Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Artillery - Canada, German First World War Trophies

German First World War Artillery preserved in Canada. 

This list is a condensed version of the list of German guns found within the lists of preserved Artillery found in the individual provinces of Canada listed on this website. 

Photos are by the author unless otherwise credited. 

Data current to 3 Oct 2019.

Cranbrook, British Columbia

 (City of Vanvouver Archives Photo, AM54-S4-: Mil P171)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), being removed from grounds of Legislature on 25 July 1941.

 (Dave Humphrey Photos)

 (BK-Hunters Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 19241).  This gun was captured by the 7th Battalion (1st British Columbia), 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) on 27 Sep 1918 near Marquion.  It is presently on display behind the Heritage Inn on Cranbrook Street, close to the entrance to the Canadian Legion.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7 cm FK 16) was a German field gun with a longer range than the FK 96 n.A.  The barrel is longer and the gun has a box carriage to allow for greater elevation, which increased the range.  It also has separate-loading ammunition to reduce powder consumption and barrel wear at short ranges, although this had the drawback of reducing the rate of fire compared to the older gun.  It was prematurely rushed into production in 1916 and early guns suffered from a number of defects, mainly stemming from the German use of substitute materials to reduce consumption of strategic metals.  It also suffered from a large number of premature detonations of its shells during 1916.

Esquimalt, British Columbia

 (John Eckersley Photos)

 (Author Photos, 29 Jan 2019_

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.) (Serial Nr. 595), with large wheels  This gun was captured by the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) at Cambrai, West of Neuville St. Remy, France on 29 September 1918.  It is on display in Memorial Park, 1200 Esquimalt Rd., Esquimalt.

Painting of Canadians capturing a German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.),  entitled "Taking the Guns", ca 1918, by Forunino Matania.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3636763)

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German First World War field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of World War I. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

 (Colin Wyatt Photo)

 (John Eckersley Photos)

 (Author Photos, 29 Jan 2019)

German First World War 7.7-cm Nahkampfkanone (7.7-cm NK) close support gun (Serial Nr. 9739).  These guns were minimal modifications of the standard gun to make it more suitable  as an infantry support gun.  They were often used as "silent" guns - heavily camouflaged guns which only went into action if the front line was breached during an attack. About the only changes made to the standard gun was to drop the lower part of the gun shield and the footrests of the axle tree seats as well as the smaller wheels.  Charlie Clelland.  This gun was captured by the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) at Vimy Ridge, La Folie Farm, France on 9 Oct 1917.  It was initially allocated to Cranbrook but is now on display in Memorial Park, 1200 Esquimalt Rd., Esquimalt..  They were made an official part of the war memorial in 1941.

 (Richard Laughton Photo)

Outstanding restoration of the two German First World War trophy guns at Esquimalt in 2015.

Kelowna, British Columbia

 (Al Dadds Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 2577), TBC, captured by the 7th Battalion (1st British Columbia)  2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) on 2 Sep 1918, West of Vilers-lez-Cagnicourt, France.  Okanagan Military Museum, 1424 Ellis Street in Kelowna.  The gun stands outside surrounded by pedestals topped with stones marking Battles of the First World War in which area residents gave their lives.  The stones are from the original Kelowna Cenotaph, replaced in the City Park several years ago.

Brooks, Alberta

 (Streetview Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16) Field Gun (Serial Nr. unknown), in front of the Royal Canadian Legion at 235 3rd Street West. 

Calgary, The Military Museums of Calgary, 4520 Crowchild Trail SW, Alberta

 (Terry Honour Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 1571), originally allocated to the town of Gleichen.

Edmonton, Land Forces Western Area Headquarters, CFB Edmonton, Alberta

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 929), M.3706 Kp, carriage 2361. This gun was captured by the 49th Battalion (Edmonton Regiment), 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) near Marquion, France on 27 September 1918.  No. 1 in front of LFWA HQ.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 4945), carriage No. 8246.  This gun was also captured by the 49th Battalion near Marquion, France on 27 September 1918.  No. 2 in front of LFWA HQ.

Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta

 (Internet Photo)

German Great War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 1251), captured by a Canadian Battalion within an Infantry Brigade, in the 2nd Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).  This gun stands beside the Royal Canadian Legion, Branch 9964 93rd Ave.

Frank, Alberta

 (Ian McKenzie Photos)

German First World War 10.5-cm leichtes Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5-cm leFH 98/09) Light Field Howitzer, (Serial Nr. 3392), no data, 1916.  This gun is part of a War Memorial located on the Crowsnest Highway, Route 3, Alberta, a few miles east of the divide in the small community of Frank.  The gun is flanked by two German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG08 Machineguns.

Lethbridge, Alberta

 (Kevin MacLean Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 12706), M.495, S.3588 no data.  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 4, 324 Mayor MaGrath Drive South.

 (Kevin McLean Photos)

German First World War 10-cm Kanone 17 (10-cm K 17) Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 160), Spandau, 1909, 1346 kg.m.V., missing its carriage.  This gun was captured by the 50th Battalion (Calgary), 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)  near the Marquion-Cambrai road Northwest of Raillencourt, France on 28 September 1918.  This gun stands at the east end of Henderson Lake on Oakside Dr S in Lethbridge.

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), captured by Canadians, Arras, France, Sep 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397947)

 (Kevin McLean Photos)

 (Valerie Christman Photo)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 1101), no data.  This gun also stands at the east end of Henderson Lake on Oakside Dr S in Lethbridge.

The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15 cm sFH 02) was a German heavy field howitzer introduced in 1903.  It was the first artillery piece to use a modern recoil system in the German Army. Some 416 were in service at the beginning of the war.  Its mobility, which allowed it to be deployed as medium artillery, and fairly heavy shell gave the German army a firepower advantage in the early battles in Belgium and France in 1914 as the French and British armies lacked an equivalent.

Peace River

 (wildwoodke Photo)

German First World War 7.7cm Infanteriegeschütze L/27 (7.7-cm IG L/27), (Infantry Gun), (Serial Nr. 9366), no data, mounted on an iron wheeled carriage.  This gun stands beside the Memorial Cairn. 

The 7.7cm IG (Infanteriegeschutz) L/27 was Krupp's third attempt at building an infantry support gun which could closely follow the infantry in attack and provide close support and anti-tank fire in defence.  The gun was extensively modified compared to the standard field gun.  From observation some of the changes are: 1. the wheel diameter was reduced to about 1m.  2. the wheel track was reduced by about 30cm.  3. the axle was moved back about 30cm.  4. no axle tree seats were fitted.  5. the gun shield was designed so it could be removed easily and was narrower.  6. the cover over the recuperator spring adjuster was enlarged and hinged (the barrel could be removed by unlocking the spur under the barrel from the recoil assembly).  7. the gunner's and loader's seat brackets were a different design so they could be quickly removed.  8. there are brackets at the end of trail which originally held a counterweight required because the gun unbalanced because the axle had been moved back.  9. the spade is a different profile.  Charlie Clelland.

Vermilion

 (Laura Gloor Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Infantriegeshutz L/27 (7.7-cm IG L/27), (Serial Nr. 9366), no data, mounted on an iron wheeled carriage.  This gun stands beside the Memorial Cairn.

The 7.7cm IG (Infanteriegeschutz) L/27 was Krupp's third attempt at building an infantry support gun which could closely follow the infantry in attack and provide close support and anti-tank fire in defence.  The gun was extensively modified compared to the standard field gun.  From observation some of the changes are: 1. the wheel diameter was reduced to about 1m.  2. the wheel track was reduced by about 30cm.  3. the axle was moved back about 30cm.  4. no axle tree seats were fitted.  5. the gun shield was designed so it could be removed easily and was narrower.  6. the cover over the recuperator spring adjuster was enlarged and hinged (the barrel could be removed by unlocking the spur under the barrel from the recoil assembly).  7. the gunner's and loader's seat brackets were a different design so they could be quickly removed.  8. there are brackets at the end of trail which originally held a counterweight required because the gun unbalanced because the axle had been moved back.  9. the spade is a different profile (TBC).  Charlie Clelland.

Redcliffe, Alberta

 (Clive Prothero-Brooks Photos)

German First World War 10.5-cm leichtes Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5-cm leFH 16), (Serial Nr. 12626).  This gun was captured by the 31st Battalion (Alberta), 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).  The gun is located beside the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 6 at 302 Broadway St E.

Stavely, Alberta

 (Clayton Gillespie Photos)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 1972).  This trench mortar was captured by the 46th Battalion (South Saskatchewan), 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) at Vimy Ridge on 9 April 1917.

Taber, Alberta

 (Ed Martin Photos)

German First World War 7.7cm Infanteriegeschütze L/27 (7.7-cm IG L/27), (Infantry Gun), (Serial Nr. 9383), no data.  This gun stands beside the town cenotaph, opposite the Royal Hotel. 

The 7.7cm IG (Infanteriegeschutz) L/27 was Krupp's third attempt at building an infantry support gun which could closely follow the infantry in attack and provide close support and anti-tank fire in defence.  The gun was extensively modified compared to the standard field gun.  From observation some of the changes are: 1. the wheel diameter was reduced to about 1m.  2. the wheel track was reduced by about 30cm.  3. the axle was moved back about 30cm.  4. no axle tree seats were fitted.  5. the gun shield was designed so it could be removed easily and was narrower.  6. the cover over the recuperator spring adjuster was enlarged and hinged (the barrel could be removed by unlocking the spur under the barrel from the recoil assembly).  7. the gunner's and loader's seat brackets were a different design so they could be quickly removed.  8. there are brackets at the end of trail which originally held a counterweight required because the gun unbalanced because the axle had been moved back.  9. the spade is a different profile (TBC).  Charlie Clelland.

Vermilion, Alberta

 (Terry Honour Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Infantriegeshutz L/27 (7.7-cm IG L/27), (Serial Nr. 9406), no data, beside Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 11 at 5144 Railway Ave.

Battleford, Saskatchewan

 (Maxwell Toms Photo)

German Great War 10.5-cm leichtes Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5-cm leFH 16), (Serial Nr. 16660), likely captured by a Canadian Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).  Battleford cenotaph.

