Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Canadian Warplanes 3: The Second World War, and post-War, Avro Lancaster

Canadian Warplanes of the Second World War and post-War, Avro Lancaster

Data current to 9 Dec 2018.

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM640-S1-: CVA 260-1518)

Avro Lancaster, RCAF, on display at an airshow at Richmond, British Columbia, Aug 1945.

The Avro Lancaster is a four-engined heavy bomber, designed and manufactured by Avro as a contemporary of the Handley Page Halifax and the Short Stirling.  All three aircraft were four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the RAF during the same Second World War era.  The Lancaster was powered by four Rolls-Royce Merlin engines and in one version, Bristol Hercules engines.  It first saw service with RAF Bomber Command in 1942 and as the strategic bombing offensive over Europe gathered momentum, it was the main aircraft for the night-time bombing campaigns that followed.  As increasing numbers of the type were produced, it became the principal heavy used by the RAF, the RCAF and squadrons from other Commonwealth and European countries serving within the RAF, overshadowing contemporaries such as the Halifax and Stirling.

The Lancaster had a long, unobstructed bomb bay, which meant that it carry the largest bombs used by the RAF, including the 4,000 lb (1,800 kg), 8,000 lb (3,600 kg) and 12,000 lb (5,400 kg) blockbuster bombs in loads that were often supplemented with smaller bombs or incendiaries.  The Lancaster night bombers delivered 608,612 long tons of bombs in 156,000 sorties over Europe.  The versatility of the Lancaster was such that it was chosen to equip 617 Squadron and was modified to carry the Upkeep"Bouncing bomb" designed by Barnes Wallis for Operation Chastise, the attack on German Ruhr valley dams.  Although the Lancaster was primarily a night bomber, it excelled in many other roles, including daylight precision bombing, for which some Lancasters were adapted to carry the 12,000 lb (5,400 kg) Tallboy and then the 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) Grand Slam earthquake bombs (also designed by Wallis).  This was the largest payload carried by any bomber in the war.

During early 1942, it was decided that the bomber should be produced in Canada, where it was manufactured by Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario The Canadian-built Lancaster B X was produced in significant numbers.  A total of 430 of this type were built, earlier examples differing little from their British-built predecessors, except for using Packard-built Merlin engines and American-style instruments and electronics.  In August 1942, a British-built Lancaster B I, (Serial No. R5727), was dispatched to Canada as a pattern aircraft, becoming the first of the type to conduct a transatlantic crossing.  The first Lancaster produced in Canada was named the "Ruhr Express".

Postwar, the Lancaster was supplanted as the main strategic bomber of the RAF by the Avro Lincoln, , a larger version of the Lancaster (three were built in Canada and flown by the RCAF).  The Lancaster took on the role of long range anti-submarine patrol aircraft and air-sea rescue.  It was also used for photo-reconnaissance and aerial mapping.

Beginning in 1946, Lancaster Mk Xs were modified for service with the RCAF.  Fourteen aircraft were modified to perform aerial and photo-reconnaissance missions; these would go on to perform much of the mapping of northern Canada until as late as 1962.  Throughout the 1950s, the RCAF operated seventy modified Lancasters, designated Lancaster 10MR/MPs, as Maritime Reconnaissance and Patrol aircraft in an anti-submarine role.  Modifications involved the installation of radar and sonobuoy operators' positions, removal of the rear and mid-upper gun turrets, installation of a 400-gallon fuel tank in the bomb bay to increase the patrol range, upgraded electronics, radar, and instrumentation, and a cooking stove in the centre section.  They served throughout the 1950s, when they were replaced by the Lockheed Neptune and Canadair Argus.

The B.X was a Canadian-built B.III with Canadian- and US-made instruments and electrics.  On later batches the heavier Martin 250CE was substituted for the Nash & Thomson FN-50 mid-upper turret, mounted further forward to maintain centre of gravity balance.  Canada was a long term operator of the Lancaster, using modified aircraft after the war for maritime patrol, search and rescue and photo-reconnaissance until 1964.  The last flight by the RCAF was by F/L Lynn Garrison in (Serial No. KB-976), on 4 July 1964 at the Calgary International Air Show.

