Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Canadian Warplanes 2: de Havilland DH.2, DH.4, DH.9a, DH.60, DH.75A, DH.80A, DH.82 Tiger Moth, DH.83 Fox Moth, DH.87 Hornet Moth, DH.89 Dragon, DH.90 Dragon Fly

de Havilland DH.2, DH.4, DH.9a, DH.60 Gypsy Moth, DH.75A Hawk Moth, DH.80A, DH.82 Tiger Moth, DH.83 Fox Moth, DH.87 Hornet Moth, DH.89 Dragon,

DH.90 Dragon Fly

Data current to 5 April 2021.

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390122)

de Havilland (Airco) DH.2, c1918, single-seat biplane pusher fighter flown by Canadians serving in the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) during the First World War.  

The design of DH.2 was greatly influenced by the technologies available at the time.  Britain had not yet developed a synchronisation gear to match the German system and this had compelled British fighters to adopt the pusher configuration, such as the DH.2 and the F.E.2b.  Development of the type had begun before the emergence of the German's Fokker Eindecker monoplane fighter.  Following the DH.2's introduction, these two aircraft became fierce adversaries.  During July 1915, the prototype DH.2 its first flight.  It then served until it was lost on the Western Front a month later.

Introduced to frontline service in February 1916, the DH.2 became the first effectively armed British single-seat fighter.  Its availability enabled RFC pilots to counter the "Fokker Scourge" that had given the Germans the advantage in the skies during late 1915.  It carried the burden of fighting and escort duties for almost two years, while numerous pilots became flying aces using the type.  It was eventually outclassed by newer German fighters, contributing to the DH.2's withdrawal from first line service in France after RFC units were completely re-equipped with newer fighters in June 1917.

 (RAF Photo)

de Havilland (Airco) DH.2, c1918, single-seat biplane pusher fighter flown by Canadians serving in the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) during the First World War. 

 (André Schaefer Photo)

de Havilland (Airco) DH.2, c1917, single-seat biplane pusher fighter flown by Canadians serving in the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) during the First World War.  The DH.2 contributed significantly to the fact that the Allies were able to achieve air superiority in July 1916 at the beginning of the Battle of the Somme The DH.2 had a flight time of up to two and three quarters of an hour.  It took 25 minutes to climb to an altitude of 3,000 meters, and it had a service ceiling of 4,300 meters.

(Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643537)

de Havilland DH.4, Reg. No. G-CYDM, Canadian Air Board, 4 Nov 1922.

de Havilland DH.4 (12) Reg. Nos. G-CYBO, G-CYBU- G-CYBW, G-CYCW, G-CYDB, G-CYDK, G-CYDL, G-CYDN, G-CYEC, G-CYEM. 

The British DH.4 served as two-seat light day-bomber during the First World War.  It was the first to have an effective defensive armament.  It was powered by a number of different engines in its early years, including the 375 hp (280 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle engine.  It was armed with one 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun for the pilot and one 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun mounted on a Scarff ring for the observer.  The DH.4 could carry a pair of 230 lb (100 kg) bombs or four 112 lb (51 kg) bombs.  It was first flown in August 1916 and less than a year later, it entered operational service in France with No. 55 Squadron, RFC, on 6 March 1917.

Despite its success, numbers in service with the RFC actually started to decline from spring 1918, mainly due to a shortage of engines, and production switched to the DH.9.  Unfortunately, the DH.9 proved to be inferior to the DH.4 in most respects. 

(Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643529)

de Havilland DH.4, G-CYEC, High River, Alberta, 16 June 1923. 

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643556)

de Havilland DH.4, G-CYEC, Canada Air Board, 27 May 1922.  

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643557)

de Havilland DH.4, G-CYEC, Canada Air Board, 27 May 1922. 

  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390123)

de Havilland DH.4 c1918, flown by Canadians in the RFC during the First World War. 

(Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643563)

de Havilland DH.4, Reg. Nos. G-CYBU and G-CYDM of the Canadian Air Board, 1 Sep 1921. 

(Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390131)

de Havilland DH.4, Reg. No. G-CYBO, Canadian Air Board, 1922. 

(Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643547)

de Havilland DH.4, Reg. No. G-CYCW, Canadian Air Board, 28 June 1922. 

(Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643547)

de Havilland DH.4, Reg. No. G-CYCW, Canadian Air Board, 28 June 1922. 

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390133)

de Havilland DH 4, G-CYDN, RCAF, 1924.

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3388480)

DH.4, leaving Dawson, YT, July 1920. Although the pilot's cockpit is aft of the wings, the bulges on the wing leading edges which are part of the aileron control mechanisms were not used on the DH.9a.  Alan Eyre.

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643557), (2)

Hucks Starter Vehicle, Canadian Air Board, 27 May 1922. 

   (RCAF Photo)

de Havilland DH.9a in RCAF service, Camp Borden, Ontario.

de Havilland DH.9a (12) Reg. Nos. G-CYAD, G-CYAJ, G-CYAK, G-CYAN, G-CYAO, G-CYAZ, G-CYBF, G-CYBI, G-CYBN, G-CYCG, G-CYDO, E991.

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390120)

de Havilland DH.9a, RAF, Hounslow, UK, 1919.  These aircraft may have been part of No. 2 Squadron, Canadian Air Force (No. 123 Squadron (Canadian), RAF), which operated a communications flight from Hounslow.  

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390121)

de Havilland DH.9a, RAF, Hounslow, UK, 1919.  This aircraft may have been part of No. 2 Squadron, Canadian Air Force (No. 123 Squadron (Canadian), RAF), which operated a communications flight from Hounslow.  The nose markings suggests 'C' Flight.  Alan Eyre. 

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390126)

de Havilland DH.9 Napier Lion, ca. 1918.  

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3523019)

de Havilland DH.9a, No. 2 Squadron (No. 123 Squadron (Canadian), RAF), Upper Heyford, Oxfordshire, England, 1919.  No. 2 Squadron was formed as a day-bombing unit at Upper Heyford on 28 Nov 1918, flying the two-seat DH.9a on training until being disbanded at Shoreham-by-Sea, Sussex, on 5 Feb 1920.

 (Author Photo)

de Havilland DH.60 Cirrus Moth, Reg. No. G-CYYG (Serial No. 503), on loan to the CASM from the Reynolds-Alberta Museum.

  (Photo courtesy of the Canadian Aviation Preservation Association)

de Havilland DH.60GM Gipsy Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 86) on skis. 

  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Canadian Aviation Preservation Association)

de Havilland DH.60M Gipsy Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 28). 

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3545920)

de Havilland DH.60GM Gipsy Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 77), being started by ground crew, 1938.  

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3545912)

de Havilland DH.60GM Gipsy Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 77), being started by ground crew, 1938.  

(RCAF Photo courtesy of the Canadian Aviation Preservation Association)

de Havilland DH.60M Gipsy Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 55). 

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650684)

de Havilland DH.60G Moth, G-CAVK in flight, Montreal, 1932. 

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650683)

de Havilland DH.60G Moth, G-CAVK in flight, Montreal, 1932. 

  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3409853)

de Havilland DH.60GM Gipsy Moth.  

(RCAF Photo)

de Havilland DH.60 Cirrus Moth on floats.

 (RCAF Photo via Francois Dutil)

de Havilland DH.60 Cirrus Moth (Serial No. 122). 

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390175)

DH.60GM Genet Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 28), ca 1932.

de Havilland DH.60 Cirrus Moth (89) Reg. Nos. G-CYWV, WW, WY (later 212), G-CYXE-G-CYXI, G-CYYG-G-CYYS, G-CYYW-G-CYYY, 55-58, 64-91, 102-107, 117-122, 151-168, 223, A113 (ex CF-CCV), A114 (ex CF-ADA), DH.60M Gipsy Moth (2), (Serial Nos. 27, 28), DH.60GM Genet Moth for a total of 91 aircraft.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390180)

de Havilland DH75A Hawk Moth, RCAF Reg. No. G-CYVM, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 23 October 1930.

 (SDASM Archives Photo)

de Havilland DH.75A Hawk Moth, RCAF Reg. No. G-CYVD (VD)

(Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

de Havilland DH.75A Hawk Moth, RCAF Reg. No. G-CYVM, on skis. 

de Havilland DH.75A Hawk Moth (3) Reg. Nos. G-CYVD, G-CYVL, G-CYVM.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3579099)

de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth, CF-AGT, 30 June 1934. 