 (Terry Honour Photo)

German Great War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW n.A.), (Serial Nr. 9194), captured by the 8th Battalion (90th Winnipeg Rifles), 2nd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Billet No. 10, Warvillers, France.  Originally allocated to Battleford this trecnh mortar is in the Fred Light Museum.

The 7.58 cm Minenwerfer a.A. (alter Art or old model) (7.58 cm leMW).  The Germans fielded a whole series of mortars before the beginning of the First World War.  Their term for them was Minenwerfer, literally mine-thrower; they were initially assigned to engineer units in their siege warfare role.  By the Winter of 1916-17, they were transferred to infantry units where the leMW's light weight permitted them to accompany the foot-soldiers in the advance.  In common with Rheinmetall's other Minenwerfer designs, the leMW was a rifled muzzle-loader that had hydraulic cylinders on each side of the tube to absorb the recoil forces and spring recuperators to return the tube to the firing position.  It had a rectangular firing platform with limited traverse and elevation.  Wheels could be added to ease transportation or it could be carried by at least six men.  In 1916, a new version, designated as the n.A. or neuer Art, was fielded that included a circular firing platform, giving a turntable effect, which permitted a full 360 degree traverse.  It also had a longer 16 inches (410 mm) barrel and could be used for direct fire between 0° and 27° elevation if the new 90 kg (200 lb) trail was fitted to absorb the recoil forces.  In this mode it was pressed into service as an anti-tank gun.

Estevan, Saskatchewan       

German First World War 7.7-cm FK 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.) Field Gun, May 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3403111)

German Great War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 8601) (no data).  Likely captured by a Canadian Battalion within an Infantry Brigade, in a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).

Fort Qu'appelle

  (Wilf Pyle Photos)

German Great War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 8482), no data.  Likely captured by a Canadian Battalion within an Infantry Brigade, in a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).

Indian Head

  

 (Wilf Pyle Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 6958), no data.  Likely captured by a Canadian Battalion within an Infantry Brigade, in a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).

Meota, Saskatchewan

Indian Head

  

 (Wilf Pyle Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 6958), no data.  Likely captured by a Canadian Battalion within an Infantry Brigade, in a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).

 (DHH Photo)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW n.A.), (Serial Nr. 31310).  This trench mortar was captured by the 1st Bn on 8 Aug 1918, ½ km NW of Beaufort, France.  It is located next to the cenotaph at 3rd Ave E and Beach St in Meota Regional Park.

Regina, Saskatchewan

  (City of Regina Archives, the Early Years, RPL Photo Collection)

 (Wilf Pyle Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), possibly (Serial Nr. 60), captured by the 46th Battalion (South Saskatchewan), 10th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on 1 Nov 1918 between Aulnoy and Valenciennes, France.  This gun stands on the left flank of the Soldier’s Cemetery cenotaph.

    (Wilf Pyle Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), possibly (Serial Nr. 2666) TBC, captured by the 46th Battalion (South Saskatchewan), 10th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on 1 Nov 1918 Northeast of Mount Houy, North of the Famars -Valenciennes Road, France.  This gun stands on the right flank of the Soldier’s Cemetery cenotaph.

Saltcoats, Saskatchewan

 (Floyd Davies Photos)

German Great War 10.5-cm leichte Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5-cm leFH 16), (Serial Nr. 4306), no data.  This gun was likely captured by a Canadian Battalion, within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF).  The leFH 16 is missing its wheels and is mounted on a concrete stand at the cenotaph.

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

 (Terry Honour Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), Trench Mortar, (Serial Nr. 16676), captured by a Canadian Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of the 2nd Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France ca. 1918.  It is preserved on its base plate in front of the Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 362, 3021 Louise Street.  This gun was originally allocated to Davidson, Saskatchewan.

 (Col Larry Wong Photos)

German Great War 15-cm Kanone 16 (15-cm K 16), (Serial Nr. 1034), no data.  This gun is missing its wheel carriage.  It is mounted on a barrel transporter carriage, and located in front of the Sgt Hugh Cairns VC Armoury, Idyllwild Avenue.

General Currie inspecting captured German Great War Naval Guns, ca 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photos, MIKAN No. 3397923)

Brandon, Manitoba

  (Ted Krasicki Photos)

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5-cm FH 98/09), (Serial Nr. 4864), captured by the 10th Battalion, 1st Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on 2 September 1918, SN.W. of Villers-lez-Cagnicourt, France.  This gun was then used by the 10th Bn against the enemy with open sights under Major Bingham.  This gun was moved from Birnie, Manitoba, to the 26th Field Artillery Museum.

The 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5 cm FH 98/09), a short barreled (1625-mm) 105-mm howitzer, also referred to as the 10.5-cm leichte Feldhaubitze (light field howitzer) 98/09, was used by Germany in the First World War and after.  It had a maximum range of 6,300 metres (20,700 ft).   It was originally built by Rheinmetall as the 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98, an old-fashioned, fixed-recoil weapon delivered to the German army in 1898; between 1902 and 1904, it was redesigned, by Krupp, with a new recoil mechanism and a new carriage.  However, it wasn't accepted for service until 1909, hence the ending designation 98/09. Existing weapons were rebuilt to the new standard.  As usual, two seats were attached to the gun shield.  There were 1,260 in service at the beginning of the First World War.

Carman, Manitoba

 (Photos courtesy of Cheryl Young)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 10726), captured by the 10th Battalion (Canadians), 1st Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on 2 September 1918 near Villers-lez-Cagnicourt, France.  The gun was then put into action against the enemy.  No. 1 on the West side of the Great War Memorial Hall.

 (Photos courtesy of Cheryl Young)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 15207), captured by the 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Cagnicourt Wood, France, 2 September 1918.  No. 2 on the East side of the Great War Memorial Hall.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7 cm FK 16) was a German field gun with a longer range than the FK 96 n.A.  The barrel is longer and the gun has a box carriage to allow for greater elevation, which increased the range.  It also has separate-loading ammunition to reduce powder consumption and barrel wear at short ranges, although this had the drawback of reducing the rate of fire compared to the older gun.  It was prematurely rushed into production in 1916 and early guns suffered from a number of defects, mainly stemming from the German use of substitute materials to reduce consumption of strategic metals. It also suffered from a large number of premature detonations of its shells during 1916.

Darlingford, Manitoba

German First World War 9.15-cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz, being examined by Canadians in France, May 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397824)

German First World War 9.15-cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz (Serial Nr. TBC), on the right in front of the town War Memorial.  This trench mortar was likely captured by a Canadian Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). 

The 9.15 cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz (Trench mortar) was a light mortar used by Germany and Austria-Hungary in the First World War.  It was a smooth-bore, breech-loading design that used smokeless propellant.  It was chosen by the Austrians as an interim replacement for their 9 cm Minenwerfer M 14, pending development of a superior domestic design, which eventually turned out to be the 9 cm Minenwerfer M 17.  The older Austrian design had a prominent firing signature, a less effective bomb and shorter range than the Lanz.  Over 500 were ordered with deliveries beginning in April 1917.

Neepawa, Manitoba

 (Internet Photo)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13, (15-cm sFH 13), (Serial Nr. 2790), Fried. Krupp.  This gun was captured by 10th Battalion (Canadians) and 14th Battalion (Royal Montreal Regiment, 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Cagnicourt, France, on 2 September 1918.  It is on display in front of Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 23.

The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15 cm sFH 13), was a German heavy field howitzer.  The gun was a development of the previous standard howitzer, the 15 cm sFH 02.  Improvements included a longer barrel resulting in better range and a gun shield to protect the crew.  Variants were: the original "kurz" (L/14 – 14 calibre short barrel version), the lg. sFH13 with a longer barrel; and lg. sFH13/02 with minor modifications to simplify wartime manufacture of the lg. sFH weapons. Initially there were serious issues of weak recoil spring mechanisms that would break, and gun barrel explosions.  The problems were solved with the upgrades.  The British referred to these and their shells as "5 point 9"s or "5 9"s as the bore was 5.9 inches (150 mm).  The ability of these guns to deliver mobile heavy firepower close to the frontline gave the Germans a major firepower advantage on the Western Front early in the First World War, as the French and British lacked an equivalent.  It was not until late 1915 that the British began to deploy their own 6 inch 26 cwt howitzer.  About 3,500 of these guns were produced from 1913 to 1918.

Pilot Mound, Manitoba

 (Photos courtesy of Jeannette Greaves)

The 7.58 cm Minenwerfer a.A. (alter Art or old model) (7.58 cm leMW).  The Germans fielded a whole series of mortars before the beginning of the First World War.  Their term for them was Minenwerfer, literally mine-thrower; they were initially assigned to engineer units in their siege warfare role.  By the Winter of 1916-17, they were transferred to infantry units where the leMW's light weight permitted them to accompany the foot-soldiers in the advance.  In common with Rheinmetall's other Minenwerfer designs, the leMW was a rifled muzzle-loader that had hydraulic cylinders on each side of the tube to absorb the recoil forces and spring recuperators to return the tube to the firing position.  It had a rectangular firing platform with limited traverse and elevation.  Wheels could be added to ease transportation or it could be carried by at least six men.  In 1916, a new version, designated as the n.A. or neuer Art, was fielded that included a circular firing platform, giving a turntable effect, which permitted a full 360 degree traverse.  It also had a longer 16 inches (410 mm) barrel and could be used for direct fire between 0° and 27° elevation if the new 90 kg (200 lb) trail was fitted to absorb the recoil forces.  In this mode it was pressed into service as an anti-tank gun.

Shilo, Royal Canadian Artillery Museum, The National Artillery Museum of Canada, CFB Shilo, Manitoba

German 7.68-cm trench mortars captured by Canadians, Apr 1917.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521829)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 32258), no data, on heavy metal base with ramp, handle intact, painted dark grey, mounted on a wheeled carriage.  New wheels and trail in 1988, weight in action 550 lbs.  Sent to CFB Shilo from the CME Museum, CFB Gagetown, New Brunswick in January 2013.  Originally allocated to Maillardville, Fraser Mills, British Columbia.

German 17-cm trench mortars captured by Canadians, Apr 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521845)

 (Maxwell J. Toms Photos)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. TBC).  Medium trench mortar mounted on an iron baseplate, no wheels.