Postwar the RCAF modified the B X (as the Lancaster Mk 10) to fill a variety of roles, with specific designations for each role. These included:

10ARArea Reconnaissance – three aircraft modified for surveillance operations over the Arctic. Fitted with lengthened nose (40 inches (100 cm) longer) and carrying cameras and ELINT equipment. These remained in service until 1964.

10BRBomber Reconnaissance. Minimally modified variant with additional windows for observers in rear fuselage. 13 converted.

10DCDrone controller with Ryan Firebee drones – two modified in 1957 and operational until 1961.

10MR (later 10MP): Maritime Reconnaissance or Maritime Patrol anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft, based on BR with mid-upper turret removed.  70–75 converted. In service from 1950 to 1955.

10NNavigational trainer. Five converted.

10OOrenda jet engine testbed for the engine used in the Avro CF-100 Canuck.

10PPhoto reconnaissance mapping duties. 11 converted 1948–1950.  Retired 1964.

10S&R: Interim search-and-rescue aircraft, minimally modified 10S. Replaced by disarmed 10BR and 10MRs.

10S : Standard – designation applied to baseline standard, with Merlin 224 engines, Marin mid-upper turret and H2S radar, for aircraft retained postwar for future use. Sometimes referred to by unofficial designation 10U.

B.XV: As per Lancaster B.IV/Lincoln B.1 but built in Canada and renamed Avro Lincoln XV.  Three were built before order was cancelled when war ended.

Of the 17 surviving and largely intact Lancasters known to exist, two are airworthy; one, called Vera (Serial No. FM213), coded VR-A, is in Canada, operated by the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Mount Hope, a suburb of Hamilton, Ontario, and the other, (Serial No. PA474), is based in Coningsby, in the UK, operated by The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight.  In 2014, "Vera" toured the UK in a series of joint displays with the BBMF aircraft.  For the 2018 flying season, to commemorate the 75th anniversary of Operation Chastise, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Lancaster is painted in the markings of Guy Gibson's 617 Squadron aircraft (Serial No. ED932), coded AJ-G, when he commanded the "Dambusters" raids.

Another Lancaster, Just Jane, based in East Kirkby Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre is able to taxi but is not currently airworthy, though there are plans to return her to flight in the future.  The fourth Lancaster with working engines and able to taxi is "Bazalgette" (Serial No. FM159), based at the Bomber Command Museum of Canada in Nanton, Alberta.  It has been carefully restored from a vandalised state and is now a major tourist attraction.

In 2017, formerly retired after its Cold War service and more than 50 years on display in Edmundston, New Brunswick, Lancaster (Serial No. KB 882) was moved to its new home at the National Air Force Museum of Canada at CFB Trenton, Ontario, where it will be restored and placed alongside the museums' restored Handley Page Halifax (Serial No. NA 33).

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. III (1), (Serial No. EE 182), Mk. X and Mk. XP (228)), (Serial Nos. FM101-FM105, FM110, FM111, FM115, FM118, FM120, FM122- FM124, FM126- FM128, FM130, FM136, FM140, FM148, FM153, FM155, FM159, FM172, FM199, FM206-FM229, KB721, KB732, KB733, KB739, KB744, KB746- KB748, KB757, KB760, KB764, KB771- KB774, KB781, KB783, KB789, KB791, KB794, KB796, KB801, KB802, KB807, KB810- KB812, KB819, KB820, KB823- KB827, KB829, KB830, KB833, KB836- KB841, KB843, KB844, KB847- KB849, KB851, KB852, KB854, KB856, KB857, KB860- KB865, KB867, KB868, KB871- KB873, KB875- KB878, KB880- KB886, KB888- KB896, KB898-KB900, KB912- KB934, KB936- KB970, KB972- KB979, KB981- KB984, KB986, KB988, KB990- KB992, KB994- KB999), for a total of 229 aircraft.

Avro 683 Lancaster in flight during the Second World War.  (RAF Photo)

 (City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM640-S1-: CVA 260-1523)

Avro Lancaster rear turret view, Vancouver, British Columbia, Aug 1945.

