Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Artillery preserved in Canada 7a: New Brunswick

Artillery preserved in the province of

New Brunswick

For all official data concerning the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, please click on the link to their website:

Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Website

The aim of this website is to locate, identify and document every historical piece of artillery preserved in Canada.  Many contributors have assisted in the hunt for these guns to provide and update the data found on these web pages.  Photos are by the author unless otherwise credited.  Any errors found here are by the author.  French Translation of the technical data presented here would be appreciated.  Corrections, amendments and suggested changes may be emailed to the author at hskaarup@rogers.com.

Une traduction au français pour l'information technique présente serait grandement apprécié. Vos corrections, changements et suggestions sont les bienvenus, et peuvent être envoyés au hskaarup@rogers.com

Data current to 25 May 2017.

Aroostook Post

This was the site of a British blockhouse (1839 - 1840's), located at the mouth of the Aroostook River, blocking the road to Fort Fairfield, Maine.

Aulac, Fort Beauséjour – Fort Cumberland National Historic Site of Canada, 111 Fort Beauséjour Road.

Cast Iron 64-pounder 71-cwt Gun Muzzleloading Rifle with Millar pattern breeching ring, Palliser conversion from a 32-pounder 58-cwt SBML Gun, weight 58-0-2 (6,498 lbs), (RGF No. 615) on left trunnion, blank right trunnion.  Cast as a 32-pounder 1853-567.  Palliser modification with the gun re-bored to 64-pounder, 1868-71, Queen Victoria cypher, broad arrow mark.  This gun came from Fort Clarence in 1924.

Cypher and portrait of Queen Victoria, who reigned from 2 June 1837 to 22 Jan 1901. The portrait was painted at her Coronation, 1838.  (Wikipedia Photo)

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Muzzzleloading Gun, weight 50-0-21 (5,621 lbs) under the cascabel, Samuel Walker & Company of Rotherham, England (WCo) on left trunnion, (Serial No. 80) on right trunnion, CV C N, 80,  King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, 1800-1820.  Iron lock-strap over vent.  This large unmounted gun had been at Fort Cumberland up to the latter part of the 18th century, then at the Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick for many years until gifted to Fort Beauséjour by the Department of Justice.

Cypher and portrait of King George III, reigned from 25 Oct 1760 to 29 Jan 1820.  (Wikipedia Photo)

Cast Iron 8-inch 9-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Land Service Mortar, weight TBC, prior to 1780, corroded trunnions, no discernible markings, mounted on a wooden carrying box.  Acquired from the Royal Artillery Institution, Woolwich, England, 1933.

Cast Iron 18-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 41-1-21 (4,641 lbs), Samuel Walker & Company of Rotherham, England (WCo) on left trunnion, (Serial No. TBC) on right trunnion, broad arrow mark, W.  Originally located at Fort Cumberland, acquired from the Robb family, Amherst, NS in 1930.

Cast Iron 18-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 41-0-0 (4,592 lbs), (W) on left trunnion, (SOLID) on right trunnion, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, unmounted.  Originally located at Fort Cumberland, acquired from the Robb family, Amherst, NS in 1930.

Cast Iron 18-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight corroded, not discernible, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, both trunnions broken off, broken button.  ca. 1776-1790.  Originally located at Fort Cumberland in 1813, acquired from the Amherst School Board in 1930.

Cast Iron 6-pounder 14-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 14-3-21 (1,673 lbs), (P) on left trunnion, right trunnion corroded, no cypher, unmounted.

Cast Iron 4-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight corroded, (SOLID) on left trunnion, (F) on right trunnion, unmounted.  The Carronade is a short smoothbore, cast iron cannon, which was used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland.  It was used from the 1770s to the 1850s.  Its main function was to serve as a powerful, short-range anti-ship and anti-crew weapon.  While considered very successful early on, Carronades eventually disappeared as rifled naval artillery changed the shape of the shell and led to fewer and fewer close-range engagements.

French Cast Iron 2-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight and trunnions corroded, Fort Gaspéreau, ca. 1751-1756, mounted on a wheeled wood carriage.  Gift of Honourable Frank B.  Black, Sackville, NB in 1936.

Bronze 6-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 6-0-9 (681 lbs), J & H (John & Henry) King, 1813, King George III cypher (1760-1820), and Henry, Earl of Musgrave, Master General of Ordnance cypher (1810-1818), broad arrow mark (indicating British Government ordnance), mounted on a wheeled wood field carriage.  This bronze gun on display in the Visitor Centre has a calibre of 3.67 inches (93-mm) and a barrel length of five feet (1.52 m).  It weighs 672 lbs (302 kgs)and is mounted on a wooden two-wheeled single pole block trail with iron fittings.  It would normally have been moved with a team of six horses along with a limber carrying additional stores and 46 rounds of ammunition.  The gun fired a six-pound (2.73 kg) solid shot, case shot, or a shrapnel shell (27 balls) to a range of 1,400 yds (1,280 m).  This was the standard gun used by British horse artilery during most of the first half of the 19th century.  They were still being cast in 1855 and remained in active service as late as 1881.  (Doug Knight, Guns of the Regiment, Service Publications, Ottawa, 2016)

On display inside the Visitor Centre.

French Cast Iron 6-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight TBC, ca. 1732-1770, the only remaining gun of those used in the defence of Fort Beauséjour in 1755.  Gift from Dr J.C.  Webster in 1937.

French Cast Iron ½-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, used for the defence of blockhouses and other likely fortifications.  Gift of W.L.  Bidden, Moncton, NB.

Cast Iron ½-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, stamped J & H (John & Henry) King, 1813, mounted on a wood carriage.  Stolen in 2004, investigation continuing.

Cast Iron 1-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, small Naval gun with decorative cast-iron lion’s head carriage, raised letters on carriage LAXEVAGS (SIC) VAERK BERGEN, indicating the gun was made in Norway.  Gift from the estate of Dr J.W.  Sangster, Sackville, NB in 1937.  Stolen in 2004, investigation continuing.

Cast Iron 1-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 1-3-20 (216 lbs), J & H (John & Henry King), ca. 1760-1780. 

Bronze 3-pounder 3-cwt Smoothbore MuzzleloadingGun, weight 3-0-1 (337 lbs), 1799, J & H King, previously at the Carleton Martello Tower, Saint John, NB in the early 1980s, currently undergoing conservation in Dartmouth, NS.

Bronze 3-pounder 3-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 3-0-1 (337 lbs), 1800, J & H King, previously at the Carleton Martello Tower, Saint John, NB in the early 1980s, currently undergoing conservation in Dartmouth, NS.

Cast Iron 4-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Guns, ca. 1760 (four) previously at Carleton Martello Tower in Saint John, NB, currently in storage.

Bathurst

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, Herman J. Good VC, Branch No. 18, Royal Canadian Legion War Museum, 575 St. Peter Ave.

