Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Canadian Warbirds 3: The Second World War, Fighters, Bombers and Patrol Aircraft (Book)

Canadian Military Aircraft of the Second World War

(Part 1) Data current to 23 April 2018.

 (IWM Photo CH 6614)

Handley Page Halifax B Mk, II (Serial No. W7710), LQ-R, "Ruhr Valley Express", of No. 405 Squadron RCAF, at Pocklington, Yorkshire.  An extra truck was added to the nose insignia after each mission.  W7710 crashed at Liehuus, Denmark, on the night of 1/2 October 1942 while returning from a raid on Flensburg, Germany.  

 

This aviation handbook is intended to provide the reader with a quick reference to identify the military aircraft flown by the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army during the Second World War. The handbooks in this series include a general description and a photograph from the Canadian Forces Archives of at least one of the key variants or marks of each aircraft that has been in Canadian service or used by Canadian servicemen overseas.Each aircraft is listed alphabetically by manufacturer, number and type. General details describing the aircrafts engines, service ceiling, speed, armament or weapons load are included, along with a brief description of the Canadian or allied squadron in which Canadian aircrews used the aircraft operationally. This is the third volume in the series. It describes fighters, bombers and patrol aircraft flown by Canadians during the war. A list of museums, private aircraft collections and other locations where survivors preserved and displayed is also included. The handbook is not a definitive list of all Canadian-manufactured or operated aircraft, but it should serve as a quick reminder of the major examples flown on duty for anyone with an interest in Canadian military aviation.

Order book: http://bookstore.iuniverse.com/Products/SKU-000009790/Canadian-Warbirds-of-the-Second-World-War--Fighters-Bombers-and-Patrol-Aircraft.aspx

Order book in Canada: http://www.chapters.indigo.ca/books/Canadian-Warbirds-Second-World-War-Harold-A-A-Skaarup/9780595183814-item.html?ikwid=harold+skaarup&ikwsec=Books

http://www.amazon.ca/Canadian-Warbirds-Second-World-War/dp/0595183816/ref=sr_1_18?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1322340490&sr=1-18

Nook book: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/canadian-warbirds-of-the-second-world-war-fighters-bombers-and-patrol-aircraft-harold-skaarup/1110499469?ean=9781462048144&itm=31&USRI=Harold+Skaarup

For an update on military aircraft preserved in Canada, see "Canadian Warplanes".

Data current to 23 Jan 2018.

Canadian Warbirds of the Second World War, Fighters, Bombers and Patrol Aircraft, Photo update

 

 

Avro 679 Manchester IA.  (RCAF Photos)

Avro 683 Lancaster in flight during the Second World War.  (RAF Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster in flight.  (RAF Photo)

Avro 683 Lancaster, Canada stamp.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 2264450)

 

Avro Lancaster B Mk. II, RCAF (Serial No. LL725), EQ-C, of No. 408 Squadron being bombed up Linton-on-Ouse, Yorkshire, ca. 1944.  (RAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster LQ-A.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584030)

 

Avro Lancaster bombing a target in Europe, 21 March 1945.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4207036)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk X, wartime flight.  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Canadian Aviation Preservation Association)

 

Avro 683 Lancaster, wartime flight.  (RAF Photo)

Avro 683 Lancasters with the RCAF on a bomb run over coastal batteries, Wangerooge, ca 1944.  (RAF Photo)

Avro Lancaster nose art, 1 Feb 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542797)

Avro Lancaster Ruhr Express preparing for its first Operation over Germany.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542803)

RCAF Avro Lancaster "Ruhr Express" being bombed up for a mission over Berlin. Ground crews are steering two "cookies" (block-buster bombs) into position under the bomb-bay.  This aircraft was the first Canadian built Lancaster.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542805)

Avro Lancaster B Mk. II (Serial No. DS848), QO-R with aircrew, 432 Sqn, 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3615003)

Avro 683 Lancaster Mk. III (1), (Serial No. EE 182), Mk. X and Mk. XP (228)), (Serial Nos. FM101-FM105, FM110, FM111, FM115, FM118, FM120, FM122- FM124, FM126- FM128, FM130, FM136, FM140, FM148, FM153, FM155, FM159, FM172, FM199, FM206-FM229, KB721, KB732, KB733, KB739, KB744, KB746- KB748, KB757, KB760, KB764, KB771- KB774, KB781, KB783, KB789, KB791, KB794, KB796, KB801, KB802, KB807, KB810- KB812, KB819, KB820, KB823- KB827, KB829, KB830, KB833, KB836- KB841, KB843, KB844, KB847- KB849, KB851, KB852, KB854, KB856, KB857, KB860- KB865, KB867, KB868, KB871- KB873, KB875- KB878, KB880- KB886, KB888- KB896, KB898-KB900, KB912- KB934, KB936- KB970, KB972- KB979, KB981- KB984, KB986, KB988, KB990- KB992, KB994- KB999), for a total of 229 aircraft.

Avro 694 Lincoln B, Mk. XV, RCAF.  (RCAF Photo)

Avro 694 Lincoln B, Mk. XV, RCAF.  Although built in Canada, none have been preserved here.  (RCAF Photos)

Avro 694 Lincoln B. Mk. I (1), (Serial No. RE258), B Mk. II (1), (Serial No. SX 924), B. Mk. XV (1), (Serial No. FM 300), for a total of 3 aircraft.

Bell P-39 Airacobra, No. 601 Squadron, RAF, ca 1941.  (CF & RAF Photos)

Blackburn Roc, Royal Navy.  (RN Photos)

Blackburn Skua, Royal Navy.  (RN Photos)

Boulton Paul P.82 Defiant flown by members of the RCAF in the UK, ca. 1941.  None are preserved in Canada, one is on display in the RAF Museum, London, UK.  (RAF Photo)

Boulton Paul P.82 Defiant flown by members of the RCAF in the UK, ca. 1941. (RAF Photos)

Boulton Paul P.82 Defiant flown by members of the RCAF in the UK, ca. 1941.  None are preserved in Canada, one is on display in the RAF Museum, London, UK.  (RAF Photos)

Fitters working on the 1,030hp Rolls-Royce Merlin III of a No 125 (Newfoundland) Squadron Defiant at Fairwood Common, January 1942.  (IWM Photo)

No. 125 Squadron (Newfoundland) was a Royal Air Force squadron active during and after the Second World War.  Like a number of Squadrons, No. 125 was initially formed during the later months of the First World War but never became operational before the Armistice.  No. 125 Squadron was reformed on 16 June 1941 at RAF Colerne in England where it was initially equipped with Boulton-Paul Defiant Mk. Is operating in a night fighter role with the Squadron Code VA on its aircraft.  The squadron became operational at the end of September covering western England and South Wales.

The squadron was raised as a result of a War Loan raised by the Newfoundland Commission on Government.  The Commission presented the British Government with $500,000 to establish the squadron with the hope that it would be manned by Newfoundlanders.

In September 1941 the squadron moved to RAF Fairwood Common and became fully operational with the Defiant proving to be a more than effective night fighter.  By March 1942, 125 Squadron started converting to the twin-engined Bristol Beaufighter Mk. IIF and later Mk. VI.  Defiants and Hawker Hurricanes were also used to supplement the Beaufighters.  Aircrews named some of their aircraft in recognition of its Newfoundland heritage.  St, John's, Corner Brook, Deer Lake and Buchans, Harbour Grace, Grand Falls, Bell Island, Bonavista, St. George’s, Heart’s Content, Grand Bank and Botwood were some of the names used.

November 1943 saw the squadron move to RAF Valley in Wales to enable patrols to take place over the Irish Sea.  With a conversion to de Havilland Mosquito Mk. XVII and later Mk. 30s in February 1944, No. 125 moved to RAF Hurn in preparation to cover the Operation Overlord landings in Normandy.  With the commencement of V-1 attacks on London the squadron moved to RAF Middle Wallop to assist in the City's defence and to fly patrols from RAF Bradwell Bay over the Low Countries.  A move to RAF Coltishall saw the squadron defend against enemy intruders and flying bomb carriers whilst undertaking reconnaissance to locate the remainder of German shipping. 

Before the war ended, the squadron destroyed some 44 enemy aircraft, and damaged 20.  Although airmen from other countries accounted for the majority of these attacks, volunteers from Newfoundland and Labrador also played their part.  On the night of July 28, 1944, Flight Sergeant Royal Cooper of Trinity Bay shot down the unit’s first V-1 flying bomb.

After the war, No. 125 squadron was reformed with Gloster Meteor night fighters on 31 March 1955 at RAF Stradishall.  De Havilland Venoms replaced the Meteors in late 1955 and remained with the squadron until it was disbanded on 10 May 1957. 

Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No._125_Squadron_RAF.

Brewster Buffalo, flown by RCAF members serving with the RAF in the Far East during the Second World War.  None are preserved in Canada.  (RAF Photo)

Brewster SB2A-1 Bermuda (Serial No. FF741).  (USAF Photo). 