 (Clive Prothero-Brooks Photos)

German First World War 24-cm Flügelminenwerfer ‘Iko’, Albrecht (finned smoothbore Trench Mortar), (Serial Nr. 339), no data.  This mortar was originally allocated to Lockport, West Selkirk, Manitoba.

In 1914 The German Army had three types of minenwerfer (mine throwers) used by their engineers to place a demolition charge against a fortification without exposing the men to enemy fire.  At that time, the British army did not have trench mortars, but quickly understood their value and began to develop an equivalent.  In mid-1915 the 3-inch Stokes mortar was accepted for service in the infantry.  The artillery operated a 2-inch medium "toffee apple" mortar and 9.45-inch heavy mortars.  The 2-inch mortar was replaced with the 6-inch Newton mortar in 1917.

German 7.7-cm FK 96 Field Gun captured by Canadians, Amiens, Aug 1918.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397896)

 (Clive Prothero-Brooks Photo)

German Great War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 3316), no data, originally allocated to Gleichen, Alberta.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of World War I. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

 (Clive Prothero-Brooks Photos)

German Great War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 3734), no data, originally allocated to Rockwood, Ontario.

CFB Borden, Base Borden Military Museum, Ontario

German First World War Granatenwerfer 16, Grenade Thrower Model F 1916, (Serial Nr. TBC).

German First World War 5-cm leichtes Granatwerfer 36 (5-cm leGrW 36), possibly (Serial Nr. 7310), TBC.

Brantford, Ontario

 (Balcer Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 22990), captured by the 18th Battalion, 2ndCanadian Division near Villers-lez-Cagnicourt, France, on 27 August 1918.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7 cm FK 16) was a German field gun with a longer range than the FK 96 n.A.  The barrel is longer and the gun has a box carriage to allow for greater elevation, which increased the range.  It also has separate-loading ammunition to reduce powder consumption and barrel wear at short ranges, although this had the drawback of reducing the rate of fire compared to the older gun.  It was prematurely rushed into production in 1916 and early guns suffered from a number of defects, mainly stemming from the German use of substitute materials to reduce consumption of strategic metals. It also suffered from a large number of premature detonations of its shells during 1916.

 (Balcer Photo)

 (JustSomePics Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), (Serial Nr. 373), TBC, captured by the 116th Battalion near Demuin, France, 8 August 1918.  This gun stands in Jubilee Park beside the Boer War Memorial.

The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15 cm sFH 13), was a German heavy field howitzer.  The gun was a development of the previous standard howitzer, the 15 cm sFH 02.  Improvements included a longer barrel resulting in better range and a gun shield to protect the crew.  Variants were: the original "kurz" (L/14 – 14 calibre short barrel version), the lg. sFH13 with a longer barrel; and lg. sFH13/02 with minor modifications to simplify wartime manufacture of the lg. sFH weapons. Initially there were serious issues of weak recoil spring mechanisms that would break, and gun barrel explosions.  The problems were solved with the upgrades.  The British referred to these and their shells as "5 point 9"s or "5 9"s as the bore was 5.9 inches (150 mm).  The ability of these guns to deliver mobile heavy firepower close to the frontline gave the Germans a major firepower advantage on the Western Front early in the First World War, as the French and British lacked an equivalent.  It was not until late 1915 that the British began to deploy their own 6 inch 26 cwt howitzer.  About 3,500 of these guns were produced from 1913 to 1918. 

 (Balcer Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 871), no data.  CMHM, originally allocated to Simcoe, Ontario.

The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15 cm sFH 02) was a German heavy field howitzer introduced in 1903.  It was the first artillery piece to use a modern recoil system in the German Army. Some 416 were in service at the beginning of the war.  Its mobility, which allowed it to be deployed as medium artillery, and fairly heavy shell gave the German army a firepower advantage in the early battles in Belgium and France in 1914 as the French and British armies lacked an equivalent.

Brockville, Ontario

 (Terry Honour Photo)

 (Cam Martel Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 2267), Kaiser Wilhelm I cypher, 1898 and 1907.  This gun was captured by the 2ndBattalion on 27 September 1918 on the Arras-Cambrai Road NorthWest of Raillencourt, France.  Brockville Armoury. 

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of the First World War. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

 (Terry Honour Photo)

 (Cam Martel Photo)

German First World War 15-cm Feldhaubitze 17 (15-cm FH 17), (Serial Nr. 2914), 1030, 22671 stamped on breech, serious battle damage on the barrel.  Kaiser Wilhelm I cypher, Fried. Krupp A.G, 1918.  This gun was also captured by the 2nd Battalion on 27 September 1918 on the Arras-Cambrai Road NorthWest of Raillencourt, France.  Brockville Armoury.

Caledonia

 (Lumbricus Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 48187), captured by the 7th Battalion (1st British Columbia), 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force, West of Villers-lez-Cagnicourt, France on 2 Sep 1918.  This trench mortar was placed in front of Royal Canadian Legion Branch 154, in 2016.

Chapleau, Ontario

 (Tim Laye Photo)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 33025), no data, AEG M1916, mounted on an iron wheeled carriage.

Coe Hill, Ontario

 (Terry Honour Photo)

 German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (Serial Nr. 7594), mounted on a round iron stand.  This trench mortar was captured at Vimy Ridge by the 78th Battalion on 9 Oct 1917.  It is located near the cenotaph in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 581 on Main Street

Collingwood, Ontario

 (Phil Radley Photo)

 (Tim Laye Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun, (Serial Nr.  3263), no data.

Cookstown, Ontario

 (Phil Radley Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW n.A.), (Serial Nr. 16214).  This trench mortar was captured by the 102nd Battalion near Beaucourt Wood, NW of Les Quesnel on 8 August 1918.  It is mounted on a round iron stand at the cenotaph.

Cornwall

 

 (Terry Honour Photo)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 33750), mounted on a round iron stand with wood wheels, inside the Cornwall Armoury.  This trench mortar was captured by the 2nd Division in France, ca. 1918.  It was originally allocated to RMC.

Durham, Ontario

 (JustSomePics Photos)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 1682), mounted on iron wheels, captured by the 13th Battalion.  City Park.

The 17 cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17 cm mMW).  This mortar was useful in destroying bunkers and field fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  It was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a standard hydro-spring recoil system. It fired 50 kilogram (110 lb) HE shells, which contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same calibre.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler. Furthermore, the low velocity allowed for the use of explosives like Ammonium Nitrate-Carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply.  This caused a large number of premature detonations that made crewing the minenwerfer riskier than normal artillery pieces.  A new version of the weapon, with a longer barrel, was put into production at some point during the war.  It was called the 17 cm mMW n/A (neuer Art) or new pattern, while the older model was termed the a/A (alter Art) or old pattern.  In action the mMW was emplaced in a pit, after its wheels were removed, not less than 1.5 meters deep to protect it and its crew.  It could be towed short distances by four men or carried by 17.  Despite its extremely short range, the mMW proved to be very effective at destroying bunkers and other field fortifications.  Consequently its numbers went from 116 in service when the war broke out to some 2,361 in 1918.

Essex

 (JustSomePics Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 452), 1905 (no data).

Finch

 (Terry Honour Photos)

German First World War 24-cm Flügelminenwerfer ‘Iko’, Albrecht (Serial Nr. 2715), 1917.  This trench mortar is located front of the Legion on Hwy 43 between Goldfield Road & Mainstreet.

Flesherton, Ontario

 (Phil Radley Photo)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW n.A.), Trench Mortar, (Serial Nr. 4449), AEG M1916.  This trench mortar was captured by the 54th Battalion at Vimy on 9 April 1917.  It is mounted on the right side of the cenotaph.  A German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 22278), captured by 50th Battalion near Dury, France, 2 Sep 1918 is mounted on the left side of the cenotaph.

Fordwich

 (Tim Laye Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 33912) TBC.  This trench mortar was captured by the 54th Battalion on 27 Sep 1918 at Bourlon Wood, France.  It is located on the west side of Patrick Street, just north of Water Street. 

Grand Bend, Ontario

 (Doug and Sandy Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), possibly (Serial Nr. 6170), TBC, mounted on wheels on a concrete stand, Centennial Park, on the SW corner of Main St and Ontario St. (Hwy 21).  

Guelph, Ontario

 (Balcer Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 101433). This gun is displayed next to the Guelph Armoury.

Haliburton

 (Tim Laye Photo)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 6839), captured by the 43rd Battalion on 8 Aug 1918 at Dod Wood, SW of Demuin, France.

Huntsville

 (Tim Laye Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. TBC), located at the Royal Canadian Legion, 168 Muskoka Rd South.

Innisfil

 (Tim Laye Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. TBC), Sandy Cove.

Kars, Ontario

German First World War 24-cm Flügelminenwerfer ‘Iko’, Albrecht, (Serial Nr. TBC), no markings.

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 13224), no wheels, missing parts.  This gun was captured by the 3rd Battalion on 27 Sep 1918 near the Arras-Cambrai Road, North of Bourlon Wood, France.  It was originally allocated to the Toronto Yacht Club.

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 neuer Art Field Gun, (Serial Nr. TBC).

Kettleby

 (Tim Laye Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 13278), no data.  This trench mortar is located beside the War Memorial at the entrance to Kettleby Cemetery on Kettleby Road.

Kingston, Ontario

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 8368), weight 6-0-0 (672 lbs) mounted on a pedestal.  This is a German Krupp gun that was captured by the 21st Battalion on 9 October 1917 at Vimy near the Les Tilleuls Crossroads.  Later, it was taken to the Royal Gun Factory in Woolwich, London.  There it was mounted on a Pedestal Mark I and sent back out into the field, where it was used by the 22nd Howitzer Battery.  A number of merchant ships were armed with these guns, but it may have been used for static defence at a coastal installation, or it may even have been mounted on a train car or back of a lorry.  It is located in Clarence Street Park on the grounds adjacent to St. George's Cathedral in downtown Kingston.  It is listed as an Ordnance QF 77-mm Gun Mk 1, 1917, No. 34, with King George V RI cypher.

L’Original, Ontario 

 (Alex Comber Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 5255).  Captured by the 3rd Battalion on 27 Sep 1919 near the Arras-Cambrai Road, North of Bourlon Wood.

Lucan

 (Internet Photo)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02) Heavy Field Howitzer.  (Serial Nr. 9), missing its wheels, mounted on concrete pylons in a city park.  This gun was captured by the 43rd Battalion on 8 Aug 1918 near Amiens in front of Vignette Wood, South of Demuin, France.

