Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Axis Warplane Survivors, Argentina, Denmark, the Soviet Union, Spain and Sweden

Axis Warplane Survivors,

Argentina, Denmark, the Soviet Union, Spain and Sweden

Data current to 24 Sep 2018.

These states were not officially members of Axis, but had controversial relations with one or more Axis members at some point during the war.

Argentina

During the early years of the Second World War, Argentina maintained close relations with the Axis powers while officially remaining neutral.  These close relations with the Axis irritated the United States, which cancelled weapons shipments to the country while increasing shipments to Argentina’s neighbour, Brazil, in an attempt to pressure the Argentine government to abandon its ties with the Axis.  Newly elected president Ramón Castillo drew Argentina closer to the Axis; in 1942 Argentina approached Germany with a request to purchase airplanes, weapons, and other equipment.  Argentine General Domingo Martínez claimed that President Ramón Castillo was concerned over the country’s relations with Brazil, with Argentina facing an ultimatum from the US.  The Argentine government feared a potential invasion by Brazil and Uruguay backed by the US.  Castillo was initially determined to resist, and openly joined the Axis, believing that Argentina’s geography would allow it to withstand war.  Upon Brazil joining the Allied powers in August 1942, Argentina declared itself a non-belligerent, while still negotiating with Germany for weapons.  Castillo believed that the Axis would triumph in the Second World War.

In 1943 a military coup overthrew the Argentine government.  A military junta was established, led by Pedro Pablo Ramírez.  In 1944 the United States government labeled the Argentine government as “fascist” and enacted financial and trade restrictions against the country, urging other countries to do the same.  British officials captured Argentina‘s envoy to Germany, creating a diplomatic disaster for Argentina.  In January 1944, under pressure from Britain and the United States, Ramírez agreed to break all ties with the Axis powers.  Argentine nationalists were alarmed by this concession and forced Ramírez to resign.  For the remaining year of the war, the United States continued to maintain sanctions against Argentina due to its pro-Axis leanings.  Argentina only declared war on Germany in 1945, about a month before the end of the war.  The close ties between Argentina and Nazi Germany proved controversial near the end of the war and afterwards, as Nazi personnel and capital began to arrive in Argentina in 1944.[74]

Denmark

On 31 May 1939, Denmark and Germany signed a treaty of non-aggression, which did not contain any military obligations for either party.  On 9 April 1940, citing the intended laying of mines in Norwegian and Danish waters as a pretext, Germany invaded both countries.  The Danes had a very small air force attached to the Army. They had no military effect on the German invasion of Denmark; most aircraft were destroyed or captured on the ground. They were organized into two Aviation Battalions.  The Jutland Battalion had one fighter squadron equipped with 13 Fokker D.XXI one reconnaissance squadron equipped with 11 biplanes, and the Saeland Battalion was equipped with 8 Fokker G.Ia and one reconnaissance squadron equipped with 14 biplanes.

King Christian X and the Danish government, worried about German bombings if they resisted occupation, accepted “protection by the Reich” in exchange for nominal independence under German military occupation.  Three successive Prime Ministers, Thorvald Stauning, Vilhelm Buhl, and Erik Scavenius, maintained this samarbejdspolitik (“cooperation policy”) of collaborating with Germany.

Denmark coordinated its foreign policy with Germany, extending diplomatic recognition to Axis collaborator and puppet regimes, and breaking diplomatic relations with the governments-in-exile formed by countries occupied by Germany.  Denmark broke diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941.

In 1941 a Danish military corps, the Frikorps Danmark, was created at the initiative of the SS and the Danish Nazi Party, to fight alongside the Wehrmacht on Germany’s Eastern Front.  Frikorps Danmark was open to members of the Danish Royal Army and those who had completed their service within the last ten years.  Between 4,000 and 10,000 Danish citizens joined the Frikorps Danmark, including 77 officers of the Royal Danish Army.  An estimated 3,900 of these soldiers died fighting for Germany during the Second World War.