The RCAF acquired three Bermudas which were used at Suffield, Alberta, for "special" research operations.  None are preserved in Canada.  A single Buccaneer is preserved with the National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola NAS, Florida.

Brewster SB2A-1 Bermuda (3), (Serial Nos. FF568, FF718, FF732).

  

Bristol 142M Blenheim Mk. IV, RAF (Serial No. DJ702).  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3602838)

Bristol 142M Blenheim Mk. IV in RCAF service.  (RCAF Photo)

Bristol Blenheim Mk. IV (1), (Serial No. K7072).

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. I floatplane, RCAF (Serial No. 717).  (RCAF Photo)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. I floatplane, RCAF (Serial No. 717),   (RCAF Photos)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. I floatplane, RCAF (Serial No. 717), 8 Oct 1940.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3199782)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. I floatplane, RCAF (Serial No. 717), Dartmouth, NS, 1941.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo,  MIKAN No. 3726439)

Cockpit of Bristol Bolingbroke, 29 Apr 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3199783)

Cockpit of Bristol Bolingbroke.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643707)

Bristol Bolingbroke, RCAF Sgt pilot, 28 March 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4302115)

Bristol Boliingbroke Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 702), 22 Nov 1939.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521026)

Bristol Boliingbroke Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 702).  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3199833)

Bristol Boliingbroke Mk. IV, RCAF (Serial No. 9065), 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650410)

Bristol Boliingbroke Mk. IVC, RCAF (Serial No. 9074), 5 Aug 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582238)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IVC, RCAF (Serial No. 9074), 5 Aug 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582239)

  

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IV, RCAF (Serial No. 9099), Rockcliffe, Ontario, 16 Sep 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3523316)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IVT, RCAF (Serial No. 9182), 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650413)

Bristol Bolingbroke with Mk. III turret, 28 Jan 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583131)

Bristol Bolingbroke rear Gunner with his .303-inch machine-gun. RCAF.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4292626)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IVT, RCAF (Serial No. 9892). CA&SM.  (Mike Kaehler Photo)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IVT, RCAF (Serial No. 9892). CA&SM.  (Mike Kaehler Photo)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IVT, RCAF (Serial No. 9892). CA&SM.  (RCAF Pholto)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IVT, RCAF (Serial No. 10203), 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650412)

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IVT, RCAF (Serial No. 10203), 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650411)

 

Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IVT (Serial No. 9896).  (RCAF Photo)

Bristol (Fairchild) Bolingbroke Mk. I (18), (Serial Nos. 702-719), Mk. II (1), (Serial No. 705), Mk. III (1), (Serial No. 717), Mk. IV (185), (Serial Nos. 9001-9004, 9006-9009, 9024-9073, 9075-9201), Mk. IVW (15), (Serial Nos. 9005, 9010-9023), Mk. IVC (1), (Serial No. 9074), Bolingbroke Mk. IVT (407), (Serial Nos. 9850-10256), for a total of 626 aircraft.

  

Bristol Beaufort, S-AW in flight.  (RCAF Photo)

Cockpit view of the Bristol Beaufort bomber interior.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581951)

Bristol Beaufort bomber interior.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581953)

Bristol Beaufort, RCAF (Serial No. N1006), 32 OTU, 1 Feb 1942, Patricia Bay, British Columbia.  (BCAM Photo via Mike Kaehler)

Bristol Beaufort Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. L9938), Y-AW.  These torpedo bombers were flown by the RCAF from Patricia Bay, British Columbia during the Second World War.  None have been preserved in Canada.  (Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Bristol 152 Beaufort Mk. I (15), (Serial Nos. L9967, L9968, N1005-N1007, N1021, N1026, N1029, N1030, N1045, N1078, N1107, W6473, W6484).

Bristol 156 Beaufighter Mk. IIF (Serial No. T3037), No. 406 'Lynx' (NF) Sqn, RCAF, based at RAF Station Aklington, Northumberland, Jan 1942.  (IWM Photo)

 

Bristol 156 Beaufighter TF.Xs (NV427 'EO-L' nearest) of RCAF No. 404 Squadron based at Dallachy, Morayshire, England, breaking formation during a flight along the Scottish coast.  (Flt Lt B.J. Daventry, RAF Photo)

Bristol 156 Beaufighter TF Mk, X. EE-H of RCAF No. 404 Sqn, Banff, Scotland September 1944.  The aircraft is carrying RPs (rocket projectiles) with 25 lb. warheads for anti-shipping operations.  (RCAF Photo)

Bristol 156 Beaufighter TF Mk. X, RCAF No. 404 Sqn, serving with RAF Coastal Command ca. 1944.  (RCAF Photo)

Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Mk. IVA (Serial No. JX212) in flight.  (RCAF Photo)

Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Mk. IVA (Serial No. JX580) in flight.  (RCAF Photo)

Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Mk. IA, RCAF, on beaching gear, preparing to be ferried to the UK, 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3545895)

Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Mk. IA, RCAF, being ferried to the UK, 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3545900)

Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Mk. IVA, RCAF, radio equipment, 29 Sep 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581907)

Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Mk. IVA, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 29 Sep 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3388278)

Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Mk. IA (10), (Serial Nos. W8430-32, Z2134, 36-40, DP202), Mk. IB (8), (Serial Nos. FP290-97), Mk. IVA (12), (Serial Nos. JX206, 07, 09, 11-13, 17, 19, JX571, 72, 79, and 80), for a total of 30 aircraft.  (The PBY-5 was not amphibious.  The PBY-5A Catalina is the American amphibious version).

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF (Serial No. 9741).  (RCAF Photo via James Craik)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF (Serial No. 9742), after breaking through the ice on the Ottawa River near Rockcliffe, Ontario, 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582015)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, 29 June 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583331)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF (Serial No. 9792), No. 3 OTU, RCAF, Patricia Bay, BC, 3 May 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3388268)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF (Serial No. 9798), No. 160 Sqn, Newfoundland, 13 Oct 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3388270)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF (Serial No. A9793).  Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 358979)

 

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583330)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF, 11 Aug 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583403)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF (Serial No. 11079), 11 Aug 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583405)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A, RCAF, 25 Sep 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583517)

Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A (Consolidated PBY-5A), (224), (Serial Nos. 9701-9844, 11001-11100).

The PBV-1A is the Canadian Vickers-built version of the PBY-5A Catalina, 380 built including 150 to the RCAF as the Canso-A and the rest to the USAAF as the OA-10A.  620 variants of the Canso were built in Canada.  The designation "PBY" was determined in accordance with the US Navy aircraft designation system of 1922; PB representing "Patrol Bomber" and Y being the code assigned to Consolidated Aircraft as its manufacturer.  Catalinas built by other manufacturers for the US Navy were designated according to different manufacturer codes, thus Canadian Vickers-built examples were designated PBV, Boeing Canada examples PB2B.   In accordance with contemporary British naming practice of naming seaplanes after coastal port towns, RCAFexamples were named Canso, after the town of that name in Nova Scotia.  The RAF used the name Catalina and the US Navy adopted this name in 1942.  The USAAF, later the USAF, used the designation OA-10

An RCAF Canso flown by Squadron Leader L.J. Birchall foiled Japanese plans to destroy the Royal Navy's Indian Ocean fleet on 4 April 1942 when it detected the Japanese carrier fleet approaching Ceylon (Sri Lanka).  He would later servce as Air Commordore Leonard Joseph Birchall, CM, OBE, DFC, O.Ont, CD, (6 July 1915 – 10 September 2004).

In early 1942, he joined RCAF No. 413 Squadron, then based in the Shetland Islands and flew patrols over the North Sea.  After the Japanese successes in southeast Asia, the squadron was sent to Ceylon to provide a reconnaissance force.  On 4 April 1942, only two days after his arrival, Squadron Leader Birchall was flying a PBY Catalina that was patrolling the ocean to the south of Ceylon.  Nine hours into the mission, as the plane was about to return to base, ships were spotted on the horizon. Investigation revealed a large Japanese fleet, including five aircraft carriers, heading for Ceylon, which at that time was the base for the Royal Navy's Eastern Fleet Birchall's crew managed to send out a radio message, but the Catalina was soon shot down by six Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero fighters from the carrier Hiryu.  The Easter Sunday Raid went ahead despite Birchall’s signal, but his warning put the defenders on alert and allowed the harbour to be partially cleared before the Japanese attacked Colombo.

Three of his crewmen were killed in the action and the others, including Birchall, spent the rest of the war as prisoners of war (PW).  For many captured servicemen, a trip to a Japanese camp meant death.  As the senior Allied officer in four successive Japanese prisoner of war camps, the resistance led by Birchall helped to reduce the Allied death rate from an average of 30% to less than 2%.  During his time in the PW camps, he repeatedly stood up to the Japanese and demanded fair treatment of the prisoners, in compliance with the Geneva Convention.  In his first camp, he struck a Japanese soldier who was forcing a wounded Australian to work.  This earned Birchall a severe beating and solitary confinement, but won him the respect of the other PWs.  In 1944, Birchall encountered a situation in which sick men were being forced to work on the docks.  He ordered all of the men to stop working until the sick were excused.  Birchall was beaten and sent to a special discipline camp, where he again was beaten.  He saved many ill soldiers by taking their beatings.  Birchall was liberated on 27 August 1945 by American troops.  His wife Dorothy had not known whether he was dead or alive for two years.  His diaries, written during his captivity and buried, formed the basis of a number of Allied wartime trials at which Birchall testified.