Lunenburg, Ontario

 (Cam Martel Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 6959), no data, Lunenburg Cemetery, just north of Long Sault.

Madoc, Ontario

 (JustSomePics Photo)

 (Maxwell Toms Photo)

 (Terry Honour Photo)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 1157).  Thomas Thompson Memorial Park, St Lawrence Ave E.

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 1157), TBC.  Thomas Thompson Memorial Park, St Lawrence Ave E.

Milton, Ontario

 (Bob Elliott Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 9563), L-7586, 1917.  This gun was captured by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Battalion, 1st Brigade of the 1st Canadian Division when the Canadian Corps crossed the Canal du Nord to take Bourlon Wood at Cambrai on 27 September 1918.  Canadian Military Heritage Museum. 

Morrisburg, Ontario

 (Cam Martel Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 2542), Kaiser Wilhelm I cypher.  This gun was captured by the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles on 26 August 1918 near Monchy, France.  It was put back into action by the 66th Battery CFA, NW of Monchy-le-Preux.  It stands beside the First World War Memorial in front of the South Dundas Justice Building.

 (Cam Martel Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 1323),  Kaiser Wilhelm I cypher, no data.  This gun stands beside the First World War Memorial in front of the South Dundas Justice Building.  (One 10.5-cm gun was allocated to Morrisburg; it is not one of these).

Mount Forest

 (Balcer Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 268).  There is no official record of this gun.  It is stamped R.268.  L.393.  AWDr. On the right side below the breech, and gef. 1898. Fr. Kp. abg. 1907. F.F.E. under the breech.

Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

 (Balcer Photos)

German First World War 10-cm Kanone 14 (10-cm K 14), (Serial Nr. 201), 1050 kg, 1916.  This gun was captured by the 7th Battalion, CEF, at Vimy on 13 April 1917.  It was initially allocated to Queenston, Ontario.  Located in the vicinity of Butler's Barracks, this gun has been removed for restoration.

Niagara Falls, Victoria Street Armoury and Museum

 (Balcer Photos)

German First World War 10.5-cm Kanone 17 (10.5-cm K 17), (Serial Nr. 39), 1918.  It was captured by the 3rd Battalion on 27 Sep 1918 near the Arras-Cambrai Road between Marquion and Raillencourt, France.    Niagara Military Museum previously located with D Company, Lincoln & Welland Regiment (Victoria Street) Armoury, 5049 Victoria Ave.

Norfolk, Ontario

 (Kanadaguy Photo)

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), (Serial Nr. 1930).  This gun was captured at Vimy Ridge by No. 9 Field Company, Canadian Engineers on 9 Oct 1917.

Omemee, Ontario

  (Terry Honour Photo)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), Trench Mortar on round stand with spoked wheels, (Serial Nr. 15867), stamped 6517, C177.  Captured by the 7th Battalion, West of Villers-les-Cagnicourt, 2 September 1918. 

Ottawa, Ontario, The Canadian War Museum

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 18328), AEG M1916, mounted on an iron carriage.  12 Can MG Coy on the box trail.

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 5160), AEG M1916, rifled, stamped 2108625, jk, 2660, 5169, mounted on wooden carriage wheels.  Captured by the 20th Battalion at the Cité St. Emile, North of Lens, France, on 15 August 1917.  This leMW n.A. is marked “captured and claimed by the 3rd Can TM” on the rotator/base plate (most likely the 3rd Canadian Trench Mortar Battery).

German First World War 5-cm leichtes Granatwerfer 36 (5-cm lGrW 36) (Serial Nr. unknown).

German First World War 5-cm leichtes Granatwerfer 36 (5-cm lGrW 36) (Serial Nr. unknown).

German First World War 9.15-cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz, captured at Vimy Ridge by the Canadians, being examined by Prince Arthur of Connaught May, 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397826)

 

German First World War 9.15-cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz, (Serial Nr. 4785JP).  Captured by the 18th Battalion at Vimy on 9 April 1917.

The 9.15 cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz (Trench mortar) was a light mortar used by Germany and Austria-Hungary in the First World War.  It was a smooth-bore, breech-loading design that used smokeless propellant.  It was chosen by the Austrians as an interim replacement for their 9 cm Minenwerfer M 14, pending development of a superior domestic design, which eventually turned out to be the 9 cm Minenwerfer M 17.  The older Austrian design had a prominent firing signature, a less effective bomb and shorter range than the Lanz.  Over 500 were ordered with deliveries beginning in April 1917.

German First World War 24-cm Flügelminenwerfer ‘Iko’, Albrecht, captured by Canadians. September, 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3797870)

German First World War 24-cm Flügelminenwerfer ‘Iko’, Albrecht, (Serial Nr. unknown), no markings.

 

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 204). Captured by the 72nd Battalion on 9 Oct 1917 near Vimy on the Sunken Road 250 yards SW of Givenchy, France.  This gun has a blown barrel.

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 13224), 1918, Krupp Ehrhardt, converted to QF 77-mm.  Captured by the 3rd Battalion near the Arras-Cambrai Road, North of Bourlon Wood, France, on 27 September 1918.  This gun is mounted on a British Naval/Coast Defence Mounting.

German First World War Beobachtungwagen für feldartillerie, Artillery Observation Wagen.

German First World War 8.8-cm L/30C U-boat Deck Gun from U-91, (Serial Nr. 1972), Fried. Krupp AG 1916, 488KG stamped on the breech, 1972L on the trunnion, 510 F.N. 532, 1972.0 on the barrel.  SM U-91 was a German First World War Type Mittel U submarine launched in 1917.  SM U-91 was one of the 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy (Kaiserliche Marine) during the First World War.  U-91 served with III Flotilla from 13 December 1917 to 11 November 1918.  During its service, this submarine conducted eight patrols and sank 37 ships and damaged two.  U-91 took part in the First Battle of the Atlantic and remained in service until it was surrendered to France on 26 November 1918.  U-91’s deck gun likely came to Canada before the submarine was broken up at Brest, France in July 1921.

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 877), no data, Fried Krupp AG, 1916.  1182 on the carriage.  This gun was originally allocated to Hamilton, Ontario.

German First World War 21-cm Mörser blown on its side from an explosion of a nearby ammunition dump destroyed by Canadian Artillery fire, Arras, Oct 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397960)

Canadian troops with captured German First World War 21-cm Morser.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3406014)

German First World War 21-cm Morsers being inspected by General Currie.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397919)

German First World War 21-cm Mörser Heavy Mortar damaged by shellfire, being examined by a Canadian Officer, May 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397820)

German First World War 21-cm Mörser Heavy Mortar damaged by shellfire, being examined by a Canadian Officer, May 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397825)

German First World War 21-cm Mörser, Vimy Ridge, captured by the 27th Bn, Aug 1917.  MIKAN No. 3397851)

German First World War 21-cm Mörser 1910 neuer Art Heavy Mortar, (Serial Nr. 679), Krupp AG, Essen, 1916.  Captured by the 18th Battalion.  Originally allocated to Hamilton, Ontario.

CFB Petawawa, Ontario

  

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 24717), no data.  Menin Road.  This gun is not listed in the official records.

Pelham

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 7862), captured by the 31st Battalion during a raid on Vitasse, France, 24 June 1918.

Petrolia

German First World War 7.7-cm FK16 (Nr. 11761), 1917, likely captured in France in 1918.  (Dave Johnstone Photos)

Port Hope, Ontario

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 291).  This gun was captured by the 116th Battalion North of Cambrai, France, on 29 September 1918.

Sault Ste Marie, Ontario

 (lp5324 Photo)

 (Terry Honour Photo)

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5-cm FH 98/09), (Serial Nr. 46), captured by the 3rd Battalion (Toronto Regiment), 1st Canadian Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Cambrai, France, 27 September 1918.  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 25.

Shelburne, Ontario

 (Balcer Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 435), no record.  This gun was originally allocated to Dufferin County, Ontario.  It stands beside the war memorial on Victoria Street, in front of the Police Station and Town Hall.

St. Catherine's, Ontario

Canadian soldier examining a German First World War 7.58-cm trench mortar, East of Arras, France, Aug 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3403179)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 1916), captured by the 5th Battalion at Vimy Ridge on 9 April 1917.  This trench mortar was originally allocated to Penetanguishene, Ontario.  Dennis Walker collection.

St. Catherine’s, Ontario, Ridley College

 (Carrie Houston Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 7981), no data.  Received by Ridley College on 7 Feb 1923.

Sturgeon Falls, Ontario

 (Leon Jensen Photo)

German First World War 10.5-cm leichtes Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5-cm leFH 16), (Serial Nr. 3264).  This gun was captured by the 102nd Battalion and 10th Battalion West of Bourlon Wood, France, on 27 September 1918.

Tavistock, Ontario

 (Terry Honour Photo)

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), (Serial Nr. 1846) above the trunnions left and right TBC.  This heavy trench mortar was captured by the 102nd Battalion on 9 Oct 1917 at Vimy Ridge.  Mounted in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 518, 223 Hope Street.

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), (Serial Nr. 1846) above the trunnions left and right TBC.  This heavy treanch mortar was captured by the 102nd Battalion on 9 Oct 1917 at Vimy Ridge.  Mounted in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 518, 223 Hope Street.

Thunder Bay, Ontario

 (Thunder Bay Museum Photo, when the gun was downtown)

 (Peter and Gloria Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), possibly (Serial Nr. 69), Mountain View Cemetery.

Trenton, Ontario

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 12490), 1918, downtown square near the bridge.

Uxbridge

 (Andre Blanchard Photo)

  

 (Robert Vincent Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 911), Fried Krupp.

Waterdown

 (Stinger503 Photos)

German First World War 10.5-cm leichtes Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5-cm leFH 16), (Serial Nr. 13733). 

Waterford, Ontario

 (JustSomePics Photos)

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), (Serial Nr. 1930), TBC.  This trench mortar was captured by the 9th Field Company, Canadian Engineers at Vimy Ridge on 9 April 1917.  Listed in the records as a 17-cm, it is on display as a High School Monument.

