Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   
Axis Warplane Survivors, Montenegro, Albania, Monaco, Slovakia, Bohemia and Moravia, Serbia, Italy, Hungary, Norway, Macedonia, Belarus and Ljubljana

Axis Warplane Survivors,

Montenegro, Albania, Monaco, Slovakia, 

Bohemia and Moravia, Serbia, Italy, Hungary, Norway, Macedonia, Belarus,  Ljubljana

Data current to 24 Sep 2018.

Italian Puppet States of Montenegro, Albania and Monaco


Sekula Drljevi? and the core of the Montenegrin Federalist Party formed the Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro on 12 July 1941, and proclaimed on the Saint Peter’s Congress the “Kingdom of Montenegro” under a protectorate of the Fascist Kingdom of Italy.  The country served Italy as part of its goal of fragmenting the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, expanding the Italian Empire throughout the Adriatic.  The country was caught up in the rebellion of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland.  Drljevic was expelled from Montenegro in October 1941. The country came under direct Italian control. With the Italian capitulation of 1943, Montenegro became a directly under the control of Nazi Germany.

In 1944 Drljevi? formed a pro-Ustaše Montenegrin State Council in exile based in the Independent State of Croatia, with the aim of restoring rule over Montenegro.  The Montenegrin People’s Army was formed out of various Montenegrin nationalist troops.  By then the partisans had already liberated most of Montenegro, which became a federal state of the new Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.  Montenegro endured intense air bombing by the Allied air forces in 1944.


In spite of Albania‘s long-standing protection and alliance with Italy, on 7 April 1939 Italian troops invaded Albania, five months before the start of the Second World War.  Following the invasion, Albania became a protectorate under Italy, with King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy being awarded the crown of Albania.  Albanian troops under Italian control were sent to participate in the Italian invasion of Greece and the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia.  Following Yugoslavia’s defeat, Kosovo was annexed to Albania by the Italians.  After the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the country was occupied by the Germans until the end of the war.[42]


A minor fascist regime was established in Monaco after the Italian army occupied the country in the aftermath of Case Anton.  Monaco was finally liberated after the Allies landed on Western Europe.

German Puppet States of Slovakia (Tiso regime), the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Serbia, Italy (Italian Social Republic), Albania (under German control), Hungary (Szalasi regime), Norway (Quisling regime), Macedonia, Belarus, and the Province of Ljubljana

The collaborationist administrations of German-occupied countries in Europe had varying degrees of autonomy, and not all of them qualified as fully recognized sovereign states.  The General Government in occupied Poland did not qualify as a legitimate Polish government and was essentially a German administration.  In occupied Norway, the National Government headed by Vidkun Quisling – whose name came to symbolize pro-Axis collaboration in several languages – was subordinate to the Reichskommissariat Norwegen.  It was never allowed to have any armed forces, be a recognized military partner, or have autonomy of any kind.  In the occupied Netherlands, Anton Mussert was given the symbolic title of “Führer of the Netherlands’ people”.  His National Socialist Movement formed a cabinet assisting the German administration, but was never recognized as a real Dutch government.[43]

Slovakia (Tiso regime)

The Slovak Republic under President Josef Tiso signed the Tripartite Pact on November 24, 1940.  Slovakia had been closely aligned with Germany almost immediately from its declaration of independence from Czechoslovakia on 14 March 1939.  Slovakia entered into a treaty of protection with Germany on 23 March 1939.

Slovak troops joined the German invasion of Poland, having interest in Spiš and Orava.  Those two regions, along with Cieszyn Silesia, had been disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia since 1918.  The Poles fully annexed them following the Munich Agreement.  After the invasion of Poland, Slovakia reclaimed control of those territories. 

Slovakia invaded Poland alongside German forces, contributing 50,000 men at this stage of the war.  Slovakia declared war on the Soviet Union in 1941 and signed the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941.  Slovak troops fought on Germany’s Eastern Front, furnishing Germany with two divisions totaling 80,000 men. Slovakia declared war on the United Kingdom and the United States in 1942.  Slovakia was spared German military occupation until the Slovak National Uprising, which began on 29 August 1944, and was almost immediately crushed by the Waffen SS and Slovak troops loyal to Josef Tiso.  After the war, Tiso was executed and Slovakia was rejoined with Czechoslovakia. The border with Poland was shifted back to the pre-war state. Slovakia and the Czech Republic finally separated into independent states in 1993.[44]

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia 

The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was created on 16 March 1939 by proclamation of Adolf Hitler from Prague Castle following the declaration of establishment of the independent Slovak Republic on 14 March 1939.  The protectorate was abolished after the German surrender at the end of the Second World War.


In April 1941 Germany invaded and occupied Yugoslavia.  On 30 April a pro-German Serbian administration was formed under Milan A?imovi?.  In 1941, after the invasion of the Soviet Union, a guerilla campaign against the Germans and Italians was launched by the communist partisans under Josip Broz Tito.  The uprising became a serious concern for the Germans, as most of their forces were deployed to Russia; only three divisions were in the country.  On 13 August 546 Serbs, including many of the country’s most prominent and influential leaders, issued an appeal to the Serbian nation that called for loyalty to the Nazis and condemned the partisan resistance as unpatriotic. 