Flight Lieutenant Hornell was flying as aircraft captain on a Consolidated Canso with RCAF No. 162 (Bomber Reconnaissance) Squadron, operating from RAF Wick f in Northern Scotland, when the following action took place for which he was awarded the VC.  On 24 June 1944 on sea patrol near the Faroes in the North Atlantic, Hornell's aircraft was attacked and badly damaged by the German U-boat U-1225.  Nevertheless he and his crew succeeded in sinking the submarine.  Hornell then managed to bring his burning aircraft down on the heavy swell.  There was only one serviceable dinghy, which could not hold all the crew, so they took turns in the cold water.  By the time the survivors were rescued 21 hours later, Hornell was blinded and weak from exposure and cold.  He died shortly after being picked up.  He is buried in Lerwick Cemetery, Shetland Islands.

Citation

Flight Lieutenant Hornell was captain and first pilot of a twin-engined amphibian aircraft engaged on an anti-submarine patrol in northern waters.  The patrol had lasted for some hours when a fully-surfaced U-boat was sighted, travelling at high speed on the port beam.  Flight Lieutenant Hornell at once turned to the attack.

The U-boat altered course. The aircraft had been seen and there could be no surprise.  The U-boat opened up with anti-aircraft fire which became increasingly fierce and accurate.

At a range of 1,200 yards, the front guns of the aircraft replied; then its starboard guns jammed, leaving only one gun effective.  Hits were obtained on and around the conning-tower of the U-boat, but the aircraft was itself hit, two large holes appearing in the starboard wing.

Ignoring the enemy’s fire, Flight Lieutenant Hornell carefully manoeuvred for the attack.  Oil was pouring from his starboard engine, which was, by this time, on fire, as was the starboard wing; and the petrol tanks were endangered.  Meanwhile, the aircraft was hit again and again by the U-boat’s guns.  Holed in many places, it was vibrating violently and very difficult to control.

Nevertheless, the captain decided to press home his attack, knowing that with every moment the chances of escape for him and his gallant crew would grow more slender.  He brought his aircraft down very low and released his depth charges in a perfect straddle. The bows of the U-boat were lifted out of the water; it sank and the crew were seen in the sea.

Flight Lieutenant Hornell contrived, by superhuman efforts at the controls, to gain a little height.  The fire in the starboard wing had grown more intense and the vibration had increased.  Then the burning engine fell off.  The plight of aircraft and crew was now desperate.  With the utmost coolness, the captain took his aircraft into wind and, despite the manifold dangers, brought it safely down on the heavy swell.  Badly damaged and blazing furiously, the aircraft rapidly settled.

After ordeal by fire came ordeal by water.  There was only one serviceable dinghy and this could not hold all the crew.  So they took turns in the water, holding on to the sides.  Once, the dinghy capsized in the rough seas and was righted only with great difficulty.  Two of the crew succumbed from exposure.

An airborne lifeboat was dropped to them but fell some 500 yards down wind.  The men struggled vainly to reach it and Flight Lieutenant Hornell, who throughout had encouraged them by his cheerfulness and inspiring leadership, proposed to swim to it, through he was nearly exhausted.  He was with difficulty restrained.  The survivors were finally rescued after they had been in the water for 21 hours.  By this time Flight Lieutenant Hornell was blinded and completely exhausted.  He died shortly after being picked up.

Flight Lieutenant Hornell had completed 60 operational missions, involving 600 hours’ flying.  He well knew the danger and difficulties attending attacks on submarines.  By pressing home a skilful and successful attack against fierce opposition, with his aircraft in a precarious condition, and by fortifying and encouraging his comrades in the subsequent ordeal, this officer displayed valour and devotion to duty of the highest order.

Consolidated B-24 Liberator B Mk. I, carrying Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King and party en route to England, 19 Aug 1941, Gander, Newfoundland.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3203452)

The first Liberators in British service were ex-USAAF YB-24s converted to Liberator GR Is (USAAF LB-30A).  The aircraft were all modified for logistic use in Montreal.  Changes included the removal of all armament, provision for passenger seating, a revised cabin oxygen and heating system.  Ferry Command's Atlantic Return Ferry Service flew civilian ferry pilots, who had delivered aircraft to the UK, back to North America.

Consolidated B-24 Liberator B Mk. VI, RCAF, Dorval.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3607734)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. V, RAF (Serial No. BZ735), RCAF (Serial No. 595), X, No. 10 (BR) Sqn, ca 1944.  (DND Photo)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. V, RAF (Serial No. BZ735), RCAF (Serial No. 595), X, No. 10 (BR) Sqn, ca 1944.  (DND Photo)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. 598), No. 10 (BR) Sqn, Gander, Newfoundland, 29 Jul 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643016)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator B Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. KG923), AM, 23 Aug 1944, No. 5 OTU.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3523319)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator B Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. KG923).  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583453)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 923), Waist .50 cal gun position, 23 Aug 1944, No. 5 OTU, RCAF.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643728)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF  (Serial No. 923),  Dorsal turret, 17 Aug 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643729)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 923), nose guns, 17 Aug 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643729)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 923), Ball gunners position, 17 Aug 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643731)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 923), Ball turret, 17 Aug 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583434)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF No. 11 (BR) Sqn, Dartmouth, NS, ca 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650476)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VIT, RCAF (Serial No. 570), cockpit, No. 168 Sqn, 14 Nov 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583585)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 923), armanent installation, 17 Aug 1944, No. 5 OTU, RCAF.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583431)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 923), tail gunner's turret, 17 Aug 1944, No. 5 OTU, RCAF.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583435)

 

Consolidated B-24 Liberator B Mk. III (Serial No. BZ899), RCAF No. 159 (B) Squadron, with a four-gun Boulton-Paul tail gun turret. SL Hugo Beall & FO Gordon Doherty, 4 May 1944.  The squadron was based at RAF Station Digri, Bengal, British India on the date the photo was taken. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4564724)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator B Mk. III (Serial No. BZ899), RCAF No. 159 (B) Squadron, with a four-gun Boulton-Paul tail gun turret.  FOP Pete Evans and Flt Sgt Stephens, 4 May 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN 4564729)

Boulton-Paul four-gun tail gunner's turret on a Handley-Page Halifax bomber.  (IWM Photo CH 11320)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. V, Gander, Newfoundland, 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650460)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643721) 

Consolidated B-24 Liberator C Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No., 570), T, No. 168 Sqn, 14 Nov 1944.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643737)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator C Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No., 574), No. 168 Sqn, Rockcliffe, ca 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650487)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator C Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No., 574), No. 168 Sqn, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 2 July 1948.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584150)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator C Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 576), mail beingloaded at Rockcliffe, Ontario, 15 Jan 1945.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643734)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator C Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 572), off the runway.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583779)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator C Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 572), off the runway.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583778)

 (RCAF Photo)

 (RCAF Photo)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator C Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 574), 158 (HT) Sqn ex- USAAF B-24L (Serial No. 44-10583), modified as an executive transport and nicknamed the “Silver Saloon” used to fly Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, with No. 168 Squadron, Rockcliffe, Ontario.

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 3727), 'T', No. 11 (BR) Squadron, Summerside, Prince Edward Island, 19 Feb 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4920964)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, (Serial No. 3721), T, No. 11 (BR) Squadron, RCAF, Summerside, Prince Edward Island, 19 Feb 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 353352/3650477)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 3720), 'Q', of No. 11 (BR) Squadron, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, ca 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650480)

Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR Mk. VI, RCAF (Serial No. 3757), No. 11 (BR) Sqn, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, ca 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650481

Consolidated (Vultee) B-24L Liberator GR Mk. VIII, RCAF (Serial No. 11130), (5009), HE773, ex-USAAF (44-50154), ex-Indian Air Force.  (DND Photos via James Craik)

Consolidated (Vultee) B-24L Liberator GR Mk. VIII, RCAF (Serial No. 11130), (5009), HE773, ex-USAAF (44-50154), ex-Indian Air Force.  (Author Photos)

Consolidated B-24D Liberator B Mk. III & Mk. V (22), (Serial Nos. 586-600, 3701-3707), B-24J Liberator GR Mk. VI (64), (Serial Nos. 3708-3742, 11101-11105, EW127-37, EW208-14, 16-18, 70, 81, 82), GR Mk. VIT (10), (Serial Nos. 570-579), B Mk. VI (36), (Serial Nos. KG880, 86, 88, 91, 92, 94, KG920, 22-24, 29-31, 78, KH105-10, 71-76, KH285-88, KK237-42), B-24M Liberator GR Mk. VIII (16), (Serial Nos. 11120-11135), for a total of 148 aircraft.

