Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Canadian Warplanes 3: The Second World War, and post-War, Hawker Hurricane

Canadian Warplanes, the Second World War and post-War, Hawker Hurricanes

Data current to 12 Dec 2018.

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM640-S1-: CVA 260-1023)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 314), Vancouver, British Columbia, 1939.

The Hawker Hurricane is a single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. for service with the Royal Air Force (RAF).  The Hurricane developed through several versions, as bomber-interceptors, fighter-bombers, and ground support aircraft in addition to fighters.  Versions designed for the Navy were popularly known as the Sea Hurricane, with modifications enabling their operation from ships.  Some were converted to be used as catapult-launched convoy escorts.  By the end of production in July 1944, 14,487 Hurricanes had been completed in Britain and Canada.

A major manufacturer of the Hurricane was Canadian Car and Foundry at their factory in Fort William (now Thunder Bay), Ontario.  The facility's chief engineer, Elsie MacGill, became known as the "Queen of the Hurricanes".  The initiative was commercially led rather than governmentally, but was endorsed by the British government; Hawker, having recognised that a major conflict was all but inevitable after the Munich Crisis of 1938, drew up preliminary plans to expand Hurricane production via a new factory in Canada.  Under this plan, samples, pattern aircraft, and a complete set of design documents stored on microfilm, were shipped to Canada; the RCAF ordered 20 Hurricanes to equip one fighter squadron and two more were supplied to Canadian Car and Foundry as pattern aircraft but one probably did not arrive.  The first Hurricane built at Canadian Car and Foundry was officially produced in February 1940.  As a result, Canadian-built Hurricanes were shipped to Britain to participate in events such as the Battle of Britain.  Canadian Car and Foundry (CCF) was responsible for the production of 1,451 Hurricanes.  (Wikipedia)

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM640-S1-: CVA 260-1020)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 314), Vancouver, British Columbia, 1939.

Canadian built Hurricanes included 

Hurricane Mk. X
CCF-built variant.   A total of 1,025 Mk. II airframes were made for Holland (1), the RAF (624), and the RCAF (400), between July 1941 and May 1943. The Mk. X designation has been used by the RAF for the CCF-built Mk. I but it is usually defined as Mk. II airframes fitted with a Merlin 28 engine.  About two thirds of the CCF built Mk. II airframes shipped to Britain did so without an engine, the remainder being fitted with Merlin 28s in Canada, but the engine was nearly automatically removed upon arrival and a Merlin XX fitted instead and the aircraft called Mk. II by the RAF.  Apart from some test flights in Canada and England no Hurricane flew powered by a Merlin 28.  Canada also only imported 285 Merlin 28 for Hurricanes, all of which were shipped to Britain either as a separate engine or attached to a Hurricane.
Hurricane Mk. XI
Canadian-built variant. Designation used for 150 aircraft from the RCAF mark XII order sent to Britain, these aircraft had their Merlin 29 removed and were either shipped without an engine or fitted with a Merlin 28. Fitted with Merlin XX on arrival in Britain and called mark II by the RAF.
Hurricane Mk. XII
Canadian-built variant. Single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber. Powered by a 1,300 hp (969 kW) Packard Merlin 29. Initially armed with 12 0.303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns, but this was later changed to four 20 mm (.79 in) cannon.
Hurricane Mk. XIIA
Canadian-built variant. Single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber. An order for 400 mark II airframes for the RCAF powered by a 1,300 hp (970 kW) Packard Merlin 29, armed with eight 0.303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns, production starting in June 1942. 150 sent to Britain in 1943 either engineless or fitted with a Merlin 28. Also a batch of 30 RAF order mark II airframes retained in Canada in late 1941 and initially fitted with Merlin III became mark XII when later fitted with Merlin 29.
Holland standard Hurricane.
Canadian built variant. RAF serial airframe AM270 was completed around early March 1942 to Dutch standards, including US built Merlin, instruments and gun sight, as the prototype of an order for the Netherlands East Indies (KM/KNIL). Given the Dutch serial HC3-287, its subsequent fate is unclear beyond being used by CCF for test flying. AM270 was also used by the RAF for a Consolidated San Diego built Catalina creating a further level of confusion.