Denmark transferred six torpedo boats to Germany in 1941, although the bulk of its navy remained under Danish command until the declaration of martial law in 1943.

The Danish protectorate government lasted until 29 August 1943, when the cabinet resigned following a declaration of martial law by occupying German military officials.  Germany declared war on Denmark and attacked the Danish military bases which led to 13 Danish soldiers dead in the fighting.  The Danish navy scuttled 32 of its larger ships to prevent their use by Germany.  Germany seized 14 larger and 50 smaller vessels, and later raised and refitted 15 of the sunken vessels.  During the scuttling of the Danish fleet, a number of vessels attempted an escape to Swedish waters, and 13 vessels succeeded, four of which were larger ships.  By the autumn of 1944, these ships officially formed a Danish naval flotilla in exile.  In 1943 Swedish authorities allowed 500 Danish soldiers in Sweden to train as police troops.  By the autumn of 1944, Sweden raised this number to 4,800 and recognized the entire unit as a Danish military brigade in exile.  Danish collaboration continued on an administrative level, with the Danish bureaucracy functioning under German command.[75]

Aviation Museums in Denmark

Forsvars – og Garnisonsmuseum, Aalborg Defence and Garrison Museum, Skydebanevej 22, Aalborg 9000.  www.forsvarsmuseum.dk.

Marinemuseum, Vestre Fjordvej 81, Aalborg 9000.   www.aalborgmarinemuseum.dk.

Danmarks Tekniske Museum, Fabriksvej 25, DK-3000 Helsingor.  www.tekniksmuseum.dk.

Hjallerup Mekaniske Museum, Algade 42, 9320 Hjallerup.  www.hjallerup-museum.dk.

Flyvestation Karup’s Historiske Forening Museet, Karup Air Base Museum.

Egeskov Veteran Car Museum, Egeskov Castle, Egeskov Gade 18, 5772 Kvaerndrup.

www.egeskov.dk.

Danish Collection of Vintage Flying Aircraft, Stauning Airport, Dansk Veteranflysambling, Lufthavnsvej Stauning, Skjern 6900.  www.flymuseum.dk.

Soviet Union

Relations between the Soviet Union and the major Axis powers were generally hostile before 1938.  In the Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union gave military aid to the Second Spanish Republic, against Spanish Nationalist forces, which were assisted by Germany and Italy.  The Nationalist forces won the war.  The Soviets suffered another political defeat when their ally Czechoslovakia was partitioned and partially annexed by Germany and Hungary via the Munich Agreement.  In 1938 and 1939, the USSR fought and defeated Japan in two separate border wars, at Lake Khasan and Khalkhin Gol, the latter being a major Soviet victory.

In 1939 the Soviet Union considered forming an alliance with both Britain and France or with Germany.  The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939 between the Soviet Union and Germany included a secret protocol whereby the independent countries of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Romania were divided into spheres of interest of the parties.  On 1 September, barely a week after the pact had been signed, Germany invaded Poland.  The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on 1 September and on 28 September signed a secret treaty with Nazi Germany to arrange coordination of fighting against Polish resistance.

Soon after that, the Soviet Union occupied the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania.  The Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939, which started the Winter War.  Finnish defences prevented an all-out invasion, resulting in an interim peace, but Finland was forced to cede strategically important border areas near Leningrad.

Germany ended the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact by invading the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941.  This resulted in the Soviet Union becoming one of the Allies.  Germany then revived its Anti-Comintern Pact, enlisting many European and Asian countries in opposition to the Soviet Union.  The Soviet Union and Japan remained neutral towards each other for most of the war by the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact.  The Soviet Union ended the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact by invading Manchukuo on 8 August 1945, due to agreements reached at the Yalta Conference with Roosevelt and Churchill.[76]

Aviation Museums in Russia

Central Air and Space Museum, 24a Leningradsky Prospekt, Central Aerodrome at Khodinka Field, Moscow, 125040.