The 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer (German for "mine launcher"), often abbreviated as 25 cm sMW, was a heavy trench mortar developed for the Imperial German Army in the first decade of the 20th century.  It was developed for use by engineer troops for destroying bunkers and fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  The 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a hydro-spring type recoil system.  It fired either a 97 kg (210 lb) shell or a 50 kg (110 lb) shell, both contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same caliber.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler for the same weight shell.  The low velocity also allowed the use of explosives like ammonium nitrate–carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply at the time.  Shells filled with TNT caused a large number of premature detonations, making the Minenwerfer riskier for the gun crew than normal artillery pieces.  In service, the wheels were removed and the sMW was then placed in a pit or trench at least 1.5 meters (4 ft 11 in) deep, protecting the mortar and its crew.  Despite the extremely short range, the sMW proved to be very effective as its massive shells were almost as effective in penetrating fortifications as the largest siege guns in the German inventory, including the 42 centimeters (17 in) Dicke Bertha (Big Bertha), a howitzer that was more than 50 times the weight of the sMW.  The effectiveness of the sMW is indicated by the number in service, which increased from 44 when the war broke out, to 1,234 at its end.  In 1916, a new longer barrelled version was put into production.  This new model, which had a longer range, was designated the 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer neuer Art (German for "new pattern"), which was abbreviated as 25 cm sMW n/A.  The older, short-barrel model was then designated as the 25 cm sMW a/A (alter Art)(German for "old pattern").  Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25_cm_schwerer_Minenwerfer.

Windsor, Ontario

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), possibly (Serial Nr. 4451), captured by the 1st Battalion on 27 September 1918, East of Sainz-lez-Marquion.  Currently being restored at St Clair College.

 (Kevin Hodson Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), (Serial Nr. 125), TBC, salvaged by the 2nd Division Southeast of Bois de Bouche, near Cagnicourt by No. 2 Section, 1 CDAC.  It is now on display with the Essex and Kent Scottish Regiment at Sandwich Street.

The record on this sFH 13 states ‘salvaged’ rather than captured.  Likely damaged in counter-battery fire, Kevin Hodson guided the restoration and notes the breech block is severely jammed half-way and the firing pin still present, possibly indicating the crew didn’t have time to remove it before capture.  The gun crew was either incapacitated or already deceased.  The restorers at St Clair College tried extreme measures to free-up the block including heating the breech ring and applying an 18-ton hydraulic jack – to no avail.  Kevin concludes the crew simply abandoned it since it could no longer be fired.  It may have backfired and distorted the block; therefore the only way to remove it would have been to saw through the breech ring. 

This gun has been left it as is since it can tell history to other theorists. The gun was most likely involved in the 1st Battle of Cambrai, since that was a rather fierce exchange of fire, and the first one using tanks. There is evidence of battle damage on this piece that was taken care of by field repairs. These have been left intact for their historical significance – the trail frame had been bent and broken and then partially straightened and fixed by ‘scab’ plates with over 60 rivets.  The recoil mechanism cradle also was patched by in-field riveting.[3]

Wingham

 (JustSomePics Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 12602), 1917, in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 180, at 183 Victoria Street W.  This gun was captured  by the 10th Canadian Infantry Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force, during  the Battle of Drocourt-Queant on 2 August 1918.  It was given to the town of  Wingham as part of the post-First World War trophy redistribution  program. 

Woodbridge, Ontario

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 5803), captured by the 10th Battalion, 2nd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division at Cagnicourt Wood, France, 2 September 1918.  Woodbridge Tower Memorial, Canadian Military Heritage Museum.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 15-cm Feldkanone L/40 in Räderlafette Naval Gun on Field carriage, (Serial Nr. 4826), no data.  Originally allocated to Vaughn Township, Vellore.  Woodbridge Tower Memorial, Canadian Military Heritage Museum. 

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 15-cm Feldkanone L/45 in Räderlafette Naval Gun on Field carriage, (Serial Nr. 4693), Woodbridge Tower Memorial, Canadian Military Heritage Museum.

Kahnawake, Québec

 (Weathervane Photo)

German First World War 7.58-cm leMW n.A. (Serial Nr. unknown).  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade within a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force CEF, in France.  This trench mortar is mounted on top of the cenotaph.

Knowlton, Brome County Historical Society Museum, 120 Lakeside, Quebec.

German trench mortars of various calibres captured by Canadians, being examined by LGen Sir Julian Byng, after Vimy, May 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3213518)

German First World War Granatwerfer 16 spigot mortar (Serial Nr. unknown).

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), possibly (Serial Nr. 5001), captured by the 3rd Canadian Division.  On base, no wheels.

The 7.58 cm Minenwerfer a.A. (alter Art or old model) (7.58 cm leMW).  The Germans fielded a whole series of mortars before the beginning of the First World War.  Their term for them was Minenwerfer, literally mine-thrower; they were initially assigned to engineer units in their siege warfare role.  By the Winter of 1916-17, they were transferred to infantry units where the leMW's light weight permitted them to accompany the foot-soldiers in the advance.  In common with Rheinmetall's other Minenwerfer designs, the leMW was a rifled muzzle-loader that had hydraulic cylinders on each side of the tube to absorb the recoil forces and spring recuperators to return the tube to the firing position.  It had a rectangular firing platform with limited traverse and elevation.  Wheels could be added to ease transportation or it could be carried by at least six men.  In 1916, a new version, designated as the n.A. or neuer Art, was fielded that included a circular firing platform, giving a turntable effect, which permitted a full 360 degree traverse.  It also had a longer 16 inches (410 mm) barrel and could be used for direct fire between 0° and 27° elevation if the new 90 kg (200 lb) trail was fitted to absorb the recoil forces.  In this mode it was pressed into service as an anti-tank gun.

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. unknown), no base, no wheels.  352, G3298 (with an upside down 20 above).  Marked “captured by the 25th Battalion on 18 August 1917”.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), possibly (Serial Nr. 41214), marked H516, 2.0 MR, mounted on wheels.  Captured by 2nd Battalion (Canadian Mounted Rifles), 2nd Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF),

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 6043), 1917 M, captured ca 1918 by the 102ndBattalion (Central Ontario), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  The Official War Record lists this trench mortar as captured by the 10th Battalion, 1st Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in France.

The 17 cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17 cm mMW).  This mortar was useful in destroying bunkers and field fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  It was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a standard hydro-spring recoil system. It fired 50 kilogram (110 lb) HE shells, which contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same calibre.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler. Furthermore, the low velocity allowed for the use of explosives like Ammonium Nitrate-Carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply.  This caused a large number of premature detonations that made crewing the minenwerfer riskier than normal artillery pieces.  A new version of the weapon, with a longer barrel, was put into production at some point during the war.  It was called the 17 cm mMW n/A (neuer Art) or new pattern, while the older model was termed the a/A (alter Art) or old pattern.  In action the mMW was emplaced in a pit, after its wheels were removed, not less than 1.5 meters deep to protect it and its crew.  It could be towed short distances by four men or carried by 17.  Despite its extremely short range, the mMW proved to be very effective at destroying bunkers and other field fortifications.  Consequently its numbers went from 116 in service when the war broke out to some 2,361 in 1918.

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), damaged, no markings visible, possibly (Serial Nr. 1524), captured on 9 April 1917 by the 102ndBattalion (Central Ontario), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Vimy Ridge.

The 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer (German for "mine launcher"), often abbreviated as 25 cm sMW, was a heavy trench mortar developed for the Imperial German Army in the first decade of the 20th century.  It was developed for use by engineer troops for destroying bunkers and fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  The 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a hydro-spring type recoil system.  It fired either a 97 kg (210 lb) shell or a 50 kg (110 lb) shell, both contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same caliber.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler for the same weight shell.  The low velocity also allowed the use of explosives like ammonium nitrate–carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply at the time.  Shells filled with TNT caused a large number of premature detonations, making the Minenwerfer riskier for the gun crew than normal artillery pieces.  In service, the wheels were removed and the sMW was then placed in a pit or trench at least 1.5 meters (4 ft 11 in) deep, protecting the mortar and its crew.  Despite the extremely short range, the sMW proved to be very effective as its massive shells were almost as effective in penetrating fortifications as the largest siege guns in the German inventory, including the 42 centimeters (17 in) Dicke Bertha (Big Bertha), a howitzer that was more than 50 times the weight of the sMW.  The effectiveness of the sMW is indicated by the number in service, which increased from 44 when the war broke out, to 1,234 at its end.  In 1916, a new longer barrelled version was put into production.  This new model, which had a longer range, was designated the 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer neuer Art (German for "new pattern"), which was abbreviated as 25 cm sMW n/A.  The older, short-barrel model was then designated as the 25 cm sMW a/A (alter Art)(German for "old pattern").

 (Normand Roberge Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 8382), captured on 9 Oct 1918 by the 5th Battalion (Canadian Mounted Rifles), 8th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditonary Force (CEF), Cambrai, France.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of the First World War. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08 Machinegun, mounted on a Schlitten stand, (Serial Nr. 7290).

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Erfurt MG 08/15 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 7446).

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.92-mm Schwarzlose Osterreichische Waffen M07.12 MG, Machine Gun, (Serial Nr. 38761), unmounted.  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade, with a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.92-mm Spandau Maxim Luft Maschinen Gewehr 08/18 (LMG 08/18) air-cooled pair of machine-guns (Serial Nr. 883B),  and (Serial Nr. 921B), mounted on an original Fokker D.VII.

Lac Megantic, Québec

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 6502), no data.  This gun stands in a park facing the lake.

Lachute

German First World War 7.58-cm leMW n.A. (Serial Nr. 46643), TBC.  This guns stands in front of Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 70, 634 Rue Lafleur.

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. TBC), No. 1 of 2.

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. TBC), No. 2 of 2.

Lévis, Québec

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 1022).  This gun was captured by the 13th Battalion North of Aubercourt, France on 8 August, 1918. It stands outside the Armoury at 10 rue de l’Arsenal Lévis.

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 360), this gun was also captured by the 13th Battalion North of Aubercourt, France on 8 August 1918.  10 rue de l’Arsenal.

Montréal, Québec, Côte-des-Neiges Armoury

 

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer, (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 6219), 1917.  This trench mortar was captured on 8 August 1918 by the 16th Battalion 13th (Canadian Scottish), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Aubercourt, France.  On display outside the 3e batterie d’artillerie de Montréal Armoury, 4185 De la Côte-des-Neiges Ch.