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08/15 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 2849), Gwf Spandau, 1918.  This weapon was captured ca 1918 by the 78th Battalion (Winnipeg Grenadiers), 12th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), South of Passchendaele, France.

Caraquet

 (Photo courtesy of Nelopics)

American 90-mm M1A1 Anti-Aircraft Gun on display in a memorial park facing the Bay of Chaleur.

Campbellton

Guns from the 1760 wreck of the French Frigate Machault in the Restigouche River.  In the autumn of 1759 New France was on the verge of capitulation to the British.  Montreal, its morale at a low ebb owing to the recent surrender of Quebec City and Louisbourg, was rapidly running out of military supplies and funds and in desperate need of French assistance.  After prolonged haggling between civilian businessmen and the state, a six-ship fleet was hastily assembled at Bordeaux and outfitted to sail for Canada.  The flagship of the fleet was the Machault.  It had been built in Bayonne, France, in 1757 as a 550-tonneaux merchant frigate and later converted to a 500-tonneaux frigate-at-war (Beattie 1968: 53).  Initally pierced for 26 guns, it could have carried as many as 32 on its last voyage.  The original 1758 outfitting list (Compte de construction: 1758) includes, among other supplies, various weaponry items purchased for use by the ship and its company: 24 12-livre cannons for the deck, 2 six-livre cannons for the forecastle, 24 wooden gun carriages, 6 swivel guns, 800 12-livre cannonballs, and 120 hand grenades, as well as an unspecified number of muskets, pistols, sabres, boarding axes, and mitraille (the literal English translation of which is "shower"), which was small iron or lead balls for use in multiple-shot anti-personnel projectiles such as grape and cannister shot.  It is not known what, if any, guns were added at the time of re-outfitting, nor the exact nature of the munition supplies for Canada.

On 11 April 1760, one day after leaving port, the fleet was scattered by two British ships, and only three ships, the Machault, Marquis de Malauze and Bienfaisant, were able to make contact and continue their journey.  By mid-May the French had reached the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where they captured a British ship and learned that the British. had preceded them downriver.  The decision was made to head for the safety of the Bay of Chaleur, where they arrived with a number of British ships they had captured en route.  The French set up camp on the bank of the Restigouche River and dispatched a messenger to Montreal for instructions . The British response to news of their presence was decisive.  A fleet commanded by Captain Byron, that included the Fame, 74 guns, the Dorsetshire, 70 guns, the Achilles, 60 guns, and the frigates Repulse, 32 guns, and Scarborough, 20 guns, quickly set sail with orders to find and destroy the French ships.  On 22 June the British contacted the enemy fleet.  The French, retreating upriver, attempted to prevent the British ships from following by sinking small boats across the channel, and at strategic points set up shore batteries with weapons removed from their ships.

After approximately two weeks of manoeuvring and sporadic fighting, the final engagement occurred on 8 July 1760.  When surrender became inevitable, Captain Giraudais of the Machault ordered all hands to remove as much cargo from the ships as possible.  With a dwindling powder supply and with water in its hold, the Machault was defenceless and the order was given to abandon and scuttle it. The Bienfaisant suffered the same fate and later in the day the British boarded and burned the abandoned Marquis de Malauze.  The Battle of Restigouche was a turning point in Canadian history.  Montreal, denied its much-needed supplies and morale booster, now had neither the means nor the will to attempt to re-take Quebec City or properly defend itself.  In short, the loss of the fleet contributed to the British conquest of New France (Beattie and Pothier 1977: 6). During the summer of 1967 a brief survey of the Machault was carried out by the Archaeological Research Division of Parks Canada.  In the winter of 1968-69 a comprehensive magnetometer survey preceded an extensive three-year underwater project lasting from the 1969 through the 1971 field seasons, which yielded the vast majority of recovered artifacts.  The cutting and raising of some of the ship's timber occurred in 1972, along with minor artifact recovery (see Zacharchuk and Waddell 1984).   ("Artillery from the Machault, an 18th Century French Frigate", by Douglas Bryce, Studies in Archaeology, Architecture and History, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Environment Canada, 1984, Ottawa)

French Cast Iron 12-livre Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, salvaged from the Machault with  fleur-de-lys on the barrel and a large letter P on the cascable, mounted on a British 24-pounder iron garrison carriage, in the No. 1 position.  5-inch bore (12.6-cm).

French Cast Iron 12-livre Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, with anchors on the barrel, F on both trunnions, mounted on a British 24-pounder iron carriage, in the No. 3 position.  5-1/2-inch bore (14-cm).

German First World War 7.7-cm FK 96 captured by Canadians, Battle of Amiens, Aug 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397896)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 2402), no data, No. 2 position.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of the First World War. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

Cap Pelé

105-mm C1A1 M2A1 Howitzer, CDN 129 AKA CFR 56- 34228, No. 1 of 2.  This gun was in the Central Command Militia Pool.  It  is located beside the town cenotaph near the intersection of Ch Acadie and Ch Saint Andre.  Beside the municipal building.

105-mm C1A12 M2A1 Howitzer, CDN 5 AKA CFR 55-34110, No. 2 of 2.  This guns served with 4 RCHA.  It is located beside the town cenotaph near the intersection of Ch Acadie and Ch Saint Andre.  Beside the municipal building.

Centreville

     

155-mm M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer, CFR 85-77237, No.1, right side of the Memorial Park.

155-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer, CFR 68-34821, No. 2, left side of the Memorial Park.

Centreville, Fort Presqu' Île

This was the site of a  British blockhouse located at the mouth of the Presqu' Île River (1791 - 1824, 1837 - 1840's), near Simonds.  The post occupied five acres, with barracks, Officers' quarters, a guardhouse, stables and stores.  During the Maine/New Brunswick border dispute the post was repaired and used as an observation post, depot and rallying point for the local militia.  The only evidence remaining is the post cemetery. There is a provincial historic marker on the side of the road at the foot of the height of land upon which stood the blockhouse.

Chipman

 

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), trench mortars, 9.15-cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz, 7.68-cm trench mortar, and spigot mortars captured by Canadians, Apr 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521871)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), trench mortar captured by Canadians, Apr 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521845)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 7095), H, 2, 1918.  This trench mortar was captured on 8 Aug 1918 by the 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Aubercourt, France.  The weapon is mounted on an iron-wheeled carriage in the Community Park on Main Street.

The 17 cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17 cm mMW).  This mortar was useful in destroying bunkers and field fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  It was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a standard hydro-spring recoil system. It fired 50 kilogram (110 lb) HE shells, which contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same calibre.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler. Furthermore, the low velocity allowed for the use of explosives like Ammonium Nitrate-Carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply.  This caused a large number of premature detonations that made crewing the minenwerfer riskier than normal artillery pieces.  A new version of the weapon, with a longer barrel, was put into production at some point during the war.  It was called the 17 cm mMW n/A (neuer Art) or new pattern, while the older model was termed the a/A (alter Art) or old pattern.  In action the mMW was emplaced in a pit, after its wheels were removed, not less than 1.5 meters deep to protect it and its crew.  It could be towed short distances by four men or carried by 17.  Despite its extremely short range, the mMW proved to be very effective at destroying bunkers and other field fortifications. Consequently its numbers went from 116 in service when the war broke out to some 2,361 in 1918.