Central Armed Forces Museum, Ulitsa Sovetskoy Armii 2, Moscow, 129110. 

www.cmaf.ru.

Central Museum of the Air Forces, 141170, pos. Monino, Shchelkovo district of Moscow region.  www.moninoaviation.com.  Largest aviation museum in Russia.  The facility was an operational air base from 1932 through April, 1956.  The museum was founded in 1958 and opened in 1960 at the original airfield location and in the original airfield structures.

Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Poklonnaya Gora, Park Pobedy, St. Brothers Fonchenko 10, 121170 Moscow.  www.poklonnayagora.ru.

Kubinka Aviation Museum, Kubinka Air Base and Kubinka Garrison.

Kuibyshev Aviation Institute, Smyshlyaevka Airfield, Samara.

Kurgansk Aviation Museum, Kurgan Airport.  Kurgansky Kosmopark, ul. Gagarina 41 airport, 640000 Kurgan.  http://aviakurgan.narod.ru/.

Long Range Aviation Museum, Engel’s Air Base.  Open since 6 September 2000.

The Russian Federation Ministry of Defence, Moscow.  www.mil.ru.

Vadim Zadorozhny Museum, Building 9, Arhangelskoe, 4-th km of Ilinskoe Highway, Moscow 143420.  www.automuseum.ru.

VVS I PVO Museum, Sovetskiy Prospekt, Moscow – Nemchinovka.

Air Museum, Rzhev Air Base; Air Museum, Savasleyka Air Base; Air Museum, Torzhok Air Base.

Museum of History of Civil Aviation, Ulyanovsk, Barataevka, Aviacionnaya Street.

Ulavia73@mail.ru.

Nemchinovka Museum of Air Defence, Ramenskoye.

Nikolayevsk Aviation Museum.

Samara Aerospace University Museum, Samara.

In addition to the large scale aviation museums, a number of towns, airfields, cities and communities have aircraft preserved as monuments and gate guards.  These include Aerodrome Bobrovka, Samara; Aerospace Lyceum Khimki, Ramenskoye; Anti-Aircraft Warfare Memorial Complex, Abram-Mys; Arkhangelskoe Krasnogorskiy Museum of Technology, Ramenskoye; Aviagarnizon Klip-Yavr, Murmansk Region; Aviagarnizon Kubinka, Ramenskoye; Balashov, Saratov Region; Borskoye, Samara Region Kubinka, Ramenskoye; Bugulma, Tatarstan; Bykovo Airport, Ramenskoye; Cadet Centre Patriot, Ramenskoye; Central Volokolamsk, Ramenskoye; Chkalovsky, Ramenskoye; Domodedovo Airport, Ramenskoye; Drakino (Serpukhov District), Ramenskoye; Dubna (Dubnenskogo District), Ramenskoye; Egorievsk, Ramenskoye; Falcon Territory Training Aviation Regiment, Saratov; Foresta Holiday Village, Ramenskoye; Igarka; IRPA Rosto, Ramenskoye; Kazan; Khimki, Ramenskoye; Kirsanov Technical School; Klin, Ramenskoye; Koltsovo Airport, Ekaterinburg; Kovdor, Murmansk Region; Krasnogorsk, Ramenskoye; Lenin and State University, Stavropol; Lobnensky District, Ramenskoye; Lovozero, Murmansk; Lukhovitsy, Ramenskoye; Lyubertsy, Ramenskoye; Minsk; Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region; Moscow Aircraft Repair Plant, Ramenskoye;

Murmashi Airport, Murmansk; Victory Park, Saratov; Myachkovo; North Luostari, Murmansk Region; North Safonovo, Murmansk Region; Novosibirsk Aeroclub, Murmansk Region; Olenegorsky, Murmansk Region; Omsk; Orsk Airfield Sokol, Orenburg; and Orsk Region; Ostafjevo; Perm South; Poliarniy, Murmansk Region;

Polyarniye Zori, Murmansk Region; Pos. Belushya LIP; PPC DSS “Rainbow”, Ramenskoye; Putyatino, Ryazan; Ramenskoye; Revda, Lovozero Murmansk Region;