Avro 683 Lancaster in flight.  (RAF Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster, Canada stamp.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 2264450)

 

Avro Lancaster B Mk. II, RCAF (Serial No. LL725), EQ-C, of No. 408 Squadron being bombed up Linton-on-Ouse, Yorkshire, ca. 1944.  (RAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster LQ-A.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584030)

 

Avro Lancaster bombing a target in Europe, 21 March 1945.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4207036)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk X, wartime flight.  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Canadian Aviation Preservation Association)

 

Avro 683 Lancaster, wartime flight.  (RAF Photo)

Avro 683 Lancasters with the RCAF on a bomb run over coastal batteries, Wangerooge, ca 1944.  (RAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster nose art, 1 Feb 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542797)

Avro Lancaster Ruhr Express preparing for its first Operation over Germany.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542803)

RCAF Avro Lancaster "Ruhr Express" being bombed up for a mission over Berlin. Ground crews are steering two "cookies" (block-buster bombs) into position under the bomb-bay.  This aircraft was the first Canadian built Lancaster.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542805)

Avro Lancaster rear gun turret with four .303-inch Browning machineguns, Sergeant Noixeux, Wireless air gunner and Sergeant Lavois, Pilot, 2 May 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4558161)

Avro Lancaster B Mk. II (Serial No. DS848), QO-R with aircrew, 432 Sqn, 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3615003)

Of the 7,377 aircraft built, 3,736 were lost during the War (3,249 in action and 487 in ground accidents).  

Post war Lancasters in RCAF service:

(RCAF Photo courtesy of the Canadian Aviation Preservation Association)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM128), AP-U in flight, post war.

(RCAF Photo via Mark Allen)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM207), MN-207 in flight, post war.

(RCAF Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. KB976), post-war in flight.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584032)

Avro Lancaster cockpit.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584365)

Avro Lancaster OSC camera  installation.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584855)

Avro Lancaster radio altimeter installation.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584318)

Avro Lancaster Shoran equipment.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584029)

Avro Lancaster installation and equipment.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584572)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM217), Rockcliffe, Ontario, 6 Sep 1951.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3586596)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM211), VC-DHZ, Air Navigation School, 8 Aug 1949.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207414)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM207), 2 Apr 1951.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584468)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM216), coded AP-D, 28 Dec 1959.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4236026)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, Reg. No. CF-IMF, Spartan Air Services Ltd.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3562607)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, Reg. No. CF-IMF, and de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito, Spartan Air Services Ltd.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583775)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, VC-DHP, Polaris, RCAF, 8 Aug 1949.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584699)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. 212), AK-A, 26 Aug 1952.

(USN Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MP, RCAF (Serial No. KB868), No. 405 Squadron, running up at NAS Jax, Florida, Feb 1953.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584509)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF, 28 May 1951.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584502)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, AK-A, 23 May 1951.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM211), GS-X, Zenith.

(Nanton Bomber Command Museum Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10C, RCAF (Serial No. FM 209).  This aircraft was used as a jet engine test bed.  It was converted by Avro Canada as a Mk.10C test bed for two 3,000 pound thrust Avro Chinook TR.4 Mk. II axial-flow turbojets in outer nacelles in 1951 and scrapped in 1956.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3580433)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM211), DHZ, 2 May 1949.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584553)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM217), 18 Jun 1951.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584072)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF, 1947.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584103)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF, 1947.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584666)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. 217), 26 Aug 1952.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584476)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF, warming up, 2 Feb 1951.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3543745)

Avro Lancaster Mk. XP, RCAF (Serial No. FM214), AK-B, 408 Sqn, Aug 1949.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. FM 219), RX.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. XN, RCAF (Serial Nos. KB973 and KB892), AJ.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF with Ryan Firebee target drones, 1962.

(NDIL image PCN-1965)

Avro Lancaster (Serial No. KB851) with Ryan Firebee drone KD-4656.

(RCAF Photo via Mike Kaehler)

Avro Lancaster with Ryan Firebee drone.

(RCAF Photo via Mike Kehler) 

Avro Lancaster Mk. XP (Serial No. KB972).

(RCAF Photo via Mike Kehler) 

(RCAF Photo via Mike Kehler) 

Avro Lancaster Mk. XP (Serial No. KB104).