Edmundston, Fort Madawaska

A stockaded blockhouse constructed during the border crisis with the United States.  Also known as the Petit Sault Blockhouse.  It had a stone foundation with two upper floors made with cut logs.  The P’tit Sault Blockhouse consists of a strategic site on a rocky hillock, overlooking the confluence of the Saint John and the Madawaska Rivers in the City of Edmundston, crowned by the reconstructed P’tit Sault Blockhouse.  Constructed on this strategic hillock in 1841, the P’tit Sault Blockhouse Provincial Historic Site was one of a number of blockhouses, also referred to as forts, the original blockhouse was built as part of the British line of defence during the bloodless Aroostook War.  This conflict was the result of disputes over the border between the New Brunswick and the State of Maine in the early 1800’s. The war is referred to as ‘bloodless’ because of the lack of casualties on either the British or American sides.  It ended with the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842.  The treaty settled the border conflict and divided the population of the Madawaska region between New Brunswick and the State of Maine.  The original fort was destroyed by lightning in August 1855.  A reproduction was built on site in 2001, located at 10-14 St-Jean Avenue.

Fredericton Region Museum, Officer's Square

  

Cast Iron Palliser conversion of a Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun to a 32-pounder Muzzleloading Rifle, no weight, maker or Serial No. visible, Queen Victoria cypher, no broad arrow mark.  RGF IRON (Royal Gun Factory) not visible on the muzzle, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage.  No. 1, Officer’s Square, facing the lighthouse on the Saint John River, opposite the York-Sunbury Museum.  This gun came from Halifax ca. 1947.

 

Cast Iron Palliser conversion of a Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun to a 32-pounder Muzzleloading Rifle, no weight, maker or Serial No. visible, Queen Victoria cypher, no broad arrow mark.  RGF IRON (Royal Gun Factory) on the muzzle, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage.  No. 2, Officer’s Square, facing the Saint John River, opposite the York-Sunbury Museum.  This gun came from Halifax ca. 1947.

Cast Iron ½-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, heavily corroded, no markings visible, mounted on a wooden carriage.  This gun is recorded as having come from Fort Jemseg and was on display inside the York Sunbury Museum on Officer’s Square.  Gift from Mrs Goodrich Sloat, 1969.  It is currently on loan to the New Brunswick Military History Museum at the 5 Division Area Support Base Gagetown.

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08/15 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 6209a), Gwf Spandau 1917.  This weapon was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  This MG is on display inside the Fredericton Regional Museum on Officer’s Square. 

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 5923).  Th, captured on 28 Aug 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in the 2nd Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  This MG 08 was originally allocated to Fredericton.  The weapon is mounted in a Great War exhibit inside the Fredericton Regional Museum on Officer’s Square. 

Fredericton, Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 4


6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, painted with a white No. 46 on a blue over red tactical sign on the face of the shield, with the Second World War formation markings of the 90th Battery.  No. 1 in front of the Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 4.

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, painted with a white No. 2 on a grey, white, blue and red tactical sign on the face of the shield, with the Second World War formation markings of the 104th Battery.  No. 2 in front of the Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 4.

90th Anti-tank Battery, 1st Anti-Tank Regiment, RCA.

The 90th Anti-Tank Battery, RCA, was raised in Fredericton and landed in Sicily on 10 July 1943, followed by landing in Italy, on 5 September 1943.  There they served until leaving Italy on 9 March 1945, bound for North-West Europe, where they resumed operations on 11 April 1945, in The Netherlands.  They served here until the cessation of hostilities in North-West Europe, on 5 May 1945.  The 90th Anti-Tank Battery, RCA, was a component battery of the 1st Anti-Tank Regiment, RCA, of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division, from 1 December 1939, to the disbandment of 1st Anti-Tank Regiment, RCA, on 28 August 1945.  (War Diaries, 1st Anti-Tank Regiment, RCA, Library and Archives Canada (Ottawa), reference: RG24, National Defence, Series C-3, Volumes: 14553, 14554, 14555, and 14556, covering the period from September 1939 to August 1945.)

104th Anti-tank Battery, 7th Anti-tank Regiment, RCA.

The 104th Battery was mobilized in Fredericton, York County, New Brunswick on 15 July 1940 with Major W. F. Blair as O.C. Other officers included, Capt. E.D. Hall, Lieut. Y. McLean, Lieut. T.K. Stephens, Lieut. D.A. Wolstenholme, and Lieut. R.M. McGibbon.  The new recruits received basic training at the experimental farm, located near Fredericton, following which they were shipped to Nickel Building, in Kingston, Ontario, and then on to Petawawa at the end of November 1940.  At this time, the 104th Battery came under the command of the 4th Anti-Tank Regiment Royal Canadian Artillery.

In March 1941, the 104th Battery was moved to St. Stephen, New Brunswick.  The following month, it embarked at Halifax, Nova Scotia, aboard the H.M.T. "Georgic", as an independent battery, destined for Gourock, Scotland.  In Scotland the recruits received more anti-tank training.  The 104th Anti-Tank Battery became a component of the 7th Anti-Tank Regiment RCA that was formed in England on 25 July 1941 to serve as 1st Canadian Corps Anti-Tank Regiment.

The 104th Battery boarded the "Scythia," on 12 November 1943, at Bristol, England, bound for the Mediterranean on operation "Timberwolf II".  By 25 November 1943, the 104th had disembarked at Algiers, Algeria, North Africa.  It later moved on to Sicily, France, and Holland.  The Battery served in Holland under First Canadian Army until the Second World War ended.  It disbanded in June 1945.  (Provincial Archives of New Brunswick)

Fredericton, Marysville

 

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, painted with a white No. 2 on a red over blue tactical sign on the face of the gun shield.  Marysville Cenotaph.

Fredericton, NBMHM Museum

Cast Iron 1/2-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade, weight 1 (112 lbs), mounted on a wooden carriage.

Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield-pattern breeching ring, weight 4 (448 lbs) mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, No. 1 of 2 inside the museum.

Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield-pattern breeching ring, weight 4 (448 lbs) mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, No. 2 of 2 inside the museum.

105-mm C1A1 M2A1 Howitzer, CDN No. unknown, Serial No. 16127, 1943, weight 1,060 lbs, standing behind a white picket fence outside the museum, one block West of Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 93.

Fredericton Military Compound, Historic Garrison District

A British garrison post (1785 - 1869, 1883 - 1914), occupying a two block area bounded by the river and Queen, York and Regent Streets.  British troops left in 1869.  Constructed mainly of wood, most of the original buildings were lost through deterioration or fire; however, a number of the key buildings were rebuilt with stone.  One original wooden building and three 19th-century stone structures remain.  The present-day Justice Building (1929) is on the site of the old Military Hospital (1827 - 1875).  In 1965 the Military Compound was declared a National Historic Site.