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk I (Serial No. AK803) from 118 (F) Squadron, early 1942.  (RCAF Photo)

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk Mk. I in flight in RCAF service.  (RCAF Photos)

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk RAF (Serial No. AL194), RCAF (Serial No. 1087), 111 (F) Sqn, being recovered from a crash site, Kodiak, Alaska, 19 Apr 1944.  (RCAF Photo)

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawks, No. 111 (F) Sqn, RCAF, Kodiak, Alaska, 1942-43.  The aircraft marked "BITSA" is reported to have been flown by SL K.A. Boomer when he shot down a Japanese Rufe, 25 Sep 1942.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4105388).

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, RCAF No. 111 Sqn, SL Kenneth Boomer, DFC, KIA 2 Oct 1944.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4332918)

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk Mk. I, engine view, 1942.   (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582198)

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk Mk. I cockpit, July 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582881)

Curtis P-40 Kittyawk Mk. I throttle.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582032)

Curtiss Kittyhawk Mk. I aircraft of No.111(F) Squadron, RCAF, Patricia Bay, British Columbia, 15 January 1942.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3406263)

Curtis P-40 Kittyawk Mk. I, RCAF No. 111 (F) Squadron pilots, Sep 1942.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3211090)

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk Mk. I RCAF (Serial No. AL109), later (Serial No. 1071), nose over, 29 Feb 1942.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643686, 3643687, and 3643688)

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk Mk. I RCAF (Serial No. 1066), wheels up landing, 4 Feb 1942.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643689)

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, RAF (Serial No. FL220).   (RCAF Photo)

Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk Mk. Ia, RCAF (Serial No. 1076), (Serial No. 18780).  Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, in hangar, RCAF.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582934)

Curtiss P-40 Warhawks (USAAF), Consolidated Canso A, RCAF (Serial No. 9793), Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. X4220), Noordyn Norseman and Avron Anson, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 31 May 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643716)

Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, (Serial No. AK752), later RCAF (Serial No. 1028), 25 May 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643698)

Curtiss Hawk Model 81A-1, P-40 Tomahawk Mk. I (3), (Serial No. A313 (ex AH793), A315 (ex AH840), A316 (ex AH774), 81A-2, P-40B Tomahawk Mk. IIA (1), (Serial No. A317 (ex AH938).

Curtiss Hawk Model 87A-2, P-40D Kittyhawk Mk. I (72), (Serial Nos. 1028-1099). , P-40E-1 Kittyhawk Mk. IA (12), (Serial Nos. 720-731), P-40M Kittyhawk Mk. III (15), (Serial Nos. 831-845), P-40N Kittyhawk Mk. IV (35), (Serial Nos. 846-880), P-40K-1 Warhawk (9), for a total of 143 aircraft.

  

Curtiss SO3C-1 Seamew Mk. I, Royal Navy (Serial No. FN475).  Flown by the RN at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia during the war.  None are preserved in Canada.  (RN Photos)

Curtiss SO3C Seamew Mk. I (82), (Serial Nos. FN480- FN486, FN489- FN496, FN498, FN499, FN600- FN608, FN610- FN613, FN615, FN616, FN618- FN620, FN622, FN623, FN625, FN627, FN629- FN642, JW576- JW578, JW580- JW583, JW614- JW618, JW621, JW622, JW634, JW638, JW640, JW642).

Curtiss SBW1 Helldiver, ca 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3197977)

Curtiss SBW-1 Helldiver, Fort William, CCF, 29 July 1943.  (Archives of Ontario, I0002978)

Curtiss SBW-1B Helldiver, RN (Serial No. JW117).  (Royal Navy Photo)

Curtiss SBW-4E Helldiver, New York Naval Reserve, USN (BuNo. V60166).  (NMNA Photo)

Curtiss SBW1 Helldiver, Canadian built version of the SB2C-1.  38 were built by the Canadian Car & Foundry company at Fort William, Ontario during the war for the US Navy, but none were in service with the RCAF.  SBW-1B, Canadian built version for lend-lease to the Royal Navy as the Helldiver I, 28 aircraft built by CCF, SBW-3, Canadian built version of the SB2C-3, 413 built by CCF, and the SBW-4E, 270 built by CCF.  SBW-5, Canadian-built version of the SB2C-5, 85 built (165 cancelled) by the CCF.

 

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito, RCAF (Serial No. KA100).  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Canadian Aviation Preservation Association)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito, night fighter.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4948344)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito bombing up.  (RAF Photo)

 

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito, RCAF.  (RCAF Photo)

 

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito test firing at night.  (RAF Photo)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito B Mk. XX, RCAF (Serial No. KB127).  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643722)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito B Mk. XX, NACA 1945.  (NACA Photo)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito B Mk. XX, RCAF (Serial No. KB174), T.  KB174 served with the RAF's No. 36 OTU at Greenwood, Nova Scotia, prior to being assigned to Eastern Air Command's Central Testing Establishment.  RAF No. 36 OTU was disbanded on 1 July 1944 and became RCAF No. 8 OTU.  On the same day, RAF Station Greenwood was also re-designated RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650674)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito B Mk. 25, RCAF (Serial No. KB380), R, No. 8 OTU, RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650675)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito B. Mk. 25, CF-HML of Spartan Air Services, Ottawa, Ontario.  (RuthAS Photo)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito (Serial No. KB336), later A535, CA&SM.  (DND Photos via Mike Kaehler)

de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito B Mk. VII (16), (Serial Nos. KB303- KB305, KB307- KB311, KB314, KB318- KB324), B Mk. XX (98), (Serial Nos. KB101- KB114, KB121, KB126- KB129, KB134- KB137, KB142- KB145, KB163- KB165, KB167- KB170, KB172- KB179, KB243- KB260, KB274- KB297, KB299, KB327, KB330- KB340, KB342), FB Mk. 21 (1), (Serial No. KA101), T Mk. 22 (4), (Serial Nos. KA873- KA876), B Mk. 25 (51), (Serial Nos. KA936, KA942, KA982, KA984- KA999, KB370- KB386, KB412, KB414, KB418- KB420, KB428, KB478- KB480, KB585, KB587, KB596- KB598, KB642), FB Mk. 26 (197), (Serial Nos. KA103, KA109- KA133, KA143, KA144, KA252, KA288, KA303, KA328, KA332, KA336, KA340, KA347, KA348, KA350, KA352, KA371, KA372, KA375, KA376, KA379- KA388, KA390-405, KA408- KA411, KA414, KA415, KA418- KA486, KA488-540), T Mk. III (24), (Serial Nos. HJ857, HJ866, HJ869, HJ871, HJ872, HJ874, HJ876, HJ879, HJ880, HJ882, HJ883, HJ958, HJ959, HJ965, HJ966, HJ974, HJ988, HJ989, HJ995, HJ996, HJ998, HJ999, LR533, LR536), T Mk. 27 (19), (Serial Nos. KA877- KA895), T Mk. 29 (34), (Serial Nos. KA155, KA166, KA167, KA172- KA174, KA202- KA208, KA219- KA222, KA231- KA235, KA242- KA244, KA281, KA297-300, KA302, KA311, KA313, KA314), for a total of 444 aircraft.

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF, view of the nose gunner position.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4315417)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 755).  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4315408)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 431507)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 740), PBL.  (RCAF Photo)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF No. 10 Squadron, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1943.  None are preserved in Canada.  Five are preserved in the USA.  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 749), Jan 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650736)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF, 15 July 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581805)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF, 15 July 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581806)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF, 15 Jul 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3642478)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 740), Jan 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650734)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 749), No. 10 Squadron, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Jan 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650735)

Douglas Digby Mk. I, RCAF (20), (Serial Nos. 738-757).