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390209)

de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth, CF-AGQ, Rimouski, Quebec ca 1934. 

 (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3598219)

de Havilland Puss Moth, 6 July 1930.  

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390211) 

de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth, RCAF, Reg. No. G-CYUT, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 28 January 1932.

  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3256157) 

de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth, RCAF, Reg. No. G-CYUT, Rockcliffe, Ontario, ca. 1932.

de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth (19) Reg. Nos. G-CYUR - G-CYUU, 169 (changed later to 651), 171-181, A44 (ex CF-CCV), A114 (ex CF-ADA).

 (DND Archives Photo, PL-3582)

de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 4388). 

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3523312)

de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 4398), Rockcliffe, Ontario.

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3580513)

de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth cockpits. 

 (Bzuk Photo)

de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth, RCAF (Serial No. 5945), DHC1534, C-GTAL.  Winnipeg, Manitoba.

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643685)

de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth, (Serial No. 4398), RCAF. 

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650709)

de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth, (Serial No. 5894), No. 17 Elementary FTS, RCAF.  

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650711)

de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth, No. 17 Elementary FTS, RCAF. 

 (DND Archives Photo, PCN-4631)

de Havilland DH 82C2 Menasco Moth Mk. I (Serial No. 4861), preserved with the Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.

de Havilland DH.82A Tiger Moth (26), (Serial Nos. 238-258, 275-279). DH.82C Tiger Moth (1,384), (Serial Nos. 1100-1299, 3842-3991, 4001-4404, 4946-5175, 5800-5999, 8851-8999, 9645-9695), for a total of 1410 Tiger Moth variants, DH.82C2 Menasco Moth Mk. I (9), (Serial Nos. 4936-4944), DH.82C4 Mk. II (126), (Serial Nos. 4810-4933, 4935, 4945), Mk. III (1), (Serial No. 4934), for a total of 136 Menasco Moth variants in use by the RCAF.   The combined total of Tiger Moths and Menasco Moths is 1,546 aircraft.

de Havilland DH 82C Tiger Moth (Serial No. 724), CF-FGL, painted as 4394, CASM.

 (Author Photos)

de Havilland DH 82C2 Menasco Moth Mk. I (Serial No. 4861), (1052).

 

 (Author Photos)

de Havilland DH.83C Fox Moth (Serial No. FM-28/2), CF-DJB.  Built in Canada in 1947, this Fox Moth was owned by a number of operators before Maxwell Ward (founder of Wardair Inc., a private Canadian airline company) purchased it in the 1980s.  Ward had the aircraft repainted to match the markings of his first bush plane (a de Havilland Fox Moth that he had bought in 1946 and used for several years until it was destroyed in a crash in the 1950s).  Ward restored this Fox Moth and presented it to the Museum in 1989.  (CA&SM)

 (Author Photo)

de Havilland DH.83C Fox Moth (Serial No. 4033), C-FYPM, Vintage Wings, on display at the Ottawa Airport.

de Havilland DH.83C Fox Moth (1), (Serial A135) ex VO-ADE.

  (Bill Larson Photo)

de Havilland DH.87A Hornet Moth (Serial No. 8031), CF-AYG.

de Havilland DH.87A Hornet Moth (1), (Serial No. 7623).

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3580898).

de Havilland DH.89 Dragon, 3 July 1935. 

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3580899)

de Havilland DH.89 Dragon, 3 July 1935. 

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3642450)

de Havilland DH.89 Dragon, CF-AEO. 

 (RCAF Photos via Francois Dutil)

 (RCAF Photo)

de Havilland DH.90 Dragonfly, RCAF (Serial No. 7624). 

(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3390169).

de Havilland DH.90 Dragonfly, RCAF (Serial No. 7623), Trenton, Ontario, 1 Oct 1940.  7623 was mainly used by No. 1 Air Command before going back to the civil registry as CF-BFF and was lost while taxing up to a campsite while on the iced over Ottawa River in Northern Ontario.  She remains in the water at the location to this day.  Bush pilots claim one can see her remains in the water.

(RCAF Photo)

de Havilland DH.90 Dragonfly, RCAF (Serial No. 7623), Trenton, Ontario, 1 Oct 1940. 

de Havilland DH.90 Dragonfly (6), (Serial Nos. 7623-7628).