Sakha, Yakutia Airport; Samara Technical Institute, Smyshlyaevka Airfield; Saratove Region; Savelovo Klentino; Sergiev Posad, Ramenskoye; Severomorsk, Murmansk Region; Sheremetyevo Airport, Moscow; Shaykovka, Kaluga Region; Shong, Murmansk Region; Simferopol; Skeely Soyuz, St Petersburg; Smolensk; Solnechnogorsk, Ramenskoye; Stupino and Stupino Station, Ramenskoye; Taksimo Buryatia; Talagi Airport, Arkhangelsk; Technical Museum Vadim Zadorozhnogo, Ramenskoye; Togliatti Technical Museum of AVTOVAZ, Samara; Totskoye, Orenburg; Tushino; Ulyanovsk;

Ust-Kamenogorsk; Victory Park, the Museum of Military Glory, Saratov; Vidyaevo, Murmansk Region; Vnukovo Ramenskoye; Volodarskogo, Tver; Vorkuta Airport Memorial, Vortuka; Yakutsk; Yegor’yevsk-Shuvoe Airfield, Ramenskoye; Yury Gagarin Park, Samara; Zagashnik Moninskogo Museum, Ramenskoye; and Zhukovsky Airfield and Zhukovsky Racecourse, Ramenskoye.

Spain

Caudillo Francisco Franco’s Spanish State gave moral, economic, and military assistance to the Axis powers, while nominally maintaining neutrality.  Franco described Spain as a member of the Axis and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 with Hitler and Mussolini.  Members of the ruling Falange party in Spain wanted the return of Gibraltar to Spanish control.  Falangists also supported Spanish colonial acquisition of Tangier, French Morocco and northwestern French Algeria.  Spain also held ambitions on former Spanish colonies in Latin America.  In June 1940 the Spanish government approached Germany to propose an alliance in exchange for Germany recognizing Spain’s territorial aims: the annexation of the Oran province of Algeria, the incorporation of all Morocco, the extension of Spanish Sahara southward to the twentieth parallel, and the incorporation of French Cameroons into Spanish Guinea. 

In 1940 Spain invaded and occupied the Tangier International Zone, maintaining its occupation until 1945.  The occupation caused a dispute between Britain and Spain in November 1940; Spain conceded to protect British rights in the area and promised not to fortify the area.  During the Second World War the Spanish government planned to expand its territory into Portugal and made these plans known to the German government.  In a communiqué with Germany on 26 May 1942, Franco declared that Portugal should be made part of a Greater Spain.

Franco won the Spanish Civil War with the help of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, which were both eager to establish another fascist state in Europe.  When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, Franco immediately offered to form a unit of military volunteers to join the invasion.  This was accepted by Hitler and, within two weeks, there were enough volunteers to form a division – the Blue Division (División Azul) under General Agustín Muñoz Grandes.

Spain‘s ruling Falange party operated in Latin America, especially Puerto Rico, where pro-Falange and pro-Franco sentiment was high.  The Falangists promoted the idea of supporting Spain’s former colonies in fighting against American domination.  Prior to the outbreak of war, support for Franco and the Falange was high in the Philippines.  The Falange Exterior, the international department of the Falange, collaborated with Japanese forces against US forces in the Philippines.[77]

Aviation Museums in Spain

Fundación Infante de Orleans, Cuatro Vientos Air Base, Hangar 3, 28044 Madrid.  www.fio.es.

Museo del Aire, Cuatro Vientos Air Base, Madrid.  www.aire.org/museuo/.

Museo de Aeropuertos y Transporte Aereo, Av Comandante Garcia Morato 81, 29004 Malaga.  www.aeroplaza.org.

Fundació Parc Aeronàutic de Catalunya – Sabadell, Fundació PAC, Aeropuerto de Sabadell, 08205 Sabadell.  www.fpac.org.