Douglas A-20C-BO Havoc, RAF (Serial No. 635), at Langley Field, Virginia, USA, July 1942.  This Havoc was license built under the Lend-Lease-Agreement for the Royal Air Force, although most of these aircraft were diverted to the USAAF.  (Library of Congress Photos, LC-USW361-203)

Douglas Boston Mk. III (Intruder), RAF (Serial No. W8317), TH-S, RCAF No. 418 Squadron, parked at Ford, Sussex at nightfall.  Canvas covers are protecting the glazed nose and the front of the engine cowlings.  (IWM Photo CH9502)

Douglas Boston Mk. IIIs, No. 88 Sqn, on the flight line preparing for the Raid on Dieppe, 19 Aug 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3378925)

Douglas Boston Mk. III (Intruder), RCAF No. 418 Squadron taxiing at Bradwell Bay, Essex, prior to a night intruder raid over France, Sep 1942 In September 1942.   No 418 Squadron, operated Boston Mk. IIIs on night intruder sorties from Bradwell Bay.  Its usual targets were Luftwaffe airfields, the French railway system and occasionally factory buildings.  The aircraft in the photograph carry ventral fuselage gun packs housing four 20mm cannon.  (IWM Photo CH7210)

Douglas Boston Mk. III (Intruder) RCAF No. 418 Squadron, illuminated by a Chance Light by the runway at Bradwell Bay, Essex, prepares to take off on a night intruder mission over North-west Europe.  (IWM Photo CH7211)

 

Douglas DB-7B Boston pair in flight, RCAF.  (RCAF Photo)

Douglas DB-7B Boston Mk. IV (Serial No. WB268), TH, flown by RCAF No. 418 (Intruder) Squadron.  None are preserved in Canada.  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Douglas DB-7B Boston.  (RAF Photo)

Douglas Boston, RAF (Serial No. HJ496), RCAF.  (RCAF Photo)

Douglas Boston, RCAF No. 418 Sqn.  (RCAF Photo)

Douglas Boston Mk. III, RCAF, T for Toronto, with six airmen from 418 Squadron who are from Toronto.  L-R: Sgt. H. J. Irving, Sgt. G. M. Riches, Sgt. J. W. Hutchison, Sgt. J. E. C. Pringle, P/O D. Duxfield (Timmins, Ontario), P/O E. Keyes (Ottwa, Ontario), Sgt. J. Field, Sgt. J. Sharples, and Sgt. G. Chabot (Sudbury, Ontario).  Photo taken at RAF Station Debden, Essex in the UK, Feb 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4900126)

Douglas Boston Mk. III,  5 March 1942, RCAF, 418 Squadron, "B" Flight, taken at their home, RAF Station Debden, Essex in the UK, Feb 1942. (NDIL Photo PL-7295)

Fairey Firefly Mk. 1, Royal Navy, ca 1944.  (RN Photo)

Fairey Firefly Mk. 1 landing, Royal Navy, ca 1944.  (RN Photo)

Fairey Firefly FR Mk. 1, (29), (Serial Nos. DK445, DK485, DK535, DK537, DK545, DK555, DK560, DK561, DK563- DK565, DK569, MB566, MB579, MB588, MB668, MB748, PP402, PP408, PP411- PP413, PP426, PP431, PP456, PP457, PP460, PP462, PP467), T Mk. I (3), (Serial Nos. DT975, MB433, MB443), T Mk. II (1), (Serial No. MB694), FR Mk. IV (13), (Serial Nos. TW741, TW753, VG963, VG966, VG971, VG979, VG997, VH123, VH126, VH128, VH129, VH131, VH143), AS Mk. V (11), (Serial Nos. VH125, VH130, VH134- VH142), for a total of 57 aircraft.

Fairey Fulmar flown by RCN and RCNVR pilots in service with the Fleet Air Arm, Royal Navy.  None are preserved in Canada.  (RN Photo)

Goodyear FG-1D Corsair flown by RCN and RCNVR pilots in service with the Fleet Air Arm, Royal Navy.  (RN Photos)

Goodyear Built FG-1D Corsair, USN (Bu. No. 92106), (Serial No. 3367), C-GVWC.  Vintage Wings of Canada, Gatineau, Quebec.

 

Grumman Martlet flown by RCN and RCNVR pilots in service with the Fleet Air Arm, Royal Navy.  None are preserved in Canada.  (RN Photo)

Grumman Hellcat flown by RCN and RCNVR pilots in service with the Fleet Air Arm, Royal Navy.  None are preserved in Canada.  (RN Photos)

Handley Page HP 52 Hampden in flight.  (RAF Photo)

Handley-Page Hampden Mk. I, P5336.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650859)

  

Handley Page HP 52 Hampden Mk. I bombers.  (RAF Photos)

Handley Page (Victory) HP 52 Hampden Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. P5436), HL-B. Langley, British Columbia.

Handley Page Hampden Mk. I with groundcrew loading a torpedo into the bomb bay of a aircraft of No. 32 Operational Training Unit (Royal Canadian Air Force Schools and Training Units), Patricia Bay, British Columbia, 2 October 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3202993)

Handley Page HP 52 Hampden being bombed up.  (RAF Photo)

Handley Page Hampdens of No. 408 Squadron, RCAF, being loaded with mines, 1942.  (IWM Photo)

Handley Page HP 52 Hampden Mk. I (96), (Serial Nos. L4142, 45, 57, L6069, P1167, P1200, 30, P1311, P2067, P2133, P5298, P5336, 37, 99, P5400, 21-36, X3137, 49, AD751, 54, 67, AD961, AE258, 95, AE363, AJ988-99, AN100-22, 28-36, 38-47, 50, AT147).

 (RAF Photo)

 (RAF Photo)

Handley Page Halifax B Mk, II (Serial No. W7710), LQ-R, Ruhr Valley Express, 405 Squadron RCAF, ca 1942.  (IWM Photo CH 6614)

Handley Page Halifax B Mk, II (Serial No. W7710), LQ-R, Ruhr Valley Express, 405 Squadron RCAF, ca 1942.  (RAF Photo)

Handley Page Halifax Mk. II, RAF (Serial No. JP121), ca 1943.  (RAF Photo)

Handley Page Halifax Mk. II, RAF, B-FY, ca 1943.  (RAF Photo)

Handley Page Halifax Mk. III, RAF (Serial No. LV837), ca 1944.  (RAF Photo)

Handley Page HP 57 Halifax Mk. III bomber in RCAF service, operating from an airfield in England, ca 1944.  (RCAF Photo)

Handley-Page Halifax bombers preparing for takeoff, RCAF No. 425 Sqn, 23 Nov 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4752276)

Handley Page HP 57 Halifax Mk. III bombers in RCAF service, operating from an airfield in England, ca 1944.  (RCAF Photos)

Handley Page Halifax B Mk. III (Serial No. HX290), 433 Sqn, RCAF tail gunner in front of his Boulton Paul four gun turret.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3614993)

Handley-Page Halifax, (Serial No. LK640), Q, RCAF Iroquois Sqn, 16 Nov 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542802)

 (Robert Taylor Photos)

Handley Page Halifax A. Mk. VII, RAF (Serial No. NA337), National Force Museum of Canada.  This Halifax served with No. 644 Squadron RAF, based at RAF Tarrant Rushton during the Second World War, is a transport/special duties version that was shot down in April 1945.  This aircraft was retrieved from the bottom of Lake Mjøsa in Norway in 1995, and was taken to CFB Trenton, Ontario, where restoration was completed in 2005.  NA337 is a Halifax A. Mk.VII Special Duties aircraft built by Rootes Motors, at Liverpool Airport and is now preserved at the National Air Force Museum of Canada at CFB Trenton.

 

Handley Page HP 57 Halifax bomber on a raid over Europe, ca 1944.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4002568)

Handley Page HP 57 Halifax bomber of No. 6 Group flies over the smoke-obscured target during a daylight raid on the oil refinery at Wanne-Eickel in the Ruhr on 12 Oct 1944.  111 Halifaxes of 6 Group and 26 Avro Lancasters of No. 8 Group took part in the raid.  (IWM Photo C4713)

Handley Page Halifax Mk. V "Medicine Hat", bomb mission tally.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542794)

Handley Page HP 57 Halifax Mk. V (4), (Serial Nos. DG399, EB127, 38, 57), HP 61 Halifax Mk. VI (1), (Serial No. RG814), for a total of 5 aircraft.

Hawker Hurricane, RAF No. 242 Squadron pilots, Denis Crowley-Milling, Hugh Tamblyn, Stan Turner, (Saville (on wing), Neil Campbell, Willie McKnight, Douglas Bader, Eric Ball, Homer, Ben Brown, 1940.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3644386)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No 1 Squadron pilots at Prestwick, Scotland.  Squadron Leader E.A. McNab, the Squadron Commanding Officer, stands fifth from the right, wearing a wedge cap.  (IWM Photo C H1733)

 

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No.  315), No. 1 (F) Squadron, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 6 Sep 1939.  This aircraft was flown by FLt E.A. McNab.   (Library and Archives Canada Photos, MIKAN Nos. 3203344 and 3203345)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, No. 127 (F) Sqn, Gander, Newfoundland, May 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3592489)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII with jettisonable fuel tanks, 19 May 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 358371)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 315),  No. 1 (F) Sqn, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 5 Sep 1939.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3208141)

Canadian Car & Foundry (Hawker) Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial No. 44013), RCAF (Serial No. 5418), 135 Squadron.  Wetaskwin, Alberta.