Mont Saint Hilaire

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), (Serial Nr. 571), TBC.

New Carlisle, Québec

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 17391), captured on 29 Sep 1918 by the 42nd Battalion, 7th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on the Douai-Cambrai Road West of Tillby, France.

New Richmond

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 973), likely captured by a Battalion within a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditonary Force (CEF) serving in France in 1917-18.  The only record of the one that went to Carleton, Quebec, states that it arrived in 1921.

Québec City, Québec, La Citadelle

German First World War 21-cm Mörser captured by Canadians with the 13th Bn, Amiens, France, Aug 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397899)

 (James Simmonds Photos)

 (Jean Gagnon Photos)

 (Van Felt Photo)

 (Larry Dunn Photo)

Plains of Abraham Park, Québec City, Québec

  

No. 13.  German First World War German First World War 10.5 cm leichte Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5 cm leFH 16), (Serial No. 12826), also stamped M.1352, S.4276, Fr.  Kp.  1917.  The 10.5 cm leFH 16 was a field gun that shared the same carriage as the 7.7 cm FK 16.  This gun was captured 2 September 1918 by the 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Cagnicourt Wood, France.  A cannon ball is cemented in the muzzle.

No. 14.  German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 8899), Fr.  Kp.  1916.  This gun was captured on 27 Sep 1918 by the 87th Battalion (Canadian Grenadier Guards), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Bourlon, France.  A cannon ball is cemented in the muzzle.

No. 25.  German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 9742).  This gun was captured on 27 Sep 1918 by the 87th Battalion (Canadian Grenadier Guards), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Bourlon, France.  A cannon ball is cemented in the muzzle.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 10-cm Kanone 17 (10-cm K 17), (Serial Nr. 10), Kp, 1918 with a blown barrel (listed in the records as a 10.5-cm).  This gun was captured by the 42nd Battalion on 28 August 1918.

No. 26.  German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5-cm FH 98/09), (Serial Nr. 5051), Fr.  Kp. 1917.  This gun was captured ca 1918 by the 22nd Battalion (French Canadian), 5th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  A cannonball is cemented in the muzzle.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 473), TBC, near the site where General Wolfe fell.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 21-cm Mörser 1910 neuer Art Heavy Mortar, (Serial Nr. 85).    This gun was captured on 8 Aug 1918 by the 42nd Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), 7th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), SE of Demuin, France.  This gun has its barrel elevated and locked in the recoil position facing a large tree.  A cannonball is cemented in the muzzle.  The gun is located East of the Musée nationale des beaux-arts on the behind trees South of Avenue George VI on the Parcs des Champs-de-Bataille facing the river.

Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec, Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 14585).  This gun was captured on 27 Sep 1918 by the 87th Battalion (Canadian Grenadier Guards), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on the sunken road SW of Bourlon, France. 

Ce canon baptisé feldkanone 16 ou FK 16 apparut dans l’artillerie allemande en 1916, après que l’armée eut constaté les lacunes du modèle précédent, le FK 96 NA (feldkanone 96 neues Art). Ce premier modèle, apparu en 1896, ne possédait pas la portée des canons français équivalents, ce qui entraîna la nécessité de concevoir le FK 16. La pièce tirait divers type de projectiles : shrapnel, explosifs, fumigènes, éclairants, etc., d’un poids maximal de 6 kg, avec une portée maximale de 11 000 mètres (vs 7 000 mètres pour le FK 96). Après la Grande Guerre, ces canons furent les seules pièces d’artillerie que l’Allemagne fut autorisée à conserver. Ce modèle poursuivit sa carrière dans les années 20 et 30, étant recalibré en 75 millimètres, qui était le format courant des canons de campagne de la plupart des autres nations. Comme tel, ce canon servit encore dans des unités de second échelon et certains exemplaires participèrent même à la bataille de Normandie (Tubergue, 1985 : 996). L'exemplaire du Fort Saint-Jean montre de nombreux marquages, certains à peine discernables sous de nombreuses couches de peinture, la plupart difficiles à déterminer avec précision. On peut donc en conclure que ce canon fut construit, utilisé et capturé entre 1916 et la fin de la guerre en 1918.

Sayabec, Québec

 (Amqui Photo)

 (Weathervane Photos)

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5-cm FH 98/09), (Serial Nr. 2908).  This gun was captured on 9 Oct 1917 by the 27th Battalion (City of Winnipeg), 6th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near the edge of Farbus Wood at Vimy, France.  The gun was taken over by the 4th Howitzer Battery and used in action against the Germans.   It was on display in a park at Tournant-de-la-Rivière de Sayabec.  The gun was relocated to the Municipal Park in 1977.

Ce canon a été capturé des forces allemandes par le 27e Bataillon, le 9 octobre 1917, près du bois Farbus à la bataille de la crête de Vimy.  Allemand Première Guerre mondiale de 10,5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10,5 cm FH 98/09), (n ° de série 2908). Ce canon a été capturé par le 27e Bataillon le 9 octobre 1917 près du bois Farbus à Vimy. Le canon a été repris par la 4e batterie d'obusiers et utilisé dans la lutte contre les Allemands.

Saint-Agathe-des-Monts

 (Streetview Photo)

German Great War 24-cm Flügelminenwerfer ‘Iko’, Albrecht (finned smoothbore Trench Mortar), (Serial Nr. 1351), no data.  This trench mortar was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in France.  It is mounted on a concrete stand at the corner of Rue St Joseph and Rue Leblanc.

Saint-Jérôme

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr.  3743) TB), No. 1 in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 190, 940 Rue du Souvenir.

Terrebonne, Québec

 (Canalblog Photo) 

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW n.A.), Trench Mortar, (Serial Nr.  305), no data.

CFB Valcartier, Québec

 (James Simmonds Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), (Serial Nr. 1098), 1916, 788 M.V.  This gun was captured on 27 Aug 1918 by the Royal 22nd Regiment, 5th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Cherisy, France.  This gun is on display beside the Garrison Officer’s Mess.  The barrel of the gun is in the recoil position.

The 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), was a German heavy field howitzer.  The gun was a development of the previous standard howitzer, the 15 cm sFH 02.  Improvements included a longer barrel resulting in better range and a gun shield to protect the crew.  Variants were: the original "kurz" (L/14 – 14 calibre short barrel version), the lg. sFH13 with a longer barrel; and lg. sFH13/02 with minor modifications to simplify wartime manufacture of the lg. sFH weapons. Initially there were serious issues of weak recoil spring mechanisms that would break, and gun barrel explosions.  The problems were solved with the upgrades.  The British referred to these and their shells as "5 point 9"s or "5 9"s as the bore was 5.9 inches (150 mm).  The ability of these guns to deliver mobile heavy firepower close to the frontline gave the Germans a major firepower advantage on the Western Front early in the First World War, as the French and British lacked an equivalent.  It was not until late 1915 that the British began to deploy their own 6 inch 26 cwt howitzer.  About 3,500 of these guns were produced from 1913 to 1918.

Campbellton, New Brunswick.

German First World War 7.7-cm FK 96 captured by Canadians, Battle of Amiens, Aug 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397896)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 2402), no data, No. 2 position.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of the First World War. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

Chipman, New Brunswick

 

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), trench mortars, 9.15-cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz, 7.68-cm trench mortar, and spigot mortars captured by Canadians, Apr 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521871)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), trench mortar captured by Canadians, Apr 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521845)

 

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 7095), H, 2, 1918.  This trench mortar was captured on 8 Aug 1918 by the 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Aubercourt, France.  The weapon is mounted on an iron-wheeled carriage in the Community Park on Main Street.

The 17 cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17 cm mMW).  This mortar was useful in destroying bunkers and field fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  It was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a standard hydro-spring recoil system. It fired 50 kilogram (110 lb) HE shells, which contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same calibre.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler. Furthermore, the low velocity allowed for the use of explosives like Ammonium Nitrate-Carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply.  This caused a large number of premature detonations that made crewing the minenwerfer riskier than normal artillery pieces.  A new version of the weapon, with a longer barrel, was put into production at some point during the war.  It was called the 17 cm mMW n/A (neuer Art) or new pattern, while the older model was termed the a/A (alter Art) or old pattern.  In action the mMW was emplaced in a pit, after its wheels were removed, not less than 1.5 meters deep to protect it and its crew.  It could be towed short distances by four men or carried by 17.  Despite its extremely short range, the mMW proved to be very effective at destroying bunkers and other field fortifications. Consequently its numbers went from 116 in service when the war broke out to some 2,361 in 1918.

Grand Falls, New Brunswick

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 8283).  This FK 96 was captured on 27 Aug 1918 by the 25th Battalion (Nova Scotia Rifles), 5th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Moon Quarry near Cherisy, France.  Main Street, City Park.

Hopewell Cape, New Brunswick

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 784), no data.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

German First World War 10-cm Kanone 14 (10-cm K 14), (Serial Nr. 590), 1917.  This rare K 14 was captured on 9 April 1917 by the 27th Battalion (City of Winnipeg), 6th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Farbus near Vimy, France. 

A plaque fixed to the gun states, “This German Gun No. 590 captured in the World War by the 26th Battalion recruited in this province was won by the citizens of Albert County, New Brunswick in the Victory Loan competition of 1919.  Henry L.  Drayton, Minister of Finance.”

The 26th Canadian Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force (also known as the 26th (New Brunswick) Battalion, CEF) was composed of volunteers from the province of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and the Gaspé Peninsula.  This unit was authorized on 7 November 1914 and embarked for Britain on 15 June 1915.  It arrived in France on 16 September 1915, where it fought as part of the 5th Infantry Brigade, Second Canadian Division in France and Flanders until the end of the First World War.  It participated in all of the major battles in which the Canadian Corps was involved.  The battalion was disbanded on 30 August 1920.  The battle honours for the 26th (New Brunswick) Battalion, CEF are held by the Royal New Brunswick Regiment.