Two weeks after the appeal, with the partisan insurgency beginning to gain momentum, 75 prominent Serbs convened a meeting in Belgrade and formed a Government of National Salvation under Serbian General Milan Nedi? to replace the existing Serbian administration.  On 29 August the German authorities installed General Nedi? and his government in power.  Nedi? would serve as Prime Minister, while the former Regent, Prince Paul, was recognized as head of state.  The Germans were short of police and military forces in Serbia, and came to rely on armed Serbian formations to maintain order.  By October, 1941, Serbian forces under German supervision became increasingly effective against the resistance.  These Serbian formations were German-armed and equipped.[45]

Italy (Italian Social Republic) (also see Chapter XI)

Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini formed the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana) on 23 September 1943, succeeding the Kingdom of Italy as a member of the Axis.  Mussolini had been removed from office and arrested by King Victor Emmanuel III on 25 July 1943.  After the Italian armistice, in a spectacular raid led by German paratrooper  Otto Skorzeny, Mussolini was rescued from arrest.  Once restored in power, Mussolini declared that Italy was a republic and that he was the new head of state. He was subject to German control for the duration of the war.[46]

Albania (under German control)

After the Italian armistice, a void of power opened up in Albania.  The Italian occupying forces could do nothing, as the National Liberation Movement took control of the south and National Front (Balli Kombëtar) took control of the north.  Albanians in the Italian army joined the guerrilla forces.  In September 1943 the guerrillas moved to take the capital of Tirana, but German paratroopers dropped into the city.  Soon after the fight, the German High Command announced that they would recognize the independence of a greater Albania.  They organized an Albanian government, police, and military with the Balli Kombëtar.

The Germans did not exert heavy control over Albania‘s administration, but instead attempted to gain popular appeal by giving the Albanians what they wanted.  Several Balli Kombëtar leaders held positions in the regime.  The joint forces incorporated Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, and Presevo into the Albanian state.  A High Council of Regency was created to carry out the functions of a head of state, while the government was headed mainly by Albanian conservative politicians.  Albania was the only European country occupied by the Axis powers that ended the Second World War with a larger Jewish population than before the war.  The Albanian government had refused to hand over their Jewish population.  They provided Jewish families with forged documents and helped them disperse in the Albanian population.  Albania was completely liberated on 29 November 1944.[47]

Hungary (Szalasi regime)

Relations between Germany and the regency of Miklós Horthy collapsed in Hungary in 1944.  Horthy was forced to abdicate after German armed forces held his son hostage as part of Operation Panzerfaust.  Hungary was reorganized following Horthy’s abdication in December 1944 into a totalitarian fascist regime called the Government of National Unity, led by Ferenc Szálasi.  He had been Prime Minister of Hungary since October 1944 and was leader of the anti-Semitic fascist Arrow Cross Party.  In power, his government was a Quisling regime with little authority other than to obey Germany’s orders.  Days after the government took power; the capital of Budapest was surrounded by the Soviet Red Army.  German and fascist Hungarian forces tried to hold off the Soviet advance but failed.  In March 1945, Szálasi fled to Germany to run the state in exile, until the surrender of Germany in May 1945.[48]

Norway (Quisling regime)

In Norway, the national government, headed by Vidkun Quisling, was installed by the Germans as a puppet regime during the occupation, while King Haakon VII and the legal government were in exile.  Quisling encouraged Norwegians to serve as volunteers in the Waffen-SS, collaborated in the deportation of Jews, and was responsible for the executions of members of the Norwegian resistance movement.  About 45,000 Norwegian collaborators joined the pro-Nazi party Nasjonal Samling (National Union), and some police units helped arrest many of Norway’s Jews.  However, Norway was one of the first countries where resistance during the Second World War was widespread before the turning point of the war in 1943.  After the war, Quisling and other collaborators were executed.  Quisling’s name has become an international eponym for traitor.[49]


Ivan Mihailov, leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), wanted to solve the Macedonian Question by creating a pro-Bulgarian state on the territory of the region of Macedonia in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.  Romania left the Axis and declared war on Germany on 23 August 1944, and the Soviets declared war on Bulgaria on 5 September.  While these events were taking place, Mihailov came out of hiding in the Independent State of Croatia and traveled to re-occupied Skopje.  The Germans gave Mihailov the green light to create a Macedonian state.  Negotiations were undertaken with the Bulgarian government.  Contact was made with Hristo Tatarchev in Resen, who offered Mihailov the Presidency.  Bulgaria switched sides on 8 September, and on the 9th the Fatherland Front staged a coup and deposed the monarchy.  Mihailov refused the leadership and fled to Italy.  Spiro Kitanchev took Mihailov’s place and became Premier of Macedonia.  He cooperated with the pro-Bulgarian authorities, the Wehrmacht, the Bulgarian Army, and the Yugoslav Partisans for the rest of September and October.  In the middle of November 1944, the communists won control over the region.[50]


The Belarusian Central Rada was established in Belarus after the region was occupied by invading German forces.  The regime maintained local security forces, namely the Bie?aruskaja Krajovaja Abarona.  The state ended its existence in 1944 when the Red Army drove the retreating Nazi German forces from Belarus.[51]

Province of Ljubljana

In 1943 a small local government was established in German occupied Slovenia.