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5625), in flight.  (RCAF Photos)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5470).  (RCAF Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No. 1 (F) Squadron, Digby, England, 22 January 1941.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN 3614988)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No. 1 (F) Squadron. being refueled, ca 1941.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 361497)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, No. 1 (F) Sqn, S/L E.A. McNab, CO, Northolt, England, 12 Sep 1940.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3614996)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, 328, RCAF, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 26 Aug 1939.   (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581404)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, 328, RCAF, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 26 Aug 1939.   (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3642472)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, 16 Sep 1942, Rockcliffe, Ontario.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207275)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 328), 26 Aug 1939.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3574053)

Hawker Hurricane Mk XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5698), Oct 1944.  (Library & Archives Canada Photos, MIKAN No. 3650867

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No. 1 (F) Sqn, 1939.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3203458)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF No. 1 (F) Sqn, 1939.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3545933)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5698).  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650865)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4164721)

Hawker Hurricane M. XII, RCAF, aircraft controls, 7 Feb 1945.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583666)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, cockpit,.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643694)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, cockpit,.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643708)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 315).  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207274)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. 315), No. 1 (F) Squadron and North American Harvard Mk. I, (Serial No. 1330), 1939.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3545871)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5650),26 Jan 1943.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582338)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF (Serial No. 5501), L, 28 Feb 1943.  (RCAF Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF, with auxilliary gas tanks, 19 May 1944.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583271)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, RCAF, with auxilliary gas tanks, 31 Aug 1943.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583034)

Hawker Sea Hurricane on its catapult launcher.  (RAF/RN Photos)

Hawker Hurricane, No.5 Operational Training Unit (RCAF Schools and Training Units),  Boundary Bay, British Columia, 1 Dec 1942.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3207506)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial No. 5584), (520199).  (Canadian Forces Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial No. 5584).  Canada Air and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.

Hawker Hurricane Mk. IV, RAF (Serial No. KZ321), Vintage Wings of Canada, Fatineau, Quebec.  (Kogo Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. IV (Hurribomber), armed with 20-mm cannon flown by these Canadian pilots in the Burma Theatre of War, 28 Feb 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4283438)

Hawker Hurricane, RAF (Serial No. BD867), QO-Y.  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Hawker Hurricane, RCAF No. 126 Sqn (BV code), 9 Aug 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4982739)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. I (50), (Serial Nos. 310-329, 1351-1380), Mk. IIC (1), (Serial No. A274 (ex HV961), Mk. XII (401), (Serial Nos. 5376-5775, 9426), Mk. XIIA (50), (V7402, BW835-BW884), Sea Hurricane (1), (Serial R4177), for a total of 503 aircraft.

Hawker Tempest Mk. V, RAF (Serial No. SN219).  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Tempest Mk. V, RAF (Serial No. EJ713).  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Tempest Mk. V, RAF (Serial No. NV696), test flight, Nov 1944.  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Tempest Mk. V, RAF (Serial No. EJ705).  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Tempest Mk. V (1), (Serial No. NV999).  Single-seat RAF fighter with Sabre V engine (2,340 hp), 142 built.

Hawker Typhoon being armed with rockets, ca June 1944.  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Typhoon, Vickers-Supermarine Spitfire, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, and North American Mustang Mk. I aircraft at an Allied mobile repair section, Normandy 25 June 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4002575)

Hawker Typhoon Mark IB (EK139), HH-N, Dirty Dora, of No 175 Squadron, RAF, May 1943.  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Typhoon Mk. IB, No. 486 Squadron, 27 Oct 1943. (IWM Photo CH11578)

Hawker Typhoon Mk. IB, P, No, 438 Sqn, RCAF, Normandy 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4002572)

Hawker Typhoon Mk. IB, RAF (Serial No. EK183), US-A) of No. 56 Squadron RAF at RAF Matlaske, Norfolk, 21 April 1943.  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Typhoon.  (RCAF Photo)

Hawker Typhoon.  (CF Photo)

Hawker Typhoon Mk. IB, RCAF (Serial No. RB402), 5V-P of No. 439 Squadron RCAF, landing at Goch, Germany, ca. 1944.  None have been preserved in Canada.  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Typhoons, RCAF, ca 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3607564)

Hawker Typhoon in RCAF No. 440 Squadron, armourers bringing ammunition service, the Netherlands, late 1944.  (RAF Photo)

Hawker Typhoon Mk. IB, (Serial No. MN659), I8-E, No. 440 Squadron RCAF, which suffered a collapsed undercarriage on landing after a sortie.  (RAF/IWM Photo)

Hawker Typhoon rocket arrangement being inspected by Canadians.  (Library & Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4233241)

Hawker Typhoon Mk. IB, (Serial No. MN235) on loan to the Canada Air and Space Museum in Ottawa from the RAF Museum in England.  This aircraft was originally used by the USAAF for evaluation and Comparison trials.  Post war it was allocated to the NMUSAF.  It was in storage with the Smithsonian Institute before returning to England in 1968.  (Author Photo)

Lockheed Ventura formation flight.  (Shearwater Aviation Musuem Photo Collection)

 

Lockheed Hudson, RCAF.  (RCAF Photo)

RCAF Sunderlands, Cansos, Hudsons, Venturas, Digbys, Liberators and Stranraers went after the German U-boat threat in the North Atlantic with a vengeance. This is a photo of U-754, a German Type IX U-boat under attack by a Lockheed Hudson, RCAF (Serial No.625), No. 113 Sqn, on 31 July 1942.  All 43 hands on the U-boat were lost. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4090379).

Canadian warships and aircraft sank, or shared in the destruction of some 50 U-boats. 

Lockheed Hudson (Serial No. 6317).  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582226)

Lockheed Hudson, Goose Bay, Labrador, ca 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3613291)

Lockheed Hudson, recruits formed in flights, 25 Sep 1939.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581429)

 (Plismo Photo)

Lockheed Hudson cockpit, 15 July 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3582236)

Lockheed Hudson lineup, No. 11 Sqn, 16 Oct 1939.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3581478)

Lockheed 414 Hudson Mk. IIIA, (A-29-LO), (Serial No. 41-23631), ex-USAF (Serial No. BW769), now painted as RAF (Serial No. T9422), C/N 414-6448.  Gander, Newfoundland, as initially mounted on a cairn near the airport, ca 1960s.  (Newfoundland Post  Card)

 (Photo courtesy of Bzuk)

Lockheed 414 Hudson Mk. IIIA, (A-29-LO), (Serial No. 41-23631), ex-USAF (Serial No. BW769), now painted as RAF (Serial No. T9422), C/N 414-6448.  Gander, Newfoundland.

Lockheed L-214 Hudson, 13 Jun 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3589737)

Lockheed L-214 Hudson, Consolidated PBY-5 Canso, Avro Anson, 30 Jun 1943.  (Library and Archves Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3589727)

Lockheed L-214 Hudson, 21 June 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN Nos. 3589739)

Lockheed L-214 Hudson, 21 June 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3589746)

Lockheed Hudson, RCAF 638, 21 June 1943.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3589741)

Lockheed L-214 Hudson Mk. I (28), (Serial Nos. 759-786), Mk. III (141), (Serial Nos. T9385, V9069, V9171, V9223, BW381-BW384, BW399-BW408, BW410, BW412, BW423, BW430- BW434, BW436- BW439, BW441- BW444, BW447- BW454, BW456- BW458, BW460, BW614, BW616- BW635, BW638- BW660, BW682, BW683, BW685- BW698, BW700- BW713, BW715- BW720, BW722- BW724, BW728, BW768, BW770- BW772, BW775- BW777, FH340, FH395, FH416, FH466), Mk. V (43), (Serial Nos. AM576, AM720, AM721, AM723, AM726, AM729, AM733, AM736, AM737, AM745, AM747- AM749, AM751, AM752, AM755, AM759, AM761, AM763- AM767, AM769, AM770, AM772, AM773, AM886-AM896, AM899, AM901-AM903, AM905), L-414 Hudson Mk. VI (35), (Serial Nos. EW873, EW956, FK393, FK399, FK408, FK409, FK443, FK460, FK464, FK465, FK467, FK468, FK470, FK495, FK506, FK511, FK512, FK514, FK518, FK534, FK539, FK541, FK546- FK548, FK550- FK553, FK560- FK564, A334), for a total of 247 aircraft.

 

Lockheed Vega V-146 Venturas, seagull white cam.  (RCAF Photos)

Lockheed Vega V-146 Ventura Mk. I, RAF (Serial No. 748).  (RAF Photo)

 

Lockheed Vega V-146 Ventura Mk. I, RCAF (Serial No. AE658).  This was the Prototype Ventura Mk. I.  AE658 served with No. 34 Operational Training Unit (OTU), Pennfield Ridge, New Brunswick.  (RCAF Photo)

Lockheed Vega V-146 Ventura G.R. Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. FN974).  (RCAF Photo courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Lockheed Vega V-146 Ventura G.R Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. 2247), visiting California, 1953.  (Photo courtesy of Bill Larkins)

Lockheed Ventura G.R. Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. 2183), D, Jan 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3650941)

Lockheed-Vega Ventura Mk. II, (Serial No. AE860), ski trials, 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643799)

Lockheed-Vega Ventura Mk. II, (Serial No. AE860), ski trials, 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3643732)

Lockheed Vega V-146 Ventura Mk. I (21), (Serial Nos. AE658, AE659, AE661, AE663- AE674, AE676- AE678, AE696, AE703, AE728), Mk. II (108), (Serial Nos. AE849, AE851, AE860, AE866- AE869, AE871, AE872, AE874, AE878, AE879, AE882, AE886, AE889, AE893, AE905, AE907, AE911, AE912, AE922, AE923, AE925, AE926, AE928- AE932, AE934, AE936, AE942- AE944, AE946, AE950, AE952- AE954, AJ164, AJ173, AJ186, AJ194, AJ211, AJ230, AJ247, AJ270, AJ302, AJ335, AJ358, AJ373, AJ375, AJ383, AJ388, AJ389, AJ402, AJ404, AJ407, AJ409, AJ429, AJ430, AJ448, FD572, FD574, FD621, FD637, FD643, FD645, FD646, FD649, FD654, FD660, FD662, FD668, FD675, FD685, FD688, FD689, FD692, FD693, FD697, FD699, FD700-FD702, FD705, FD707, FD710- FD714, FD721, FD728- FD733, FD738- FD740, FD742, FD752, FD754, FD755), GR Mk. V (157), (Serial Nos. 2141-2277, FN967, FN971-FN983, FP542-FP547), for a total of 286 aircraft.