The Military Compound is designated a Provincial Historic Site for being a 2 block area that has evolved from a military establishment to accommodating a variety of federal, provincial and municipal institutions for over a period of more than 200 years.  The Military Compound is designated for its association with the military history of New Brunswick.  With the arrival of the Loyalists after the American Revolution, Fredericton was made the capital of the new colony of New Brunswick in 1784.  British military were stationed in the Military Compound to protect the new colony from invasion overland along the American border.  The British military remained on the site until 1869.  The Canadian government continued military activities at the Military Compound. A Drill Hall was constructed in 1885 which is still in use by the Canadian military. 

Discovered archaeological resources reflect the use of this site as a military compound, while their is a strong potential for yet-to-be discovered resources.  The heritage value of the site also resides in its historic and continued use by the three levels of governement.  The federal government also maintained offices on the site which resulted in two post office buildings being constructed on the east block in 1882 and 1913.  On the west block, the Province of New Brunswick first constructed a Normal School in 1876, which was rebuilt in 1930 and is now the provincial Justice Building.  Later the province constructed a Liquor Commission Building, which is now occupied by the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design.  The Fredericton Public Library and York Regional Library occupy the newest building on the site, constructed in 1975.  The Military Compound is now a centre for cultural activities in the city - with the library, New Brunswick College of Craft and Design, several museums, a statue of Lord Beaverbrook and open spaces for cultural events.

Militia Arms Store (1832): Of the 61 original buildings in the compound, this is the only remaining wooden structure.  It was used to store weapons and ammunition for the local militia.  In 1882 an extension was added to the rear and renovated into a military hospital.  It has seen several uses since then, a warehouse, temperance hall, a caretaker's residence, and offices for the Downtown Development Fredericton Inc.  Located on Carleton Street, it now houses the city's tourism staff.

Guard House (1828): This small building is typical of British guard houses found around the world.  It consists of an orderly room, guard room and detention cells. It has been restored to the 1866 period with muskets, uniforms and equipment, when the British 15th Regiment was stationed here.  Located on Carleton Street, there is a Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque on the building.

Officers' Quarters (1841): The original quarters for the British officers of the garrison was a wood and brick structure completed in 1792, which was destroyed by fire in 1815, and then was rebuilt in a similar style.  The existing stone structure was added in two sections, one in 1841 and the other 1851, each separated by a brick firewall.  The wooden sections of the building were removed in 1925; however, the outline of its stone foundation is still visible.  Located on Officers' Square, the Officers' Quarters currently host the Fredericton Region Museum, of the York-Sunbury Historical Society.

Soldiers' Barracks (1827): The original wooden barracks were replaced by the existing stone structure in November 1827.  It was occupied by British troops from then until their departure in 1869.  Then it was used as a Provincial Normal School and by other local organizations until 1883 when the newly formed Infantry School Corps, a part of the Canadian Army, returned it back to a barracks.  After the First World War it fell into disuse until 1927 when it became a warehouse.  In 1974 one barrack room was restored to illustrate its original use and the remainder of the building became the home of the Province's Archaeology Branch and its collection. Located on Queen Street.

Fredericton, Fort Nashwaak

A French palisaded four-bastioned fort (1692-1698), located on the north bank of the Nashwaak River at its mouth.  Also spelled Naxouat.  Also known as Fort St. Joseph, as it was built by Acadian Governor Joseph Robinou de Villebon to replace Fort Jemseg as the military headquarters of Acadia.  Repelled a British attack in October 1697.  British seige works were located on the south bank of the river, near the present-day Fort Nashwaak Motel.  A Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque in Carleton Park commemorates the fort.  The actual site is now an Irving Oil tank farm.

Fredericton Junction Blockhouse

A British blockhouse (1812-1815) built at what was known as Hartt's Mills, to guard the Oromocto River portage route between the Saint John River and the Maguadavic River.  A house was built on the site of the blockhouse in 1922.  There are four old graves in the Gladstone Cemetery on Prides Landing Road, and are believed to be those of members of the blockhouse garrison who died there while on duty.

Village of Gagetown, Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 71

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08/15 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 4359).  This weapon was captured on 9 Aug 1918 by the 5th Battalion (Western Cavalry, 2nd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Warvillers, France.  The MG 08/15 is preserved inside the Alfred Ashburn Memorial Legion Branch No. 71, 81 Tilley Road.

Gagetown Blockhouse

A former fur trade post where ammunition and guns were stored (1761).  A private craft business is here now on Loomcroft Lane, facing Gagetown Creek.

Grand-Anse

 

American 90-mm M1A1 Anti-Aircraft Gun (Serial No. 3775), Community Park between Highway 11 and the Bay of Chaleur.

OF 4-inch Mk. XXI Naval Gun (Serial No. 14729) in box shield, Community Park.

Grand Falls

  

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 8283).  This FK 96 was captured on 27 Aug 1918 by the 25th Battalion (Nova Scotia Rifles), 5th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Moon Quarry near Cherisy, France.  Main Street, City Park.

Hopewell Cape

 

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 784), no data.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

German First World War 10-cm Kanone 14 (10-cm K 14), (Serial Nr. 590), 1917.  This rare K 14 was captured on 9 April 1917 by the 27th Battalion (City of Winnipeg), 6th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Farbus near Vimy, France. 

A plaque fixed to the gun states, “This German Gun No. 590 captured in the World War by the 26th Battalion recruited in this province was won by the citizens of Albert County, New Brunswick in the Victory Loan competition of 1919.  Henry L.  Drayton, Minister of Finance.”

The 26th Canadian Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force (also known as the 26th (New Brunswick) Battalion, CEF) was composed of volunteers from the province of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and the Gaspé Peninsula.  This unit was authorized on 7 November 1914 and embarked for Britain on 15 June 1915.  It arrived in France on 16 September 1915, where it fought as part of the 5th Infantry Brigade, Second Canadian Division in France and Flanders until the end of the First World War.  It participated in all of the major battles in which the Canadian Corps was involved.  The battalion was disbanded on 30 August 1920.  The battle honours for the 26th (New Brunswick) Battalion, CEF are held by the Royal New Brunswick Regiment.

Kars, Worden's Ferry Battery and Blockhouse

A British blockhouse (1813-1815), on the crest of a 200-foot high hill, and a three-gun earthwork battery and magazine commanding the river, to be used as a place of refuge and defence if Saint John were to be captured. The site was also known as the "Eagle's Nest".  Reported in ruin by 1825.  During the French period the location was known as "Nid d'Aigle", and local tradition holds that a French military post was located at this strategic spot. However, no evidence has yet been found to support the claim.

