin Hill, UK, fuselage to be used in the rebuild of KB976.  Forward fuselage under restoration with David Arnold, Flying A Services, North Weald Airfield, Epping, Essex, England.