Perth-Andover, New Brunswick

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 4095), no data, Fr.Kp., 5012.  M.  Kp., 4598.  S.  BNA 18.  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 36.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, New Brunswick

German First World War Granatenwerfer 16 spigot mortar with 2 kg fin-stabilized grenade mounted on the spigot (Serial Nr. TBC).  The sheet metal stabilizing fins caused a tell-tale whirring sound and could be fired out to 300 metres.  The grenade had a very sensitive fuze which caused it to detonate on the surface causing more damage than it would by penetrating into the ground in a crater.

Woodstock, New Brunswick

 (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3636763)

Painting of Canadians capturing a German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.),  entitled "Taking the Guns", ca 1918, by Forunino Matania.

 

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 2398), no data.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  In July 1920, T. W. Caldwell, MP for Carleton-Victoria, secured this Gun from the Government of Canada for Woodstock.  It was placed on the county lot in front of the Courthouse in a dedication ceremony on 7 Nov 1921.  It was taken into the 89th Field Battery's Major J.D. Winslow Armoury in 2012, and underwent an extensive restoration.  Kings Landing built a new set of wooden wheels to the specifications of the originals.  This involved an extensive search for the right wood, which was eventually found in Nova Scotia.  BID in Woodstock sandblasted the metal parts and repainted the gun in standard grey, the colour chosen for all non-Allied weapons on display.  The gun was placed on a freshly poured concrete pad donated by Keenan Construction in Bedell, at its display site in front of the Carleton County Courthouse on 31 Oct 2017. 

Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), captured by Canadians East of Arras, France, Sep 1918. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397938)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 16634), 2047, 1733, 799, 111, and 1686, mounted on iron wheels inside the Armoury.  This trench mortar was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of a Brigade with a Canadian Division in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in France.  It came to PEI in 1920 as part of the War Trophies Act.  It stood in the Mount Stewart Cemetery until it was donated to the museum in 2008, and now stands inside the armoury.

The 7.58 cm Minenwerfer a.A. (alter Art or old model) (7.58 cm leMW).  The Germans fielded a whole series of mortars before the beginning of the First World War.  Their term for them was Minenwerfer, literally mine-thrower; they were initially assigned to engineer units in their siege warfare role.  By the Winter of 1916-17, they were transferred to infantry units where the leMW's light weight permitted them to accompany the foot-soldiers in the advance.  In common with Rheinmetall's other Minenwerfer designs, the leMW was a rifled muzzle-loader that had hydraulic cylinders on each side of the tube to absorb the recoil forces and spring recuperators to return the tube to the firing position.  It had a rectangular firing platform with limited traverse and elevation.  Wheels could be added to ease transportation or it could be carried by at least six men.  In 1916, a new version, designated as the n.A. or neuer Art, was fielded that included a circular firing platform, giving a turntable effect, which permitted a full 360 degree traverse.  It also had a longer 16 inches (410 mm) barrel and could be used for direct fire between 0° and 27° elevation if the new 90 kg (200 lb) trail was fitted to absorb the recoil forces.  In this mode it was pressed into service as an anti-tank gun.

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW),  captured by Canadians, April 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521871)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 848), stamped Rh.M.F. 1916.  This trench mortar was captured on 8 Aug 1918 by the 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) near Aubercourt, France.  Originally allocated to Stamford, Ontario, this mMW was collected by Tom Skelding, held at the Armour School, CFB Gagetown for a number of years, and donated to the PEIR in 2013.  It is currently on display outside the Armoury.

Kensington, Prince Edward Island

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), captured by Canadians, Battle of Amiens, Aug 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397897)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), War Prize, 1918.  (City of Vancouver Archives Photo, AM54-S4-: Gr War P42)

 

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 86), A.G. Essen, 1904.  This sFH 02 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  It was originally allocated to Charlottetown.  The sFH 02 is on display outside the Kensington Veteran’s Memorial Military Museum, next to Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 9.

The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15 cm sFH 02) was a German heavy field howitzer introduced in 1903.  It was the first artillery piece to use a modern recoil system in the German Army. Some 416 were in service at the beginning of the war.  Its mobility, which allowed it to be deployed as medium artillery, and fairly heavy shell gave the German army a firepower advantage in the early battles in Belgium and France in 1914 as the French and British armies lacked an equivalent.

Lennox Island, Prince Edward Island

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 captured by Canadians, Arras, France, Aug 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397953)

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 captured by Canadians, at Vis en Artois, France, Sep 1918.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3395608)

 

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5-cm FH 98/09), (Serial Nr. 223), Rh MF, 1911.  This gun was captured ca 1918 by the 27th Battalion (City of Winnipeg), 6th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  This FH 98/09 was originally allocated to Grand River.  It is on display next to the cenotaph facing the waterfront.

The 10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5-cm FH 98/09), a short barreled (16.25 cm) 105-mm howitzer, also referred to as the 10.5 cm leichte Feldhaubitze (light field howitzer) 98/09, was used by Germany in the First World War and after.  It had a maximum range of 6,300 metres (20,700 ft).   It was originally built by Rheinmetall as the 10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98, an old-fashioned, fixed-recoil weapon delivered to the German army in 1898; between 1902 and 1904, it was redesigned, by Krupp, with a new recoil mechanism and a new carriage.  However, it wasn't accepted for service until 1909, hence the ending designation 98/09. Existing weapons were rebuilt to the new standard.  As usual, two seats were attached to the gun shield. There were 1,260 in service at the beginning of the First World War.

Montague

Possible German First World Minenwerfer mounted on steel wheels (Serial Nr. TBC), beside the cenotaph in front of the Royal Canadian Legion at 15 Douses Road.

Mount Stewart

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09, captured by the 17th Battery C.F.A. and put into action firing on the retreating Germans during the Battle of Vimy Ridge.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3194730)

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09, captured by the 17th Battery C.F.A. and put into action firing on the retreating Germans during the Battle of Vimy Ridge.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521875)

 (Alex Comber Photo)

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09, (Serial Nr. 438).  This gun was captured on 27 Sep 1918 by the British 11th (Northern) Division "Imperials", operating with the Canadian Expeditionary Force, SW of Epinoy, France.  The FH 98/09 was originally allocated to Charlottetown, it is now located beside the cenotaph at Mount Stewart, PEI, missing its wheels.  The Gunner's shield shows evidence of penetration.

Summerside, Prince Edward Island

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16).  (Bundesarchiv Bild 102-11934, Reichswehr)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 13820).  This gun was captured on 29 Sep 1918 by the 25th Battalion (Nova Scotia Rifles), 6th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Moon Quarry near Cherisy, France.  No. 1 of 2 German guns in the Memorial Park.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7 cm FK 16) was a German field gun with a longer range than the FK 96 n.A.  The barrel is longer and the gun has a box carriage to allow for greater elevation, which increased the range.  It also has separate-loading ammunition to reduce powder consumption and barrel wear at short ranges, although this had the drawback of reducing the rate of fire compared to the older gun.  It was prematurely rushed into production in 1916 and early guns suffered from a number of defects, mainly stemming from the German use of substitute materials to reduce consumption of strategic metals.  It also suffered from a large number of premature detonations of its shells during 1916.

German First World War 10.5-cm leichtes Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5-cm leFH 16).  (Bundesarchiv Bild 102-10041), and (Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1998-009-15)

German First World War 10.5-cm leichtes Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5-cm leFH 16), (Serial Nr. 7419).  This leFH 16 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade with a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in France.  No. 2 of 2 German guns in Memorial Park.

Black River, Nova Scotia

  

 (Don Miles Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16.), (Serial Nr. 376), captured on 27 Sep 1918 by the 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada) 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), East of Sains-lez-Marquion, SE of Demain, France.  Originally allocated to Hamilton, Ontario, this gun stood in Windsor until it deteriorated and was disposed of.  It was rescued and refurbished with wagon wheels and now stands on the front lawn of Major (Ret'd) Don Miles at Black River, just South of Windsor, Nova Scotia.

Kelly Hancock advises that "54th CDN" (Kootenays) is inscribed on top of the gun barrel.  This would be the 54th Battalion (Kootenay), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, CEF.

The gun's trail data plate records the date of manufacture as 1918.   According to Don Miles, at some point the gun was removed from Fort Edward and displayed at the King's College School for Boys in Windsor. Sometime around 1945-47, the boys rolled it down a hill as a Halloween prank.  It got away from them and careened straight thru the side of a barn!   Don stated that at that time a wheel was sheared off and it likely sustained the damage visible on the left seat back/armour plate.  Apparently it ended up in an old gypsum sinkhole in the woods behind the school.

Bridgewater, Nova Scotia

German First World War 7.7-cm leichte Feldhaubitze 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), possibly (Serial Nr. 1638), TBC, no data.

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Army Museum

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 18351), 213.  This trench mortar was captured on 26 Aug 1918 by the 19th Battalion, 4th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Guemappe, France.

Shelburne

 (Ivan Smith Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun, (Serial Nr. 18251).  There is a six-point star in a circle.  The gun is also stamped  M753 AB, G. S7422 k.p (2), 1918.  A.B. TgL. Sp 48 (OR Cp 48). 18251.R.  No data.  This weapon was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  It was allocated to Shelburne in 1920 and stands beside the war memorial.

Sydney

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer, (17-cm mMW), possibly (Serial Nr. 1078), TBC, captured by the 43rd Battalion on 8 August 1918 at Dodo Wood SW of Demuin, France.

Bay Roberts, Newfoundland

(Maxwell J. Toms Photo)

 (Terry Honour Photos)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), medium trench mortar (Serial Nr. unknown).

Bonavista, Newfoundland

 (Terry Honour Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), Field Gun (Serial Nr. unknown), in front of the courthouse.  Rebuilt in 2007 by Jim Steinhauer and Nelson Sherren.  The gun has new wheels and was cleaned and the metal work was restored and painted with epoxy paint.  According to a "Report of Disposition of War Trophies to 19 February 1921 (Journal of the House of Assembly of Newfoundland)", a captured German Field Gun (likely an FK 96) was sent to Bonavista on 31 Dec 1920.  This is most likely the same gun.

Botwood, Newfoundland

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), Trench mortars and other German guns captured by Canadians, Cambrai, Nov 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397968)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), medium trench mortar (Serial Nr. unknown).

Burgeo

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer, (17-cm mMW), medium trench mortar (Serial Nr. unknown), standing in front of the local museum at 6 Centennial Rd.

Carbonear, Newfoundland

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. TBC), Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 23.