Kedgwick

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  CFR 34-448.  The carriage plate reads: CARR. HOW. 155MM M1A2 CDN. SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD. CANADA (year TBC), REG. NO. CDN 171, INSP (symbol).   The breech block reads: HOWITZER 155MM M1A1 CDN, CANADA, SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD, 1956, 3730 LBS, INSP (symbol).  Veterans Memorial, Highway 17.  The breech block reads: HOWITZER 155MM M1A1 CDN, CANADA, SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD, 1956, 3730 LBS, INSP (symbol).  The carriage plate reads: CARR HOW 155mm M1A2 CDN, SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD, CANADA (year TBC), REG. NO. CDN 171, INSP (Symbol).   The CFR number painted on the right trail is 0034448.

Cypher, Queen Elizabeth II, reigning from 6 Feb 1952 to present.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4314245)

Lower Jemseg, Fort Jemseg

Originally built by British trader Thomas Temple at the mouth of the Jemseg River (1659 - 1674, 1690 - 1692).  Also spelled Jemseck.  Described as a rectangular palisaded enclosure with walls 18 feet in height and armed with five iron guns mounted on a wooden platform.  French troops occupied the post in 1670 per the 1667 Treaty of Breda.  Briefly captured by Dutch privateers led by Jurriaen Aernouts in August 1674 and then abandoned.  Acadian Governor Joseph Robinou de Villebon temporarily moved the French military headquarters here from Port Royal, NS in 1690.  Although there is a Historic Sites and Monuments Board plaque located in Lower Jemseg, the exact location of the fort is unknown, but is believed to be near the Scovil Landing of the Gagetown Ferry.

Meductic

A Maliseet Indian stockaded stronghold dating from the 1600s was located in the Meductic Flat area of the Saint John River, near the mouth of the Eel River.  Early European explorers reported finding there a roughly rectangular stockade, constructed of logs bound together with spruce roots and supported by earth and rocks, the whole being surrounded by a defensive trench.  Within the stockade was a long house, where councils were held, and facilities for storing provisions.  A short distance from the stockade was the village proper.  Archaeological excavations of the site occurred in the 1960s.  A Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque is located nearby along the Trans-Canada Highway.  The site, now flooded by the Mactaquac Hydro Dam, is located north of town.

Minto

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  CFR TBC.  The carriage plate reads: CARR. HOW. 155MM M1A2 CDN. SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD. CANADA (year TBC), REG. NO. CDN TBC, INSP (symbol).   The breech block reads: HOWITZER 155MM M1A1 CDN, CANADA, SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD, Date TBC, 3730 LBS, INSP (symbol).  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 12.

Miramichi

  

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, cenotaph, Elm Park.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, at the cenotaph, Elm Park.  No. 1 of 2.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, at the cenotaph, Elm Park.  No. 2 of 2.

Cast Iron 6-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a broken Blomefield pattern breeching ring, beside a city fountain.

Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, set on wood blocks on the ground beside a city fountain.

Moncton

   

25-pounder QF Field Gun, Victoria Park.

  

American 90-mm M1A1 Anti-Aircraft Gun, Moncton Armoury.

Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight (TBC) mounted on a small concrete naval carriage at Creek Village Park, Pleasant Street. NICMM record # 13008-001.

New Maryland

    

105-mm M2A2 (C1A1) Howitzer, Serial No. 4530, Carriage M2A2CDN 1118,  CFR 1950-34057, Serial No. 3638, weight 1,060 lbs.  Victoria Park.  Built in 1950, this Howitzer was retired from services in 2008 and disposed of by Donation/ Deactivation last 11 May 2016.  It had most likely been in service with Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery School at 5 CDSB Gagetown throughout its longevity.

North Head, Grand Manan Island

Bronze 6-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 5-3-20 (664 lbs), inscribed TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO (three joined in one), (Serial No. MCMLXVI) (1966), left and right trunnions blank, Queen Victoria cypher, S. ECCLES 1853, No. 3 on the button.  On the chase is the Master General of Ordnance's (MGO) emblem for Fitzroy James Henry Somerset , the 1st Baron Raglan, MGO in 1852-55.  His highest award was the Order of Bath.  This British bronze gun has a 92-mm calibre.  Its length with the button is 1.64 metres and without the button is 1.53 metres.  The distance from the muzzle to the trunnion axis is 850-mm.  Trunnion axis length is 365-mm.  No. 1 of 2 guns flanking the cenotaph facing the water in front of the church on Cemetery Road at Grand Head.  NICMM record  No. 13003-012.

 

Bronze 6-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 5-3-24 (668 lbs), inscribed TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO (three joined in one), (Serial No. MCMLXVI) (1966), left and right trunnions blank, Queen Victoria cypher, S. ECCLES 1853, No. 3 on the button.  On the chase is the Master General of Ordnance's (MGO) emblem for Fitzroy James Henry Somerset , the 1st Baron Raglan, MGO in 1852-55.  His highest award was the Order of Bath.  This British bronze gun has a 92-mm calibre.  Its length with the button is 1.64 metres and without the button is 1.53 metres.  The distance from the muzzle to the trunnion axis is 850-mm.  Trunnion axis length is 365-mm.  No. 2 of 2 guns flanking the cenotaph facing the water in front of the church on Cemetery Road at Grand Head.  NICMM record  No. 13003-012.

Bronze Lyle type Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun (2.5-inch bore) recovered from the tugboat Gypsum King, ca late 1800s to early 1900s.  This Lyle type gun is one of two in the Grand Manan Island Museum.  It was used to fire life lines from ship or shore.  Light-weight rope was shot out to a wreck after it had been carefully wound on a rope-board so it would uncoil without snagging. The crews would then use this rope to haul out the heavier lines which actually carried the breeches buoy. The survivors would brought ashore or to the tugboat in a breeches buoy, which was a pair of canvas pants sewed onto a life-preserver.  These line guns are used primarily for shore based rescue operations.  The shooter would fire, aiming over the victims head and then pull the line within reach of the victim.  They are also useful for rescuing victims that have fallen through the ice, or are stranded on a cliff or burning building.  Boats in distress need larger lines.  Lyle guns were designed to throw projectiles weighing approximately 15 pounds, carrying heavier rope over 1000 feet.  Getting this equipment close to a wreck would have been difficult, given the likelihood the conditions that caused the wreck would still have been present.

Oromocto, Fort Hughes

A reconstructed British wooden blockhouse (1781 - 1782, 1813 - 1815) located at Sir Douglas Hazen Park at 1 Wharf Road.  Originally built to protect the local masting operations, and as a relay station between Halifax, NS and Québec City, QC.  Rebuilt and regarrisoned in 1813, it was to be used as a place of refuge and defence if Saint John were to be captured. 

9-pounder 8-cwt Muzzleloading Rifle, weight 8-1-8 (932 lbs),  Sir W.G. Armstrong and Co., RGF No. 2357, 1873, Newcastle on the Tyne on the trunnion.  This gun was used in the North West Rebellion, 1885.  Fort Hughes, Sir Douglas Hazen Park.