Martin Maryland Mk. I, photo reconnaissance aircraft of No 771 Squadron Fleet Air Arm.  (RN Photo)

Martin Maryland, 39  Sqn being armed ca 1941.  (RAF Photo)

Martin 167 Maryland.  Flown by RCAF aircrew serving with the RAF.  (RAF Photo)

Martin 187 Baltimore, (Serial No. FA647), RAF.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3607736)

Martin 187 Baltimore Mk. III, RAF (Serial No. AG859).  None have been preserved in Canada.  (Photos courtesy of the Shearwater Aviation Museum)

Martin 187 Baltimore Mk. III (1), (Serial No. FA187).

Martin B-26 Marauder Mk. I, IA, II, III, RAF.  (RAF Photo).

North American B-25 Mitchell taking off, ca 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4447477)

North American B-25 Mitchell, RAF.  (RAF Photos)

North American B-25 Mitchell, Bombload, 22 Mar 1945.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4447459)

North American NA-62B, B-25B Mitchell Mk. I (7), (Serial Nos. FK164, FK166, FK171, FK176- FK178, FK180), NA –87, TB-25L, B-25C/D Mitchell Mk. II (74), (Serial Nos. 891-894, FW220, FW237, FW246, FW251, FW259, FW260, FW272- FW274, FW278- FW280, HD310-15, HD310-17- HD310-20, HD310-22- HD310-26, HD310-31- HD310-35, HD310-37- HD310-45, KL133-61), NA-108, B-25J Mitchell Mk. III (77), (Serial Nos. 5200, 5220, 5227-5237, 5239, 5242-5283, KJ641, KJ764), B-25J Mitchell Mk. IIIA1 (6), (Serial Nos. 44-30314, 90, 44-30439, 44-30442, 44-30444, 44-30449), for a total of 164 aircraft)

North American Mustang Mk. I, RCAF No. 414 Sqn, Dunsfold, Surrey, UK, ca 1941.  (RCAF Photos via James Craik)

North American Mustang Mk. I.

Canada had five squadrons equipped with Mustangs during the Second World War.  RCAF No. 400, No. 414 and No. 430 squadrons flew Mustang Mk. Is (1942–1944) and No. 441 and No. 442 Squadrons flew Mustang Mk. IIIs and Mk. IVAs in 1945.

North American Mustang Mk. III with Malcolm hood, RAF (Serial No. XF893).  (San Diego Air & Space Museum Photo)

North American Mustang Mk. III with Malcolm hood, RCAF (Serial No. HB876).  (RCAF Photo)

North American Mustang Mk. III.

Canada had five squadrons equipped with Mustangs during the Second World War.  RCAF No. 400, No. 414 and No. 430 squadrons flew Mustang Mk. Is (1942–1944) and No. 441 and No. 442 Squadrons flew Mustang Mk. IIIs and Mk. IVAs in 1945. 

 

North American Mustang Mk. IV, RCAF, UK, ca May 1945.  (RCAF Photos)

North American Mustang Mk. I (P-51A), Mk. III (P-51B and P-51C), and Mk. IV (P-51D)

Canada had five squadrons equipped with Mustangs during the Second World War.  RCAF No. 400, No. 414 and No. 430 squadrons flew Mustang Mk. Is (1942–1944) and No. 441 and No. 442 Squadrons flew Mustang Mk. IIIs and Mk. IVAs in 1945.  The aircraft flown by the RCAF during the war were owned by the RAF and carried RCAF serial numbers and designations.

 

North American P-51D Mustang, RCAF (Serial No. 9298), ex-USAAF (Serial No. 44-73347), Y2-E, C/N 122-39806.  This Mustang was manufactured in 1945 by North American Aviation Inc. in Inglewood, California, and served first with the U.S. Army Air Forces during the Second World War.  Details of its American history are unknown.  In March 1951, Mustang (Serial No. 9298) was acquired by the RCAF and served with No. 442 "City of Vancouver" (Auxiliary) Squadron, which operated out of the Sea Island Airport, near Vancouver, British Columbia.  In the early 1960s, the RCAF started transferring its historical aircraft to the Canadian War Museum, commencing with the Mustang in December 1961.  Transfer to the Canadian War Museum was stopped when it was determined that it did not have adequate facilities.  The Mustang was then transferred to Rockcliffe Airport in 1964.  It is painted as a Mustang Mk. IV, No. 442 "City of Vancouver" Squadron as it would have appeared in 1945.  (CA&SM)

North American P-51D Mustangs flown by the RCAF post war (130), (Serial Nos. 9221-9300, 9551-9600).

Canada had five squadrons equipped with Mustangs during the Second World War.  RCAF No. 400, No. 414 and No. 430 squadrons flew Mustang Mk. Is (1942–1944) and No. 441 and No. 442 Squadrons flew Mustang Mk. IIIs and Mk. IVAs in 1945.  Postwar, a total of 150 Mustang P-51Ds were purchased and served in two regular squadrons (No. 416 "Lynx", and No. 417 "City of Windsor") and six auxiliary fighter squadrons (No. 402 "City of Winnipeg", No. 403 "City of Calgary", No. 420 "City of London", No. 424 "City of Hamilton", No. 442 "City of Vancouver" and No. 443 "City of New Westminster").  The Mustangs were declared obsolete in 1956, but a number of special-duty versions served on into the early 1960s.

Republic P-47 Thunderbolt Mk. I & II flown in the Far East by Canadians in RAF service.  (RAF Photos)

Republic P-47 Thunderbolt Mk. I & II flown by Canadians in RAF service.  (RAF Photos)

Saro S.36 Lerwick I, flown by Canadians with the RAF.  (RAF Photos)

Short Sunderland, flown by RCAF aircrew during the Second World War.  None are preserved in Canada.  One is preserved in the RAF Museum, Hendon, UK.  (RAF Photo)

Short Sunderland, Frazer-Nash FN13 rear turret of a Sunderland August 1940.  (RAF Photo)

Short Sunderland, RAF (Serial No. ML796), nose gun turret, IWM Duxford.  (Chad Kainz Photo)

Short Sunderland, flown by RCAF aircrew during the Second World War.  (RAF Photo)

Short Stirling, flown by RCAF aircrew during the Second World War.  (RAF Photo)

 Short Stirling, flown by RCAF aircrew during the Second World War.  (RAF Photos)

 (Doug Smith Photo)

  

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. X4492), in flight, 26 Feb 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583160)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. II, RCAF (Serial No. L1090), 6 Jun 1940.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583645)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. II, RAF (Serial No. P7923), DB-R, RCAF No. 411 Sqn.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 5010706)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. X4492), in flight, 26 Feb 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3523323)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. X4492), 26 Feb 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583158)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. X4555), Rockcliffe, Ontario, ca 1943.  (RCAF Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, RCAF (Serial No. R7143), 13 (P) Squadron, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 14 Jan 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583113)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, Op Eclipse, RCAF, 20 Aug 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3583883)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V, RAF, with clipped wings.  (RAF Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VB (Serial No. AD234), flown by P/O Hugh Godefroy, 401 Sqn, Oct 1941.  (RCAF Photo via Francois Dutil)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VB, RCAF No. 401 Squadron over Kent, England in 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4997399)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk Vbs of No. 417 Squadron, RCAF, flying in loose formation over the Tunisian desert on a bomber escort operation, April 1943.  (IWM Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IXE pair, RCAF No. 412 (Falcon) Squadron,ca. 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, PA-136915)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IX of No 403 Squadron, RCAF, being serviced by an RAF Repair and Salvage Unit working to repair damage to the aircraft at a forward airstrip in Normandy, 19 June 1944.   The propellor blades are wooden.  It would appear that the repair team is trying to lift and move the wing backwards to straighten it out.  A few of the men are pushing on the cannon while those behind are watching the wing root area.  (IWM Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IX, MJ275, VZ-J & MJ452, VZ-L, 412 Sqn, RCAF with 250-lb bombs, Heesch, Netherlands.  (IWM Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IXE, 412 Sqn, RCAF with 250-lb bombs, assisted by a groundcrewman on the wing to stear around potholes in the runway, Vokel, Netherlands, 27 Oct 1944.  (IWM Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IXE, VZ-S,  412 Sqn, RCAF, Tilly-sur-Seulles, Normandy, 17 June 1944.  (IWM Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IX, RAF.  (RAF Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IX, (Serial No. MJ832), DN-T, No. 416 (City of Oshawa) Sqn, RCAF.  This aircraft was damaged by flak in the Flenville area of France on 8 May 1944, but was repaired.  While flying this Spitfire, J22989 Squadron Leader Sten T. Lundberg was shot down by flak on 21 May 1944, while attacking a train in the Cayeux-Berck area.  This was during Ramrod 905. He became a POW at Luft Stalag III.  His Kriegsgefangenen Nummer (POW Number) was 5838.  Luft Stalag III was the camp made famous by the 'Great Escape'.  On his return home, he was a pioneer in early helicopter aviation in Canada.  The remains of his Spitfire were apparently collected but later abandoned by the Luftwaffe at Vught, Holland, 11 Nov 1944.  (Libary and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3941007)