Surviving Avro Lancasters in Canada include the following:

 (Author Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X (Serial No. FM104), mounted on a pylon on the Toronto waterfront before being taken down for restoration.  FM104 has been transferred by the Toronto City Council to the British Columbia Aviation Museum on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

 (Author Photos)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X (Serial No. FM104), undergoing restoration in the Canada Air and Space Museum, Toronto, Ontario.  FM104 has been transferred by the Toronto City Council to the British Columbia Aviation Museum on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM104), built as a Mk. X at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario.  Flown to England in January 1945. Kept in reserve at No. 32 Maintenance Unit for RCAF No. 408 Squadron RCAF and RCAF No. 428 Squadron.  Returned to Canada 10 June 1945 in expectation of use with Tiger Force against the Japanese.  Converted in November 1945 to Mk. 10SR and assigned to No. 10 RU at Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland.  Converted to Mk. 10MR in April 1951 and assigned to No. 107 Unit at RCAF Station Torbay, Newfoundland.  Struck off 10 February 1964.  Displayed mounted on a concrete pylong on the harbourfont grounds of the Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, Ontario in 1964.  Purchased by RCAF Association and put on display in Coronation Park in 1965.  Ownership transferred to Heritage Toronto in 1990.  Moved to Toronto Aerospace Museum (later the Canadian Air and Space Museum) in 1999.  Following the museum's closure in 2011, the plane went into storage.  In the fall of 2018, FM104 was moved to the British Columbia Aviation Museum and will be restored by the museum in conjunction with Victoria Air Maintenance Ltd., at Victoria, BC.

 (Author Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X (Serial No. FM136), NA-P, mounted on a pylon at the Calgary Airport, ca. 1977, before its restoration.

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photos)

 (Daniel Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X (Serial No. FM136), NA-P, 420 Squadron.  Aerospace Museum of Calgary, Alberta.

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM136), built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. X.  Flown to England June 1945 but returned to Canada 29 August 1945. S erved as RCAF Maritime Reconnaissance plane with RCAF No. 404 Squadron at RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia and with No. 407 Squadron at RCAF Station Comox, British Columbia.  Flown to RCAF Station Fort Macleod in 1961 for scrap.  Purchased in 1961 by Lynn Garrison and put on display mounted on a concrete pylon in 1962 at entrance to the Calgary Municipal Airport, Alberta, as a memorial to those who trained under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.  Transferred to Calgary Aerospace Museum in 1992.  It wears the colours of (Serial No. KB895), which flown by Calgary's Ronnie Jenkins.

 (Joanna Poe Photo)

Avro Lancaster nose section art replica, port side, "Sugar's Blues" at the Bomber Command Museum of Canada, Nanton Alberta.

 (Eric Friedebach Photo)

Avro Lancaster nose section art replica, starboard side, "The 'Ell Cat" at the Bomber Command Museum of Canada, Nanton Alberta.

 (Author Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X (Serial No. FM159), mounted on concrete pedestals, long before its restoration, ca 1981.  Now restored with four of its engines in running condition, (Serial No. FM159), F2-T, is named in honour of Canadian born, Ian W. Bazalgette, VC, 635 Squadron.  Museum centre-piece.  National Bomber Command Air Museum, Nanton, Alberta.

 (Tony Hisgett Photo)

 (Joanna Poe Photo)

 (National Bomber Command Museum Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X (Serial No. FM159), with all four engines running.

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM159), built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. X.  Flown to England in May 1945 and returned to Canada in September 1945.  Served as an RCAF Maritime Reconnaissance aircraft from 1953 to 1958 with No. 103 Squadron, RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia and No. 407 Squadron at RCAF Station Comox, British Columbia.  Flown to RCAF Station Vulcan, Alberta in 1960 for scrapping.  Purchased that year and moved to Nanton, Alberta for display, mounted on a concrete pylon beside the main higway.   FM159 has undergone gradual restoration since the formation of the Nanton Lancaster Society in 1986.  All four engines now run.  It wears the colours of (Serial No. ND811) in honour of Ian Bazalgette, VC.