105-mm C1A1 M2A1 Howitzer, CFR unknown, Serial No. 17945, 1944, weight 1,060 lbs, standing in front of Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 93.

Oromocto, 5 Division Support Group Base Gagetown and the New Brunswick Military History Museum

The web page has become to big for all of the guns in Ontario to be listed here.  The guns on display at CFB Gagetown are listed on a separate web page on this website.

Perth-Andover

 

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 4095), no data, Fr.Kp., 5012.  M.  Kp., 4598.  S.  BNA 18.  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 36.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

Riverview

Centurion Main Battle Tank, 20-pounder Gun, 8 CH, Casley Park, Bradford Road.

Rogersville

 (DHH Photo)

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun mounted on a wheeled wooden carriage beside the cenotaph.

Rothesay

 

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, Kennebeccasis Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 58, 61 Marr Road.

St. Andrews by the Sea

Blockhouse.

Cast Iron 18-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight and trunnion data heavily corroded and painted over(4,000+ lbs), King George III cypher, ca. 1760-1780, mounted on a long wood traversing gun carriage, St. Andrews Block House National Historic site.  No. 1.

Cast Iron 18-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 40-2-7 (4,543 lbs), (IC) on the right trunnion, possibly (Serial No. 23) on left trunnion, King George III cypher,  ca. 1760-1780, mounted on a long wood traversing gun carriage, St. Andrews  Block House National Historic site.  No. 2.

Cast Iron 18-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 41-1-24 (4,644 lbs), possibly (N15) on right trunnion, blank on right trunnion, King George III cypher, ca. 1760-1780, mounted on a long wood traversing gun carriage, St. Andrews Block House National Historic site, Joe’s Point Road.  No. 3.

Cast Iron 2-pounder 2-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun with Blomefield-pattern breeching ring, weight 2-3-25 (333 lbs), BP & Co., (Serial No. 763) on right trunnion, (2 Por) on left trunnion, mounted on a naval gun carriage, second floor of the Block House facing West.  The BP and Crown marking is the black powder proof mark of the Birmingham Proof House.  From the proof marks book: "Final black powder proof mark for use with nitro powder.  The same mark was also used for the final proofs with black powder for smoothbore muzzleloader barrels."  There is no royal cipher or broad arrow mark.  Possibly a  privateer gun?

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 50-0-14 (5,614 lbs), Samuel Walker & Company of Rotherham, England (WCo) on left trunnion, (Serial No. 78) on right trunnion, ca. 1800-1820, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, mounted on an iron garrison carriage, facing the waterfront across from the Town Hall.  No. 1 of 2.

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 50-0-14 (5,614 lbs), Samuel Walker & Company of Rotherham, England (WCo) on left trunnion, (Serial No. 79) on right trunnion, facing the waterfront across from the Town Hall.  No. 2 of 2.

St. George

Cast Iron 9-pounder 13-1/2-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 12-2-26 (1,426 lbs), 6 beside the King George III cypher, trunnions covered by a wood naval gun carriage, 3.5-inch bore.  No. 1 of 2 in front of the Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 40.

Cast Iron 9-pounder 13-1/2-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 12-2-26 (1,426 lbs), 10 beside the King George III cypher, trunnions covered by a wood naval gun carriage, 3.5-inch bore, No. 2 of 2 in front of the Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 40.  Before being installed in the front of the Legion, the cannons had been abandoned in the field at the bottom of Fort Hill.  Oral history suggests they were the cannons used in the defence of both Fort Vernon and Fort Carleton.

105th Anti-tank Battery, 3rd Anti-tank Regiment, RCA.

On D-Day, the 6th of June 1944, the 3rd Canadian Anti-Tank Regiment R.C.A. landed on Juno Beach in Normandy, France as part of the Third Canadian Infantry Division.  The regiment consisted of four batteries: the 4th from Peterborough, Ontario, the 52nd from Weymouth, Nova Scotia, the 94th from Quebec City and the 105th from St. George, New Brunswick, along with a headquarters from Toronto.

Originally trained as field artillery, the regiment had been converted to anti-tank.  Each battery had two troops of four 6-pounder anti-tank guns and one of four M10 Achilles Tank Destroyers, the latter being Sherman tanks with a 17-pounder gun and an open turret with a 50- calibre machine gun mounted on the side.  The troops were identified in the batteries as follows: 4th Battery, ABC; 52nd Battery, DEF; 94th Battery, GHI, 105th Battery, JKL; with C, F, I and L being the M10 troops.

M10 Achilles 17-pounder Tank Destroyer crossing the River Savio on a Churchill ARK which was driven into the river, 24 October 1944.  (IWM Photo)

The regiment was responsible for coordinating the anti-tank defences of the division, and the individual troops were generally assigned in support of an infantry battalion where they supplemented the battalion’s own 6-pounders.  The troop commander worked closely with the battalion commander and anti-tank platoon commander.

For D-Day the usual organization was changed to concentrate all four M10 troops under one battery commander.  This provided a strong, mobile anti-tank force for the early stages of the invasion.  (Medland, Stan (1994) "Confrontation in Normandy: The 3rd Canadian Anti-Tank Regiment on D-Day," Canadian Military History: Vol. 3: Iss. 1, Article 6).

    

M10 Achilles IIC 17-pounder Tank Destroyer, similar to the type used by the 105th Battery.  This one is preserved with the 3rd Cavalry Museum, Fort Hood, Texas.  (Author Photos)

Saint John

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 56-3-4 (6,360 lbs), under the cascabel, The Carron Company of Falkirk, Scotland (Serial No. 70744, CARRON, 1807) on left trunnion, (32P) on right trunnion, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, CV, mounted on a concrete stand, Fernhill Cemetery Naval Memorial, No. 1 of 2 on the West side.  This gun came from the Red Head Battery.

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 56-3-3 (6,359 lbs) under the cascabel.  The Carron Company of Falkirk, Scotland (Serial No. corroded, CARRON, 1807) on left trunnion, (32P) on right trunnion, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, CV, mounted on a concrete stand, Fernhill Cemetery Naval Memorial, No. 2 of 2 on the East side.  This gun also came from the Red Head Battery. 

The Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun has a length of 9 feet 6 inches.  It is the most common 32-pounder in Canada and can be recognized by a reinforcing ring that is slightly raised followed by a definite "step-down" in the barrel just forward of the trunnions heading to the muzzle.

The 1895 Militia Report includes two 32-pounder 63-cwt Guns in Saint John.  Other guns in Saint John at that time included one Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 55.5-cwt Gun, one Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 48-50-cwt Gun and five other Blomefield Cast Iron guns that were converted 24-pounder guns, 25-cwt, 32-cwt, 40-cwt, 41-cwt, and 46-cwt.  There were no 70-cwt guns  There were four Millar Cast Iron 32-pounder guns, the largest of which was 63-cwt.  There were two Dundas Cast Iron 32-pounder guns, the largest of which was 58-cwt.  According to the Militia report, Saint John also had two (probable Millar pattern Cast Iron 8-inch 65-cwt Smoothbore Shell Guns, and two Millar pattern Cast Iron 68-pounder 95-cwt Smoothbore Guns.  These guns were all most likely part of the collection scrapped in 1942.  Doug Knight.