Supermarine Spitfire L.F. Mk. IX (Serial No. NH188) in flight, now with the CA&SM.  (RCAF Photos)

Supermarine Spitfire L.F. Mk. IX (Serial No. NH188), CBAF IX 2161 with clipped wings.  This Spitfire was manufactured by the Supermarine division of Vickers-Armstrong Limited at the Castle Bromwich Aircraft Factory in the United Kingdom in 1944.  In 1944 it flew with a Polish squadron and an RCAF squadron.  It was damaged by anti-aircraft fire around D-Day, and was stored by the RAF from late 1944 to 1946.  In 1946 the aircraft was sold to the Dutch Air Force.  Sent to the Dutch East Indies (today's Indonesia) in 1947, it was flown infrequently until its return to Holland in 1950.  It was sold to the Belgian Air Force in 1952, rebuilt, and then used as a trainer.  The Spitfire was written off after a crash in 1954. A private company then purchased the aircraft and rebuilt it to tow targets.  John N. Paterson of Fort William, Ontario purchased the Spitfire and brought it to Canada in 1961.  After rebuilding it, Paterson donated the aircraft to the Museum in 1964, flying it to Ottawa for Air Force Day.  (CA&SM)

Supermarine Spitfire F.R. XIVB, NV348, S, Violet Dorothy III, 414 (Sarnia Imperials) Sqn, RCAF.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3645494)

Supermarine Spitfire F.R. Mk. XIVB, RAF (Serial No. NV348), S, Violet Dorothy III, RCAF No. 414 (Sarnia Imperials) Squadron.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3645495)

Supermarine Spitfire F.R. Mk. XIV, RAF (Serial No. RN119), RCAF No. 402 Squadron.  (RCAF Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire F.R. Mk. XIV, RAF (Serial No. RM795), RCAF No. 430 Squadron.  (RCAF Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. XIV, No. 414 Sqn, RCAF ca. 1945.  (RCAF Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire 300 Mk. I, IA, 329 Mk. IIA (1), (Serial No. L1090), 329 Mk. IIB (3), (Serial Nos. P8332, ER824 & one unknown), 349 Mk. V (3), (Serial Nos. R7143, X4492, X4555), 349 Mk. VB, 359 Mk. VIII (1), (Serial No. JG480), 361 F. Mk. IXC, Mk. IXE, Mk. XVI (1), (Serial No. TE214), 365 PR. Mk. XI, 379 Mk. XIV (1), (Serial No. TZ138), 380 F. Mk. XVIE, Mk. XIX (1), (Serial No. PM627), for a total of 11 aircraft on RCAF strength in Canada.

There were 24 marks of Spitfire and many sub-variants. These covered the Spitfire in development from the Merlin to Griffon engines, the high-speed photo-reconnaissance variants and the different wing configurations.  More Spitfire M.k Vs were built than any other type, with 6,487 built, followed by the 5,656 Mk. IXs.   Different wings, featuring a variety of weapons, were fitted to most marks; the A wing used eight .303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns, the B wing had four .303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns and two 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano cannon, and the C, or universal, wing could mount either four 20 mm (.79 in) cannon or two 20 mm (.79 in) and four .303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns. As the war progressed, the C wing became more common.

A number of Canadian pilots flew with the Fleet Air Arm, most notably Lt (N) Robert Hampton Gray, VC, DSO. I found this shot in the Archives of a line-up of Fleet Air Arm aircraft at RNAS Mill Meece, HMS Fledgling ca 1943/44.  The facility was used to train WRNS Air Mechanics (Ordnance) on FAA aircraft. The aircraft in this phot include a Supermarine Seafire Mk. I, a Vought Corsair, a Grumman Martlet, two Fairy Barracudas, and possibly a Hawker Sea Hurricane or Fairey Fulmar.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4950856)

Supermarine Seafire Mk. XV, RCN.  (RCN Photo)

Supermarine Seafire Mk. XV, RCN, Armstrong, Ontario, 21 May  1947.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584064)

Supermarine Seafire Mk. XV, RCN, Armstrong, Ontario, 21 May  1947.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3584065)

Supermarine Type 377 Seafire Mk. XV (35), (Serial Nos. PR375, PR410, PR425, PR428, PR434, PR451, PR458, PR460, PR461, PR470, PR479, PR494, PR496, PR498, PR499, PR500-06, SR459, SR464, SR530, SR545, SW793, SW802, SW809, SW815, SW860, SW869, SW870, SW909).

 Vickers Wellington Mk. IA, RAF (Serial No. N2887), 5, of the Central Gunnery School in the UK. (RAF Photo)

Vickers Wellington Mk. IA with Royal Canadian Air Force  flight crew, Sergeant McGillvray, Sergeant J. Holsch, Sergeant Spackman and Sergeant R.H. Gervin, plus one.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4359665)

Thirteen RCAF Squadrons flew the Wellington during the Second World War:

No. 405 Squadron RCAF 'Vancouver Squadron' Code letters "LQ"
No. 407 Squadron RCAF Code Letters "RR"
No. 415 Squadron RCAF Code Letters "6U"
No. 419 Squadron RCAF 'Moose Squadron' Code letters "VR"
No. 420 Squadron RCAF 'Snowy Owl Squadron' Code letters "PT"
No. 424 Squadron RCAF 'Tiger Squadron' Code letters "QB"
No. 425 Squadron RCAF 'Alouette Squadron' Code letters "KW"
No. 426 Squadron RCAF 'Thunderbird Squadron' Code letters "OW"
No. 427 Squadron RCAF 'Lion Squadron' Code letters "ZL"
No. 428 Squadron RCAF 'Ghost Squadron' Code letters "NA"
No. 429 Squadron RCAF 'Bison Squadron' Code letters "AL"
No. 431 Squadron RCAF Code Letters "SE"
No. 432 Squadron RCAF 'Leaside Squadron' Code letters "QO"

Vickers Wellington serving with the RCAF, with 4,000-lb bomb being loaded by its ground crew, May 1942.  (RAF Photo)

 (RAF Photo)

Vickers Wellington, RAF Bassingbourn OTU, 1940.  None have been preserved in Canada, two are preserved in the UK.

 (IWM Photo HU 107810)

Vickers Wellington Mk. I (Serial No. P9249), overhead view, ca 1940.

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P5112), ca 1942.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P5112), ca 1942.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P7048), ca 1942.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P7048).  This aircraft was damaged by flak on 17 April 1942, and sent back to Westland's for repair.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P6997).  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P6969), No. 263 Sqn, lost on 8 Feb 1941.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P7110), ca 1942.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P7110), ca 1942.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P7110), ca 1942.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF (Serial No. P7110), ca 1942.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind heavy fighter, operated from 1940-1943.  It was fast and excelled in the low ground attack role.  The Peregrine engines which powered it had many development issues and therefore only 116 were built before it was withdrawn from service.  Whirlwinds were flown by RCAF pilots serving in the UK early in the Second World War.  None have been preserved in Canada.  

Westland Whirlwind Mk. I, RAF (Serial No. P7094), HE-T, of No. 263 Squadron, on the ground at Warmwell, Dorset, with Flying Officer J P Coyne, a Canadian pilot, in the cockpit.  The markings below the cockpit indicate that this aircraft was presented to the RAF by the Bellows Foundation in South America. (IWM Photo)

Westland Whirlwind photo taken on the day it was removed from the Secret List and released to the Press, Friday 20 March 1942.  From left to right - S/L Robert Woodward DFC, P/O Philip Harvey, Sgt John Walker, F/S Cecil King, F/L Geoff Warnes (on wing), P/O Les Currie, P/O Herbert Blackshaw, Sgt John Meredith, Sgt Mick Muirhead RCAF and Sgt Ken Ridley are watching F/L Cliff Rudland who flew a solo demonstration for the cameras.  (Rob Bowater)

 Westland Whirlwind of RAF No 137 Squadron being rearmed with 250lb bombs, March 1943, at which time they were stationed at Manston in the UK.  (RAF Photo)

Westland Whirlwind, RAF being bombed up.  (RAF Photo)