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I (50), (Serial Nos. 310-329, 1351-1380), Mk. IIC (1), (Serial No. A274 (ex HV961), Mk. XII (401), (Serial Nos. 5376-5775, 9426), Mk. XIIA (50), (V7402, BW835-BW884), Sea Hurricane (1), (Serial R4177), for a total of 503 aircraft.

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM640-S1-: CVA 260-1019)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 314), Vancouver, British Columbia, 1939.

Hawker Hurricane, RAF No. 242 Squadron pilots, Denis Crowley-Milling, Hugh Tamblyn, Stan Turner, (Saville (on wing), Neil Campbell, Willie McKnight, Douglas Bader, Eric Ball, Homer, Ben Brown, 1940.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3644386)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No 1 Squadron pilots at Prestwick, Scotland.  Squadron Leader E.A. McNab, the Squadron Commanding Officer, stands fifth from the right, wearing a wedge cap.  (IWM Photo C H1733)

 

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No.  315), No. 1 (F) Squadron, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 6 Sep 1939.  This aircraft was flown by FLt E.A. McNab.   (Library and Archives Canada Photos, MIKAN Nos. 3203344 and 3203345)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, No. 127 (F) Sqn, Gander, Newfoundland, May 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3592489)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII with jettisonable fuel tanks, 19 May 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 358371)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 315),  No. 1 (F) Sqn, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 5 Sep 1939.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3208141)

Canadian Car & Foundry (Hawker) Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial No. 44013), RCAF (Serial No. 5418), 135 Squadron.  Wetaskwin, Alberta.

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5625), in flight.  (RCAF Photos)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5470).  (RCAF Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No. 1 (F) Squadron, Digby, England, 22 January 1941.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN 3614988)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No. 1 (F) Squadron. being refueled, ca 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 361497)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, No. 1 (F) Sqn, S/L E.A. McNab, CO, Northolt, England, 12 Sep 1940.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3614996)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, 328, RCAF, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 26 Aug 1939.   (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581404)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, 328, RCAF, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 26 Aug 1939.   (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3642472)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, 16 Sep 1942, Rockcliffe, Ontario.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207275)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 328), 26 Aug 1939.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3574053)

Hawker Hurricane Mk XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5698), Oct 1944.  (Library & Archives Canada Photos, MIKAN No. 3650867

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No. 1 (F) Sqn, 1939.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3203458)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No. 1 (F) Sqn, 1939.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3545933)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5698).  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650865)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4164721)

Hawker Hurricane M. XII, RCAF, aircraft controls, 7 Feb 1945.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583666)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, cockpit,.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643694)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, cockpit,.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643708)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 315).  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207274)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 315), No. 1 (F) Squadron and North American Harvard Mk. I, (Serial No. 1330), 1939.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3545871)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5650),26 Jan 1943.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582338)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5501), L, 28 Feb 1943.  (RCAF Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF, with auxilliary gas tanks, 19 May 1944.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583271)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF, with auxilliary gas tanks, 31 Aug 1943.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583034)

Hawker Hurricane, No.5 Operational Training Unit (RCAF Schools and Training Units),  Boundary Bay, British Columia, 1 Dec 1942.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207506)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial No. 5584), (520199).  (Canadian Forces Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial No. 5584).  Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.

Hawker Hurricane Mk. IV, RAF (Serial No. KZ321), Vintage Wings of Canada, Fatineau, Quebec.  (Kogo Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. IV (Serial No. KZ231), JV-N, RAF No. 6 Squadron, Reg. No. CF-TPM, Vintage Wings of Canada, Gatineau, Quebec.

Hawker Hurricane Mk. IV (Hurribomber), armed with 20-mm cannon flown by these Canadian pilots in the Burma Theatre of War, 28 Feb 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4283438)

Hawker Hurricane, RAF (Serial No. BD867), QO-Y.  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Hawker Hurricane, RCAF No. 126 Sqn (BV code), 9 Aug 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4982739)

Hawker Sea Hurricane on its catapult launcher.  (RAF/RN Photos)