|Canadian Warplanes 3: The Second World War, Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk
Canadian Warplanes of the Second World War, Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk
RCAF Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, Vancouver, British Columbia, ca 1942. The badge on the nacelle seems to be that of the ANAF Vets or the Royal Canadian Legion. It reads "For King and Empire". (City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM1184-S3-: CVA 1184-1132)
Data current to 7 Dec 2018.
The Curtiss P-40 (known as the Warhawk in the USA) is single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. The British Commonwealth air forces including the RCAF, and the Soviet air forces used the name Tomahawk for models equivalent to the P-40B and P-40C, and the name Kittyhawk for models equivalent to the P-40D and all later variants. The P-40 was in frontline service until the end of the Second World War. It was the third most-produced American fighter of the war after the P-51 and P-47, with 13,738 being built in Buffalo, New York. Based on war-time victory claims, over 200 Allied fighter pilots from 7 different nations (England, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, the United States, and the Soviet Union) became aces flying the P-40. A total of 13 RCAF units operated the P-40 in the North West European or Alaskan theaters.
In mid-May 1940, Canadian and US officers watched comparative tests of a XP-40 and a Spitfire, at RRCAF Station Uplands, Ottawa, Ontario. While the Spitfire was considered to have performed better, it was not available for use in Canada and the P-40 was ordered to meet home air defense requirements. In all, eight Home War Establishment Squadrons were equipped with the Kittyhawk: 72 Kittyhawk Mk. I, 12 Kittyhawk Mk. Ia, 15 Kittyhawk Mk. III and 35 Kittyhawk Mk. IV aircraft, for a total of 134 aircraft. These aircraft were mostly diverted from RAF Lend-Lease orders for service in Canada. The P-40 Kittyhawks were obtained in lieu of 144 P-39 Airacobras originally allocated to Canada but reassigned to the RAF.
However, before any home units received the P-40, three RCAF Article XV squadrons operated Tomahawk aircraft from bases in the United Kingdom. No. 403 Squadron RCAF, a fighter unit, used the Tomahawk Mk. II briefly before converting to Spitfires. Two Army Co-operation (close air support) squadrons, No. 400 and No. 414 Sqns, trained with Tomahawks, before converting to Mustang Mk. I aircraft and a fighter/reconnaissance role. Of these, only No. 400 Squadron used Tomahawks operationally, conducting a number of armed sweeps over France in the late 1941. RCAF pilots also flew Tomahawks or Kittyhawks with other British Commonwealth units based in North Africa, the Mediterranean, South East Asia and (in at least one case) the South West Pacific.
In 1942, the Imperial Japanese Navy occupied tow islands, Attu and Kiska, in the Aleutians off Alaska. RCAF home defense P-40 squadrons saw combat over the Aleutians, assisting the USAAF. The RCAF initially sent No. 111 Squadron, flying the Kittyhawk Mk. I, to the US base on Adak island. During the drawn-out campaign, 12 Canadian Kittyhawks operated on a rotational basis from a new, more advanced base on Amchitka,75 miles (121 km) southeast of Kiska. No. 14 and No. 111 Sqns took "turn-about" at the base. During a major attack on Japanese positions at Kiska on 25 September 1942, Squadron Leader Ken Boomer shot down a Nakajima A6M2-N Rufe seaplane. The RCAF also purchased 12 P-40Ks directly from the USAAF while in the Aleutians. After the Japanese threat diminished, these two RCAF squadrons returned to Canada and eventually transferred to England without their Kittyhawks.
In January 1943, a further Article XV unit, No. 430 Squadron was formed at RAF Hartford Bridge, England and trained on the obsolete Tomahawk Mk. IIA. The squadron converted to the the Mustang Mk. I before commencing operations in mid-1943.
In early 1945 pilots from No. 133 Squadron RCAF, operating the P-40N out of RCAF Station Patricia Bay, Victoria, British Columbia, intercepted and destroyed two Japanese balloon-bombs, which were designed to cause wildfires on the North American mainland. On 21 February, Pilot Officer E. E. Maxwell shot down a balloon, which landed on Sumas Mountain in Washington State. On 10 March, Pilot Officer J. 0. Patten destroyed a balloon near Saltspring Island, BC. The last interception took place on 20 April 1945 when Pilot Officer P.V. Brodeur from No. 135 Squadron out of Abbotsford, BC, shot down a balloon over Vedder Mountain. (Wikipedia)
RCAF units that operated P-40s were, in order of conversion:
Article XV squadrons serving in the UK under direct command and control of the RAF, with RAF owned aircraft.