Museo Naval de San Fernando, Poblacion Militar de San Carlos, ES-11206 San Fernando (Cadiz).

El Museo de San Javier, Avenida de la Libertad 37, San Javier.

Museo Militar de Almeyda, Calle de San Isrido, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands.

Fundació Parc Aeronàutic de Catalunya – Vilanova, Delegación de Vilanova, Avinguda de l’Aragai s/n, Apartado de Correos 276, 08800 Vilanova I la Geltrú.  Fundació PAC, Aeropuerto de Sabadell, 08205 Sabadell.  www.fpac.org.

Sweden

The official policy of Sweden before, during, and after the Second World War was neutrality.  It had held this policy for over a century, since the end of the Napoleonic Wars.  In contrast to many other neutral countries, Sweden was not directly attacked during the war, although it was subject to British and Nazi German naval blockades, which led to problems with the supply of food and fuels. 

From the spring of 1940 to the summer of 1941 Sweden and Finland were surrounded by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.  This led to difficulties in maintaining the rights and duties of neutral states in the Hague Convention.  Sweden violated this, as German troops were allowed to travel through Swedish territory between July 1940 and August 1943.  In spite of the fact that it was allowed by the Hague Convention, Sweden has been criticized for exporting iron ore to Nazi Germany via the Baltic and the Norwegian port of Narvik.  German dependence on Swedish iron ore shipments was the primary reason for Great Britain to launch Operation Wilfred and, together with France, the Norwegian Campaign in early April 1940.  By early June 1940 the Norwegian Campaign stood as a failure for the allies.  Nazi Germany could obtain the Swedish iron ore supply it needed for war production despite the British naval blockade by securing access to Norwegian ports by force.[78]

The Swedish Air Force was created on 1 July 1926 when the aircraft units of the Army and Navy were merged.  Because of the escalating international tension during the 1930s the Air Force was reorganized and expanded from four to seven squadrons.  When the Second World War  broke out in 1939 further expansion was initiated and this substantial expansion was not finished until the end of the war.  Although Sweden never entered the war, a large air force was considered necessary to ward off the threat of invasion and to resist pressure through military threats from the great powers.  The Flygvapnet bought aircraft from a number of other nations.  These included the J-7 Bristol Bulldog and the J-8A/B Gloster Gladiator Mk I & II from the UK; 60 J-9 Seversky EP-106 (P-35) from the USA (60 others were impounded by the USAAC); 72 J-11 Fiat CR.42 and 60 Reggiane Re.2000 from Italy; 50 North American P-51D Mustangs (purchased in April 1945); 56 B-3/A/B/C Junkers Ju 86K built under licence;  15 B-4 Hawker Hart light biplane bombers; 91 B-5B/C Northrop A-17A; and 31 B-16 Caproni Bergmaschi Ca.312s.  As the war progressed, Sweden developed its own aircraft designs, including the SAAB J-21A pusher fighter in 1945 which was later modified to the J-21R jet fighter; and the FFVS J-22 monoplane fighter in 1945.  The Swedish designated their bombers as the B-17A/B/C single-engine light level, reconnaissance and dive bomber from 1941; and the B-18 twin-engine medium bomber.[79]

When the Soviet Union attacked Finland in November 1939, Sweden came to its neighbour’s assistance in most ways short of joining the war outright.  A Swedish volunteer infantry brigade and a volunteer air squadron fought in northern Finland in January till March 1940.  The squadron was designated F 19 and consisted of 12 Gloster Gladiator fighters and four Hawker Hart dive-bombers.

By 1945 the Swedish Air Force had over 800 combat-ready aircraft, including 15 fighter divisions.  The Swedish Air Force underwent a rapid modernization from 1945.  It was no longer politically acceptable to equip it with second-rate models.  Instead, the air staff purchased the best it could find from abroad, including North American. P-51D Mustangs, De Havilland Mosquito NF.19 night fighters and de Havilland Vampires, and supported the development of top performance domestic models, including the Saab 29 Tunnan jet fighter was introduced around 1950.[80]

Aviation Museums in Sweden

Ängelholms Flyg Museum, F 10 Kamratforening, Valhall Park, 262 74 Ängelholm.

www.f10kamratforening.se.