Bronze 3-pounder 3-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 3-0-1 (337 lbs), J & H (John & Henry King), 1799, previously in the Carleton Martello Tower, now with Fort Beauséjour.

Bronze 3-pounder 3-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, stamped J & H King, 1800, previously in the Carleton Martello Tower, now with Fort Beauséjour.

Canadian Gunners with the 3rd Siege Battery unloading a 6-inch BL 26-cwt Breechloading Mk. I Howitzer in England, ca 1917.  (Photo by R.J.G. Boyd, a gunner who served with the 3rd Siege Battery, also known as "Cape's Battery", from mid 1915 until 31 March 1917, courtesy of Boyd Roberton)

6-inch 26-cwt Breechloading Mk. I Howitzer, Reg No. 3237, manufactured at Vickers, Sons and Maxim (VSM) in 1918.  It was mounted on carriage No. C2294.  The current serial number for the carriage cannot be clarified, but could be C2285, CA920 or C332845.  The howitzer had been on display beside the Fort Howe Block House overlooking the harbour of Saint John, but has been completely refurbished.  The howitzer was dedicated in 1974 by the Artillery Association and again after being restored and transferred to the Loyal Company Association and the 3rd Field Regiment in Saint John.  Joe Jordan, a retired master gunner and chief warrant officer, oversaw the project.  The Howitzer is currently on display at Harbour Station.

Other BL 6-inch howitzers that served in Saint John but have been scrapped included: Reg. No. 373, VSM 18, carriage Reg. No. 14770, allocated to 6 Medium Battery in 1933; Reg. No. 616, VSM 18, carriage Reg. No. CA14840, VSM 18, allocated to 4 Medium Battery  in 1933; Reg. No. 2916, VSM 18, carriage Reg. No. 921, allocated to 6 Medium Battery in 1933; and Reg. No. 3489, PESW 17, carriage Reg. No. A927, VSM 18, allocated to 4 Medium Battery in 1933.

  (Photos courtesy of Peter Hanlon)

These numbers have come to light as the restoration of the gun was in progress.  Peter spoke with the lead hand on the rebuild and he mentioned that very few pieces needed to be replaced (or re-manufactured), the only noticeable ones being the wheels.  He did not have time to make new wooden wheels and so went with the rubber ones that were on it.  There were a few bolts he replaced and there is a spindle in the sight that is too corroded to save and must be manufactured.

Ordnance BL 6-inch 26-cwt Howitzer in service.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3607576)

Cast Iron 1Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun severely corroded, no markings visible, mounted on wooden stand, East of the Fort Howe Block House.

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun severely corroded, no markings visible, mounted on wood naval gun stand, West of the Fort Howe Block House.

25-pounder QF Field Gun, No. 1 of 2 at the cenotaph, Cedar Hill Cemetery on Manawagonish Road.

25-pounder QF Field Gun, No. 2 of 2 at the cenotaph, Cedar Hill Cemetery on Manawagonish Road.

5.5-inch Breechloading Mk. III Gun on a Mk. I Carriage, RCA, south of Vaucelles, France, 23 July 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3396146)

5.5-inch Breechloading Mk. III Gun on a Mk. I Carriage, weight 1-14-1-0, Jervis Bay Park.  Canada made carriages for these guns during the Second World War, and after the war acquired 85 of them for the RCA.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, 53rd Bty, 3rd Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA, Bexhil, England, 10 Jun 1942.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3229979)

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, St. Joseph’s Cemetery. This gun belongs to the RCA Museum, CFB Shilo, Manitoba.  It was loaned to 3 Field Regiment for its 1993 bicentennial celebration.  Harold Wright.

Gun Battery positions at Partridge Island. 

There were several large guns with the Partridge Island Battery which were still in the RCA Gun Battery postions in 1939.  It is likely they were melted down post 1942.  The Signal Gun was still there in 1945, but buried some time later.  About 1987 Harold Wright dug it up after being given ownership by the Coast Guard.  Unfortnately, the gun was removed before it could be collected and restored, and its current location is unknown.  Harold Wright.

Saint John, HMCS Brunswicker

Cast Iron Smoothbore Swivel Gun, 17th Century, recovered from Fort La Tour, on display inside the main lobby.

6-inch H.E.D.C. Mk. II Breechloading Gun, HMCS Niobe.  160 Chesley Drive.  Two 6-inch guns from HMCS Niobe were used as Coast Defence guns on Partridge Island, Saint John, during the Second World War.  They were obtained by the Partridge Island Research Project in 1982. In 1982 the barrels were dedicated to the gunners and sailors who manned the guns during the war, and again in 1985 during Saint John's Bicentennial. The barrels were returned to the Crown in 2009. Harold Wright.

6-inch Breechloading Naval Gun on board HMS Royalist, Feb 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3404655)

6-inch Breechloading Naval Gun being examined by Royal Canadian Navy sailors in an American harbour in Sep 1940.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3199286)

6-inch Breechloading Naval Gun with protective shield, overlooking Reykjavik Bay in Iceland, August 1940.  (IWM Photo H3124)

Saint John, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA

The 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, The Loyal Company, is a Primary Reserve Royal Canadian Artillery (RCA) regiment with a Regimental Headquarters (RHQ) and two Batteries (Bty).  The RHQ and one Bty are located in Saint John, at the Barrack Green Armoury, 60 Broadview Ave.  Its second Bty, the 89th Field Battery is located in Woodstock.  The 3rd Field Artillery Regiment provides indirect fire support (guns and mortars) to the Army. 

The current primary piece of artillery in service with 3rd Field Artillery Regiment is the C3 105-mm Howitzer.

On May 4, 1793, the Loyal Company was formed in Saint John in response to the threat of attack by French privateers. In 1838 all artillery Batteries around the province were constituted into the New Brunswick Regiment of Artillery. This makes the Regiment the oldest continuous serving artillery unit in Canada.

The Regiment manned local defences during the War of 1812. Gunners volunteered for service during the Aroostook, or 'Pork 'n Beans' war. In 1866, the St. Andrews Battery, under Captain Osborn, was reformed in preparation against a Fenian attack. In June 1866, Captain Pick's Battery manned the guns at Partridge Island to defend Saint John from Fenian attack. The Carleton Martello Tower and Sand Cove beach were also defended.

The Regiment was placed on active service during the Great War 1914-1918. Over 2000 gunners were sent overseas, including the 3rd Brigade, Canadian Garrison Artillery (CGA), Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), No. 4 Canadian Siege Battery, CEF, No. 6 Canadian Siege Battery, CEF, the 2nd Divisional Ammunition Column, and re-enforcement drafts of the 9th Siege Battery.