 (John Meneely Photo, 1995)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM212), coded EQ-W, built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. X.  Returned to factory, by then owned by Avro Canada, in 1948 and converted to a Mk. 10P.  Served with 9 Squadron, 418 Squadron and 408 Squadron. Struck off 9 October 1964.  Stored at RCAF Station Dunnville, Ontario.  Sold to the City of Windsor, Ontario and moved on barge.  Placed on display on a concrete pylong in Jackson park.  Currently undergoing restoration by the Canadian Historical Aircraft Association.

 (Dave Miller Photo)

 (Dave Miller Photo)

 (Author Photo)

 (Svdmolen Photo)

 (Redkryptonite Photo)

 (Dave Miller Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10MR (Serial No. FM213), coded VR-A, Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario.  Built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. X.  Stored at RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario from 1945 to 1950.  Converted to Mk. 10MR by de Havilland Canada.  Served with No. 405 Squadron at RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia and 107 Rescue Unit at RCAF Station Torbay, Newfoundland.  Struck off 30 June 1964.  Stored at RCAF Station Dunnville, Ontario.  Purchased by and displayed at the Royal Canadian Legion in Goderich, Ontario.  Purchased by the Canadian Warplane Museum and moved to Hamilton in November 1979.  After restoration, FM213 was flown for first time on 11 September 1988.  It wears the colours of (Serial No. KB726), No. 419 Squadron, in honour of Andrew Mynarski, VC.  Along with Britain's (Serial No. PA474), it is one of only two airworthy Lancasters.

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10XAR (Serial No. KB839), built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. X.  Flown to England 1 January 1945.  Assigned to RCAF No. 431 Squadron, coded SE-G, and then to No. 419 Squadron, coded VR-D, "D Daisy." KB839 flew 26 sorties.  Returned to Canada 5 June 1945.  Sent to Avro Canada and converted to Mk. XAR.  Served with No. 405 Squadron and No. 408 Squadron until 1961.  Stored at RCAF Station Dunnville.  Flown to RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia in 1964 and mounted on pedestal.  Later transferred to Greenwood Military Aviation Museum, CFB Greenwood, Nova Scotia.  Wears the colours of (Serial No. JB226), coded LQ-G, of No, 405 Squadron which was lost 18 November 1943.

 (RCAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, RCAF (Serial No. KB882) over Edmundston, New Brunswick in the late 1940s.

 (Author Photo)

(Author Photo) 

Avro Lancaster Mk. X, (Serial No. KB882), AR, Edmundston, New Brunswick.  This aircraft has been moved to the National Museum of the RCAF, CFB Trenton, Ontario as of Oct 2017.  

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10AR (Serial No. KB882), built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. X.  Flown to England in 24 February 1945.  Assigned to No. 431 Squadron without code, and then toNo. 428 Squadron, coded NA-R "Rabbit Stew".  Flew 19 sorties.  Returned to Canada 2 June 1945.  Stored in Alberta.  Sent to Avro Canada in 1952 and converted to Mk. 10P.  Served with No. 408 Squadron at RCAF Station Rockcliffe, Ontario.  Struck off 26 May 1964 Purchased in 1964 by City of Edmundston, New Brunswick.  Ownership transferred to the National Air Force Museum at CFB Trenton, Ontario.  KB882 was moved in September 2017.  Restoration work began immediately and will be completed by 1 April 2024, the 100th anniversary of the RCAF.  Will be restored as post-War Mk.10AR.

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. X, nose section with twin .303-inch Browning machineguns.

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

 (Author Photo)

Avro Lancaster Mk. 10AR (Serial No. KB944), preserved in the Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.  KB944 was built at Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario as a Mk. X.  Flown to England 8 March 1945 as Mk. X.  Assigned to No. 425 Squadron, coded KW-K.  Did not fly any sorties and returned to Canada 15 June 1945.  Stored at RCAF Station Fort Macleod, Alberta.  Converted to Mk. 10S by Fairey Aviation, Easatern Passage, Nova Scotia. Served with No. 404 Squadron at RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia.  Struck off January 1957.  Stored at RCAF Station Dunnville, Ontario.  Restored by the RCAF.  Purchased by National Aviation Museum in May 1964.  Wears the colours of (Serial No. KB760), of No. 428 Squadron.  (Wikipedia)