Carbonear, Newfoundland

Canadian soldier examining a German First World War 7.58-cm leMW trench mortar as German prisoners carrying their wounded pass by him during the advance East of Arras, France, Aug 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3403179)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW n.A.), (Serial Nr. unknown), Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 23.   (Alan Cass Photos)

This leMW n.A Minenwerfer was donated to the community of Carbonear in 1921 as part of the distribution of War trophies given Newfoundland by government of Great Britain.  It stood in front of the Court House, later the Town Hall, on Musgrave Street.  At some point it was disposed of as scrap to the current owner.  He has displayed it in front of his house on White's Road for many years, minus its wheels.  (JHA 1922 appdx. p.152).  (Alan Cass, Carbonear Historical Society)

Catalina, Newfoundland

 (Joyce Sherren Photo)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer, (17-cm mMW), medium trench mortar (Serial Nr. unknown). 

Grand Falls, Newfoundland

According to a "Report of Disposition of War Trophies to 19 February 1921 (Journal of the House of Assembly of Newfoundland)", a captured German Field Gun (likely an FK 97), (Serial Nr. unknown), was sent to Grand Falls on 31 Dec 1920.  This gun may still be there, location and confirmation to be determined.

Harbour Buffet, Newfoundland

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. TBC).

Harbour Grace

 (Terry Honour Photos)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), medium trench mortar (Serial Nr. 7417), embedded in a concrete base.

Placentia, Newfoundland

  (Anita O'Keefe Photos)

 (Tom O'Keefe Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art Field Gun (Serial Nr. 3690), R, D.  Restored by the Highways Department with all metal wheels.  According to a "Report of Disposition of War Trophies to 19 February 1921 (Journal of the House of Assembly of Newfoundland)", a captured German Field Gun (likely an FK 96) was sent to Placentia on 31 Dec 1920.

Spaniard's Bay, Newfoundland

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. unknown).  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 32.

Stephenville Crossing, Newfoundland

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), (Serial Nr. TBC.  Flat Bay, Stephenville Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 38.

St. Georges

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. TBC), Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 38.

St. John’s, Pleasantville, Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 56, St. John’s

(Author photo ca. 1971)

German First World War 10-cm Kanone 17 Field Gun (10-cm K 17), (Serial Nr. unknown), field gun in Bannerman Park.  This Gun has had its wheels replaced and has been restored four times by Nelson Sherren.   

10-cm Kanone 17 Field Gun (10-cm K 17), (Serial Nr. unknown), field gun in Bannerman Park.  This Gun has had its wheels replaced and has been restored four times by Nelson Sherren.   (Author photo ca. 1971)

 (Author photo ca 1971)

German First World War 10-cm Kanone 17 (10-cm K17), (Serial Nr. unknown), field gun in Victoria Park.  The trail has been cut off and the forward part of the gun rests on a concrete stand with a plaque. 

St. John’s, Pleasantville, Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 56, St. John’s

 (Steve Cooney Photo)

 (Author Photo)

 (elyob Photos)

 (Terry Honour Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), (Serial Nr. 2634), heavy field howitzer.  This sFH 13 stands in front of the Legion.  Originally No. 1 of 2, previously in front of the Colonial Building.

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 Heavy Field Howitzer (Serial Nr. unknown).  Originally No. 2 of 2, previously in front of the Colonial Building, this gun has been lost in a landfill. 

The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), was a German heavy field howitzer.  The gun was a development of the previous standard howitzer, the 15-cm sFH 02.  Improvements included a longer barrel resulting in better range and a gun shield to protect the crew.  Variants were: the original "kurz" (L/14 – 14 calibre short barrel version), the lg. sFH13 with a longer barrel; and lg. sFH13/02 with minor modifications to simplify wartime manufacture of the lg. sFH weapons. Initially there were serious issues of weak recoil spring mechanisms that would break, and gun barrel explosions.  The problems were solved with the upgrades.  The British referred to these and their shells as "5 point 9"s or "5 9"s as the bore was 5.9 inches (150 mm).  The ability of these guns to deliver mobile heavy firepower close to the frontline gave the Germans a major firepower advantage on the Western Front early in the First World War, as the French and British lacked an equivalent.  It was not until late 1915 that the British began to deploy their own 6 inch 26 cwt howitzer.  About 3,500 of these guns were produced from 1913 to 1918.

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. TBC)Royal Artillery Park Museum, preserved by Gordon Stamp, 166th (Newfoundland) Field Artillery Regiment.

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. TBC), Royal Artillery Park Museum, also preserved by Gordon Stamp.

Trinity, Newfoundland

(Jim Miller Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art Field Gun (Serial No. 7661).  Rebuilt in 2007 by Jim Steinhauer and Nelson Sherren.  The gun has new wheels, was cleaned and the metal work restored and painted with epoxy paint.  According to a "Report of Disposition of War Trophies to 19 February 1921 (Journal of the House of Assembly of Newfoundland)", a captured German Field Gun (likely an FK 97) was sent to Trinity on 31 Dec 1920.  This is most likely the same gun, Serial Nr. to be confirmed. (Jim Miller Photos)

Dawson City, Yukon Territory

 (Sandy Watson Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 1169).  This gun was captured on 8 Aug 1918 by the 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Aubercourt, France. The gun is No. 1 of 2 Guns in front of the cenotaph at Victory Gardens.

(Sandy Watson Photos)

German First World War 10.5-cm leichtes Feldhaubitze 16 (10.5-cm leFH 16), (Serial Nr. 6562), no data. The gun is apparently equipped with the shield from an sFH13. This weapon was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France. The gun is No. 2 of 2 Guns in front of the cenotaph at Victory Gardens.  

Whitehorse, Yukon Territory

 

 

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16) Field Gun (Serial Nr. 7414).  This gun was captured on 27 Sep 1918 by the 102nd Battalion (Central Ontario), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), West of Bourlon Wood, during the battle of Canal du Nord, France.  The gun was originally allocated to Dawson City.  This gun is located 13 km SE of Whitehorse at the Cadet Camp by Mary Lake.   (Photos courtesy of LCol Bruce Kiecker)

 

 

  (LCol Bruce Kiercker Photos)
German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), Medium Trench Mortar (Serial Nr. 5270).  This medium trench mortar was captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in the 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  It was originally allocated to White Horse.  This trench mortar is located 13 km SE of Whitehorse at the Cadet Camp by Mary Lake.

I would imagine that many of you who are reading this book are very likely familiar with the standard routine of military training exercises and the rigours of being in the field in all seasons, not to mention the conditions found on deployment these days. Whether or not you have experienced it, I am sure you can well imagine what it is like to train and work in the heat, the dust and the mosquitoes in summer, the wind, the rain and the mud in the spring and fall, the snow and the cold in the winter and of course the routine day-to-day challenges of combat exercises in the training areas of the Canadian Forces. For most in the Army, this includes CFB Gagetown, CFB Valcartier, CFB Petawawa, CFB Kingston, CFB Shilo, CFB Edmonton, CFB Wainwright, CFB Suffield and all the fields and exercise areas of LFAATC Aldershot and LFCATC Meaford and their environs.

As an Army Officer in the Canadian Forces, it has been my privilege to have served alongside a tremendous number of highly professional military men and women of our nation while taking part in training in Germany, the UK and the USA and while on operational deployments to Cyprus, Bosnia-Herzegovina and in Afghanistan. During my training and military professional development, I have learned much about our long military history. My interest in our multi-faceted historical record has led me to write about it and to seek out the stories about Canada's military servicemen and women and the tools and equipment they used to preserve our security when warclouds darkened our horizons.

As a military history enthusiast, I have learned over the years that there are many with similar interests in preserving our story. We have all seen the odd old gun or retired tank placed on display outside a Militia Drill Hall, War Memorial, city park site or Royal Canadian Legion Hall, and many will have enjoyed visiting a number of our military Museums. The vast majority of retired wartime combat equipment used by members of the CF have dwindled in number, many being scrapped, others being shot up as targets, while a few have been sold to overseas operators and collectors. Fortunately, a handful of important examples of retired CF guns and war machines have been preserved and may be found in a wide variety of locations throughout Canada.

Curators, docents and volunteers working in Canada's military museums have been successful in preserving a good number of retired military weapons of war and many are still being sought after and in some cases, being restored to running condition again. As an artist, photographer and military history enthusiast, I have attempted to keep track of where historic Canadian military equipment has survived and is presently located and to make that information available to others with the same interest. For those of like mind, the purpose of this handbook is to provide a simple checklist of the classic Great War and WWII artillery that is part of our military heritage and a location guide to where they can be found in Canada. The book includes a number of photographs to illustrate an example of each gun wherever possible, and lists the locations of the survivors by province.

The numbers of restored Canadian guns is actually increasing as a few rare examples are being recovered from scrapyards and monument sites and salvaged for restoration. (Ultra rare items such as Skink AA gun turrets come to mind). One of the aims of this book is to help an enthusiast track down these monuments and museum artefacts and to have a simple reference book on hand with more detailed information about them such as a serial number, a Museum location and contact information which might be helpful in learning a bit of the history of a particular vehicle. The guns detailed in this handbook are listed alphabetically by manufacturer, number and type in the order that they came into service with the CF. The data is also appended with a list of most of the current guns found in the various collections and Museums in Canada. The book is also meant to serve as a companion volume to "Ironsides", Canadian Tanks and Armoured Fighting Vehicle Museums and Monuments, also available online.

It is my sincere hope that more of the guns and artillery found in this list will one day be added to the record of historically important military armament survivors that have been recovered and restored.


Shelldrake can be ordered online in softcover or e-book at these bookstores:

http://www.amazon.ca/Shelldrake-Canadian-Artillery-Museums-Monuments/dp/1469750007/ref=sr_1_44?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1331231081&sr=1-44

http://www.amazon.com/Shelldrake-Canadian-Artillery-Museums-Monuments/dp/1469750007/ref=sr_1_45?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1331231130&sr=1-45

http://bookstore.iuniverse.com/Products/SKU-000542288/Shelldrake.aspx

http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/shelldrake-harold-a-skaarup/1109124375?ean=9781469750002&itm=46&usri=harold+skaarup 

Photos and technical data on artillery preserved in Canada may be viewed by Province on seprate pages on this website.