The 3rd (New Brunswick) Coast Brigade, RCA (The Loyal Company of Artillery) was called out on service for local protection duties on 26 August 1939.  Details from the brigade were also mobilized for active service under the designation 3rd (New Brunswick) Coast Brigade, RCA, CASF (Details) on 1 September 1939.  The details called out on active service were disbanded on 31 December 1940 and the brigade mobilized an active service unit designated  3rd (New Brunswick) Coast Brigade, RCA, CASF on 1 January 1941.  It was redesignated 3rd (New Brunswick) Coast Regiment, RCA, CASF on 1 August 1942.  The regiment provided coastal artillery support as part of the defences of Saint John, New Brunswick.  The regiment was disbanded on 1 September 1944.

3rd (New Brunswick) Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA 

Originated 28 May 1869 in Saint John, New Brunswick, as the New Brunswick Brigade of Garrison Artillery.

Redesignated 1 January 1893 as the New Brunswick Battalion of Garrison Artillery.

Redesignated 1 January 1895 as the 3rd "New Brunswick Battalion" of Garrison Artillery.

Redesignated 28 December 1895 3rd "New Brunswick" Regiment of Garrison Artillery.

Redesignated 2 April 1907 as the 3rd "New Brunswick" Regiment (Heavy Brigade).

Redesignated 2 May 1910 as the 3rd "New Brunswick" Heavy Brigade, Canadian Garrison Artillery.

Redesignated 15 April 1912 as the 3rd "New Brunswick" Regiment, CGA.

Redesignated 2 February 1920 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Heavy Brigade, CA.

Redesignated 9 1 July 1925 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Medium Brigade, CA.

Redesignated 1 March 1930 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Medium Brigade, CA (The Loyal Company of Artillery).

Redesignated 3 June 1935 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Medium Brigade, RCA (The Loyal Company of Artillery).

Redesignated 15 April 1938 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Coast Brigade, RCA (The Loyal Company of Artillery).

Redesignated 7 November 1940 as the 3rd (Reserve) (New Brunswick) Coast Brigade, RCA (The Loyal Company of Artillery).

Redesignated 21 September 1945 as the 3rd (Reserve) (New Brunswick) Coast Regiment, RCA (The Loyal Company of Artillery).

Redesignated 1 April 1946 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Coast Regiment, RCA.

Redesignated 29 April 1948 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA.

Redesignated 22 August 1955 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA.

Amalgamated 1 September 1959 with the 23rd Medium Anti- Aircraft Regiment, RCA, retaining its designation as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA.

Redesignated 12 April 1960 as the 3rd (New Brunswick) Medium Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment, RCA.

Redesignated 10 December 1962 as the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment (The Loyal Company), RCA.

Redesignated 20 November 1975 as the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA. 

23rd Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA 

Originated 15 February 1924 in Saint John, New Brunswick as the 9th Mounted Brigade Headquarters.

Converted 15 December 1936 to artillery and redesignated as the 23rd Field Brigade, RCA.

Redesignated 7 November 1940 as the 23rd (Reserve) Field Brigade, RCA.

Redesignated 1 September 1943 as the 23rd (Reserve) Field Regiment, RCA.

Redesignated 1 April 1946 as the 23rd Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA.

Redesignated 22 August 1955 as the 23rd Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA.

Amalgamated 1 September 1959 with the 3rd (New Brunswick) Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA.

6-inch H.E.D.C. Mk II Breechloading Gun, HMCS Niobe.  This gun barrel was restored and refurbished in 2012, and is placed facing the Bay of Fundy in front of the Armoury.  These two guns were mounted and dedicated as memorials to the men of HMS/HMCS Niobe and the Gunners who served them on Partridge Island during the Second World War.  In 2009 the barrels were transferred from the Partridge Island Research Project to the Federal Crown, and they are currently on display with HMCS Brunswicker and 3 Field Regiment.  Neither 3 Fd nor Brunswicker own the barrels.  Harold Wright.

Saint John, New Brunswick Museum, 1 Market Square.

German First World War Granatenwerfer 16 spigot mortar, (Serial Nr. TBC), with grenade mounted.  This trench mortar was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

Saint John, Royal Kennebecassis Yacht Club

9-pounder 8-cwt Muzzleloading Rifle, weight 8-1-1 (925 lbs), stamped 1873, (Serial No. 92), I, mounted on an iron field carriage, stamped RCD 1873, Sir W.G. Armstrong and Co., Newcastle on the Tyne.  1042 Millidge Ave.

Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield-pattern breeching ring, weight corroded, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, Royal Kennebecassis Yacht Club, 1042 Millidge Ave., Saint John, NB.

St. Stephen

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  CFR TBC.  The carriage plate reads: CARR. HOW. 155MM M1A2 CDN. SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD. CANADA (1955), REG. NO. CDN 10 INSP (symbol).   The breech block reads: HOWITZER 155MM M1A1 CDN, CANADA, SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD, Date TBC, 3730 LBS, INSP (symbol).  This gun is located at the corner of Church St and Queens Way across from the Milltown War Memorial, several km North of St Stephen town centre.

Sussex

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight corroded, left trunnion (Carron Serial No. corroded), King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, No. 1 of 2 Guns, mounted on a concrete gun carriage left of the front entrance to the Royal Canadian Legion.

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight corroded, left and right trunnions corroded, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, No. 2 of 2 Guns, mounted on a concrete gun carriage right of the front entrance to the Royal Canadian Legion.

Woodstock, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery, 89th Field Battery

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 2398), no data.  Stored inside the 89th Field Battery Armoury.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  In 1920, T. W. Caldwell, MP for Carleton-Victoria, secured this Gun from the Government of Canada for Woodstock.  It was placed on the county lot in front of the Courthouse.  It is currently being restored in the 89th Field Battery Armoury.

Gun, 105mm, LG1 Mk. II, 89th Field Battery, Woodstock, New Brunswick.  Queen Elizabeth II Cypher, LG 105-mm Howitzer.

Woodman's Point, Fort de Nerepice

A French supply fort on the Nerepis River at Woodman's Point, that was built over an earlier Indian fort.  It was abandoned prior to 1755. Also known as Fort Boishébert.   This fort was strategically located at Woodmans Point on the confluence of the Saint John and Nerepis Rivers in New Brunswick.  Originally a fortified Aboriginal village, a small French fort was built at the original site circa 1749 by Charles Deschamps de Boishébert.  The remains of Fort Nerepis and its precise location have never been found; however, the area on Woodmans Point is marked by a cairn and plaque erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. The designation refers to the presumed location of the footprint of the fort at the time of designation in 1930.

Woodstock

 (Author Photo, left,  Aaron Boumas Photo, right)

American 90-mm M1A1 Anti-Aircraft Gun, Connell Park.  This gun has been moved and is being restored by Dean and Andrew Draper and Aaron Boumas at Debec.

Woodstock Blockhouse

A British blockhouse was constructed overlooking the Houlton Road ca 1837 - 1840's.  The exact location is not known.