Robotmuseum/Arboga Missile Museum, Glasbruksgatan 1, 732 31 Arboga.

http://robotmuseum.se.

Försvarsmuseum Boden, Granatvägen 2, 961 43 Boden.

www.forsvarsmuseum.se.

Eskilstuna Flygmuseum, Eskilstuna Flygplats, 63506 Eskilstuna.

Allebergs Segelflyg Museet, Alleberg, Falkoping.  www.svs-se.org/museum/.

Aeroseum, Holmvägen 100, S-417 46 Göteborg-Säve.  www.aerosum.se.

Flygvapenmuseum, Carl Cederstroms gata, Malmslatt, Flygvapenmuseum 581 98 Linkoping.  www.flygvapnmuseum.se.

F11 Museet, Nykoping – Skavsta Flygplats, Nykoping Aviation Association, Skavsta Flygplats, 611 92 Nykoping.  www.f11museum.se.

Teknikland, Optands flygfält, 83192 Östersund.  www.teknikland.se.

Osterlens Flygmuseum, Ostra Vemmerlov, Ostbo, 272 97 Garsnas.  www.osterlensflygmuseum.se.

Soderhamn F15 Flygmuseum, Byggnad 81 Flygstaden, 826 70 Soderhamn.  www.soderhamnflygmuseum.se.

Tekniska Museet, National Museum of Science and Technology, Box 27842, Museivagen, S-115 93 Stockholm.  www.tekniskamuseet.se.

Svedinos Bil- och Flygmuseum, Ugglarp, SE-310 50 Sloinge.  www.svedinos.se.

Hangar 91, Garnisonsvägen, 752 19 Uppsala. 

www.f16kamratforening.org/111-aktuellt/33-hangar-91.

Västerås Flygmuseum, Hasslogatan 16, 721 31 Västerås.  www.flygmuseum.com.

RFN Vidsel Museum, Vidsel.  www.vidsel.nu/rfnmuseum/.

Switzerland

At the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, Switzerland immediately began to mobilize for a possible invasion.  The entire country was fully mobilized in only three days.  The Swiss government began to fortify positions throughout the country.  The total strength of the army and militias grew to exactly 498,327 men.

In the course of the war, detailed invasion plans were drawn up by the German military command, such as Operation Tannenbaum, but Switzerland was never attacked.  Switzerland was able to remain independent through a combination of military deterrence, economic concessions to Germany, and good fortune as larger events during the war delayed an invasion.  Under General Henri Guisan, a massive mobilization of militia forces was ordered.  The Swiss military strategy was changed from one of static defence at the borders, to a strategy of organized long-term attrition and withdrawal to strong, well-stockpiled positions high in the Alps known as the National Redoubt.  This controversial strategy was essentially one of deterrence.  The idea was to cause huge losses to German forces and render the cost of invading too high.  During an invasion, the Swiss Army would cede control of the economic heartland and population centres, but retain control of crucial rail links and passes in the National Redoubt.  Switzerland was an important base for espionage by both sides in the conflict and often mediated communications between the Axis and Allied powers by serving as a protecting power.

Nazi Germany repeatedly violated Swiss airspace.  During the Invasion of France, German aircraft violated Swiss airspace at least 197 times.  In several air incidents, the Swiss (ironically using 10 Messerschmitt Bf-109D and, 50 Bf-109E-1 and 30 Bf 109E-3 fighters bought from Germany prior to the war and some 290 licence-built Morane-Saulnier M.S.406s built under license in Switzerland (82 designated D.3800 and 207 as D.3801 with a larger engine), shot down 11 Luftwaffe planes between 10 May 1940 and 17 June 1940.  Germany protested diplomatically on 5 June 1940 and with a second note on 19 June 1940 which contained clear threats.  Hitler was especially furious when he saw that German equipment was shooting down German pilots.  He said they would respond “in another manner”.  On 20 June 1940, the Swiss air force was ordered to stop intercepting planes violating Swiss airspace.  Swiss fighters began instead to force intruding aircraft to land at Swiss airfields.  A few Bf 109Fs were interned and then added to active squadrons.  The Swiss bought a few Junkers Ju 52s in 1943 that flew with their air force until 1969, and in 1944 they bought a dozen Bf 109G-6s.  The Swiss also built some of their own designs, including the EKW C.3600 series of single engine light reconnaissance bombers.[81]