403 Squadron (Tomahawk IIA and IIB, March 1941),
400 Squadron (Tomahawk I, IIA and IIB, April 1941–September 1942)
414 Squadron (Tomahawk I, IIA and IIB, August 1941–September 1942)
430 Squadron (Tomahawk IIA and IIB, January 1943–February 1943)
Operational Squadrons of the Home War Establishment (HWE) (Based in Canada)
111 Squadron (Kittyhawk I, IV, November 1941–December 1943 and P-40K, September 1942–July 1943)
118 Squadron (Kittyhawk I, November 1941–October 1943)
14 Squadron (Kittyhawk I, January 1942–September 1943)
132 Squadron (Kittyhawk IA & III, April 1942–September 1944)
130 Squadron (Kittyhawk I, May 1942–October 1942)
163 Squadron (Kittyhawk I & III, October 1943–March 1944)
133 Squadron (Kittyhawk I, March 1944–July 1945)
135 Squadron (Kittyhawk IV, May 1944–September 1945)
Curtiss Hawk Model 81A-1, P-40 Tomahawk Mk. I (3), (Serial No. A313 (ex AH793), A315 (ex AH840), A316 (ex AH774), 81A-2, P-40B Tomahawk Mk. IIA (1), (Serial No. A317 (ex AH938).
Curtiss Hawk Model 87A-2, P-40D Kittyhawk Mk. I (72), (Serial Nos. 1028-1099). , P-40E-1 Kittyhawk Mk. IA (12), (Serial Nos. 720-731), P-40M Kittyhawk Mk. III (15), (Serial Nos. 831-845), P-40N Kittyhawk Mk. IV (35), (Serial Nos. 846-880), P-40K-1 Warhawk (9), for a total of 143 aircraft.
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk I (Serial No. AK803) from 118 (F) Squadron, early 1942. (RCAF Photo)
Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk Mk. I in flight in RCAF service. (RCAF Photos)
Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk RAF (Serial No. AL194), RCAF (Serial No. 1087), 111 (F) Sqn, being recovered from a crash site, Kodiak, Alaska, 19 Apr 1944. (RCAF Photo)
Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawks, No. 111 (F) Sqn, RCAF, Kodiak, Alaska, 1942-43. The aircraft marked "BITSA" is reported to have been flown by SL K.A. Boomer when he shot down a Japanese Rufe, 25 Sep 1942. (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4105388).
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, RCAF No. 111 Sqn, SL Kenneth Boomer, DFC, KIA 2 Oct 1944. (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4332918)
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk Mk. I, engine view, 1942. (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582198)
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk Mk. I cockpit, July 1942. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582881)
Curtis P-40 Kittyawk Mk. I throttle. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582032)
Curtiss Kittyhawk Mk. I aircraft of No.111(F) Squadron, RCAF, Patricia Bay, British Columbia, 15 January 1942. (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3406263)
Curtis P-40 Kittyawk Mk. I, RCAF No. 111 (F) Squadron pilots, Sep 1942. (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3211090)
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk Mk. I RCAF (Serial No. AL109), later (Serial No. 1071), nose over, 29 Feb 1942. (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643686, 3643687, and 3643688)
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk Mk. I RCAF (Serial No. 1066), wheels up landing, 4 Feb 1942. (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643689)
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, RAF (Serial No. FL220). (RCAF Photo)
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, in hangar, RCAF. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582934)
Curtiss P-40 Warhawks (USAAF), Consolidated Canso A, RCAF (Serial No. 9793), Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. X4220), Noordyn Norseman and Avron Anson, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 31 May 1943. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643716)
Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, (Serial No. AK752), later RCAF (Serial No. 1028), 25 May 1942. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643698)
Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk Mk. Ia, RCAF (Serial No. 1076), (Serial No. 18780). Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.