Anti-aircraft units still operated.  Later, Hitler and Hermann Göring sent saboteurs to destroy Swiss airfields, but the sabotage team was captured by the Swiss army before it could cause any damage.

Allied aircraft also intruded on Swiss airspace during the war, mostly Allied bombers returning from raids over Italy and Germany that had been damaged and whose crews preferred internment by the Swiss to becoming prisoners of war.  Over a hundred Allied aircraft and their crews were interned. They were subsequently put up in various ski resorts that had been emptied from lack of tourists due to the war and held until it ended.

Switzerland, surrounded by Axis-controlled territory, also suffered from Allied bombings during the war; most notably from the accidental bombing of Schaffhausen by American planes on 1 April 1944.  It was mistaken for Ludwigshafen am Rhein, a nearby German town, 40 people were killed and over 50 buildings destroyed, among them a group of small factories producing anti-aircraft shells, ball-bearings, and Bf-109 parts for Germany. The bombing limited much of the leniency the Swiss had shown toward Allied airspace violations.  Eventually, the problem became so bad that they declared a zero-tolerance policy for violation by either Axis or Allied aircraft and authorized attacks on American aircraft.  Victims of these mistaken bombings were not limited to Swiss civilians, however, but included the often confused American aircrews, shot down by the Swiss fighters as well as several Swiss fighters shot down by American airmen.  In February 1945, 18 civilians were killed by Allied bombs dropped over Stein am Rhein, Vals, and Rafz. Arguably the most notorious incident came on 4 March 1945, when both Basel and Zurich were accidentally bombed by Allied aircraft.  The attack on Basel’s railway station led to the destruction of a passenger train, but no casualties were reported.  However, a B-24 Liberator dropped its bomb load over Zürich, destroying two buildings and killing five civilians.  The aircraft’s crew believed that they were attacking Freiburg in Germany.   

The Swiss, although somewhat skeptical, reacted by treating these violations of their neutrality as “accidents”.  The United States was warned that single aircraft would be forced down, and their crews would still be allowed to seek refuge, while bomber formations in violation of airspace would be intercepted.  Danger from U.S. bombers came not only from accidental bombings, but from the aircraft themselves.  In many cases, once a crippled bomber reached Switzerland and was out of enemy territory crews would often bail out, leaving the aircraft to continue until it crashed.  In spite of these incidents, Switzerland also acted as a refuge for Allied prisoners of war who escaped, including those from Oflag IV-C (Colditz).[82]

Aviation Museums in Switzerland:

Fliegermuseum Altenrhein, Flugplatz Sankt Gallen, Postfach CH-9423, Altenrhein.

www.fliegermuseum.ch.

Fliegermuseum Bäretswil, Im Tisenwaldsberg 2, 8344 Bäretswil, ZH.

www.fahrzeug-museum.ch.

Flieger Flab Museum, Air Force Center, Uberlandstrasse 255, Dubendorf, CH-8600.

www.airforcecenter.ch.

Verkehrshaus der Schweiz, Swiss Museum of Transport, Lidostrasse 5, CH-6006, Lucerne.  www.verkehrshaus.ch.

Clin d’Aile, Musee de l’Aviatino Militaire de Payerne, Base Aerienne, 1530 Payerne.

www.clindailes.ch.

Militaer Museum Wildegg, Peter Fischer, Ammerswilerstr. 63, 5600 Lenzburg.

www.militaermuseumwildegg.ch.


[1] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[2] Internet: http://world.std.com/~ted7/minorafe.htm.

[3] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_Air_Force.

[4] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avia_B-534.

[5] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dewoitine_D.520.

[6] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarian_Air_Force.

[7] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museum_of_Hungarian_Aviation.

[8] Internet: http://www.ww2aircraft.net/forum/aircraft-pictures/hungarian-air-force-28890.html.

[9] Internet: http://comum.rcaap.pt/bitstream/123456789/1238/1/NeD110_SzaboMiklos.pdf.

[10] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Romanian_Air_Force.

[11] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAR_80.

[12] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAR_80.

[13] Internet: http://world.std.com/~ted7/minorafe.htm.

[14] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovak_Air_Force.

[15] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avia_B-534.

[16] The Slovak–Hungarian War or Little War (Hungarian: Kis háború, Slovak: Malá vojna), was a war fought from 23 March to 31 March/4 April 1939 between the First Slovak Republic and Hungary in eastern Slovakia.  Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovak%E2%80%93Hungarian_War.

[17] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avia_B-534.

[18] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[19] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnish_Air_Force.

[20] The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland which began with a Soviet offensive on 30 November 1939, two months after the start of the Second World War and the Soviet invasion of Poland, and ended on 13 March 1940 with the Moscow Peace Treaty. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the League on 14 December 1939.  Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_War.

[21] The Continuation War (25 June 1941 – 19 September 1944) was the second of two wars fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during the Second World War.  During this war, the Finnish side used the name to make clear its perceived relationship to the preceding Winter War.  The Soviet Union saw the war as a part of its struggle against Germany and its allies on the Eastern Front, or, as it was known in the Soviet Union, the Great Patriotic War.  Germany regarded its operations in the region as a part of its overall war efforts of the Second World War.  It provided critical material support and military cooperation to Finland.  Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuation_War.

[22] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caudron_C.714.

[23] Internet:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnish_Air_Force/

[24] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[25] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Iraqi_War.

[26] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[27] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Thai_Air_Force.

[28] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Thai_Air_Force.

[29] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_the_Philippines_during_World_War_II.

[30] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchukuo.

[31] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchukuo_Air_Force.

[32] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchukuo.

[33] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[34] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[35] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_the_Philippines_during_World_War_II.

[36] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Philippine_Republic.

[37] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[38] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[39] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[40] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[41] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[42] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[43] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[44] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[45] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[46] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[47] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[48] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[49] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[50] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[51] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[52] Internet: http://world.std.com/~ted7/minorafe.htm.

[53] The Croatian Air Force Legion (Croatian: Hrvatska Zrakoplovna Legija), or HZL, also known as the Croatian Legion, was a foreign volunteer unit of the Luftwaffe raised from volunteers drawn from the Independent State of Croatia which fought on the Eastern Front between 1941-1943 in the Second World War.  It was then absorbed by the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia and its surviving members fought back on Croatian soil.  The legion had approximately 360 men.  Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Croatian_Air_Force_Legion.

[54] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Force_of_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia

[55] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Force_of_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia.

[56] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[57] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[58] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_French_Air_Force.

[59] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_French_Air_Force.

[60] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsenal_VG-33.

[61] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloch_MB 150.

[62] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloch_MB_174.

[63] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breguet_695.

[64] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtiss_P-36_Hawk.

[65] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtiss_P-36_Hawk.

[66] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dewoitine_D.520.

[67] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lior%C3%A9-et-Olivier_LeO_45.

[68] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lior%C3%A9-et-Olivier_LeO_45.

[69] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Maryland.

[70] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Maryland.

[71] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morane-Saulnier_MS.406.

[72] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morane-Saulnier_M.S.406.

[73] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potez_63.11.

[74] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[75] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[76] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[77] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[78] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers.

[79] Internet: http://world.std.com/~ted7/minoraf.htm#scand.

[80] Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swedish_Air_Force.