Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Artillery (7) New Brunswick, Allison, Bathurst, Campbellton, Cap Pelé, Caraquet, Centreville and Chipman

Artillery in New Brunswick,

Allison, Bathurst, Campbellton, Cap Pelé, Caraquet, Centreville and Chipman

Data current to 6 Sep 2019.

The aim of this website is to locate, identify and document every historical piece of artillery preserved in Canada.  Many contributors have assisted in the hunt for these guns to provide and update the data found on these web pages.  Photos are by the author unless otherwise credited.  Any errors found here are by the author, and any additions, corrections or amendments to this list of Guns and Artillery in Canada would be most welcome and may be e-mailed to the author at hskaarup@rogers.com.

For all official data concerning the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, please click on the link to their website:

Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Website

Note: Back in the day, artillery in Canada was referred to by its radio call sign "Sheldrake".  It is now referred to by its "Golf" call sign.  (Acorn sends)

Une traduction au français pour l'information technique présente serait grandement apprécié. Vos corrections, changements et suggestions sont les bienvenus, et peuvent être envoyés au hskaarup@rogers.com

New Brunswick

Allison

 

Cast Iron 9-inch 12-ton Mk. V Muzzleloading Rifle, weight 12-14-0-0, (28,560 lbs), with Millar-pattern breeching ring,  (RGF No. 652, V, 1869), on left trunnion, (+) on right trunnion, Queen Victoria cypher.  This gun is resting on wood blocks in front of a trucking firm, facing the road across from Solomon Gardens, 1833 Salisbury Rd, Moncton, NB E1E 4P7.

Aroostook Post

This was the site of a British blockhouse (1839 - 1840's), located at the mouth of the Aroostook River, blocking the road to Fort Fairfield, Maine.

Aulac, Fort Beauséjour – Fort Cumberland National Historic Site of Canada, 111 Fort Beauséjour Road.

The web page has become to big for all of the guns in New Brunswick to be listed here.  The guns on display at Fofrt Beausejour near Aulac are listed on a separate web page on this website.

Bathurst

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, Herman J. Good VC, Branch No. 18, Royal Canadian Legion War Museum, 575 St. Peter Ave.

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08/15 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 2849), Gwf Spandau, 1918.  This weapon was captured ca 1918 by the 78th Battalion (Winnipeg Grenadiers), 12th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), South of Passchendaele, France.

Campbellton

Battle of the Restigouche, 1760

 (ChristianT Photo)

Model of the French frigate Le Machault, Lieutenant Giraudais's flagship during the Battle of the Restigouche.  Model by Fred Werthman.

A pair of French smoothbore muzzle-loading guns was recovered from the 1760 wreck of the French Frigate Le Machault in the Restigouche River.  In the autumn of 1759 New France was on the verge of capitulation to the British.  Montreal, its morale at a low ebb owing to the recent surrender of Quebec City and Louisbourg, was rapidly running out of military supplies and funds and in desperate need of French assistance.  After prolonged haggling between civilian businessmen and the state, a six-ship fleet was hastily assembled at Bordeaux and outfitted to sail for Canada.  The flagship of the fleet was the Machault.  It had been built in Bayonne, France, in 1757 as a 550-tonneaux merchant frigate and later converted to a 500-tonneaux frigate-at-war (Beattie 1968: 53).  Initally pierced for 26 guns, it could have carried as many as 32 on its last voyage.  The original 1758 outfitting list (Compte de construction: 1758) includes, among other supplies, various weaponry items purchased for use by the ship and its company: 24 12-livre cannons for the deck, 2 six-livre cannons for the forecastle, 24 wooden gun carriages, 6 swivel guns, 800 12-livre cannonballs, and 120 hand grenades, as well as an unspecified number of muskets, pistols, sabres, boarding axes, and mitraille (the literal English translation of which is "shower"), which was small iron or lead balls for use in multiple-shot anti-personnel projectiles such as grape and cannister shot.  It is not known what, if any, guns were added at the time of re-outfitting, nor the exact nature of the munition supplies for Canada.

On 11 April 1760, one day after leaving port, the fleet was scattered by two British ships, and only three ships, the Machault, Marquis de Malauze and Bienfaisant, were able to make contact and continue their journey.  By mid-May the French had reached the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where they captured a British ship and learned that the British. had preceded them downriver.  The decision was made to head for the safety of the Bay of Chaleur, where they arrived with a number of British ships they had captured en route.  The French set up camp on the bank of the Restigouche River and dispatched a messenger to Montreal for instructions . The British response to news of their presence was decisive.  A fleet commanded by Captain Byron, that included the Fame, 74 guns, the Dorsetshire, 70 guns, the Achilles, 60 guns, and the frigates Repulse, 32 guns, and Scarborough, 20 guns, quickly set sail with orders to find and destroy the French ships.  On 22 June the British contacted the enemy fleet.  The French, retreating upriver, attempted to prevent the British ships from following by sinking small boats across the channel, and at strategic points set up shore batteries with weapons removed from their ships.
 
After approximately two weeks of manoeuvring and sporadic fighting, the final engagement occurred on 8 July 1760.  When surrender became inevitable, Captain Giraudais of the Machault ordered all hands to remove as much cargo from the ships as possible.  With a dwindling powder supply and with water in its hold, the Machault was defenceless and the order was given to abandon and scuttle it. The Bienfaisant suffered the same fate and later in the day the British boarded and burned the abandoned Marquis de Malauze.  The Battle of Restigouche was a turning point in Canadian history.  Montreal, denied its much-needed supplies and morale booster, now had neither the means nor the will to attempt to re-take Quebec City or properly defend itself.  In short, the loss of the fleet contributed to the British conquest of New France (Beattie and Pothier 1977: 6). During the summer of 1967 a brief survey of the Machault was carried out by the Archaeological Research Division of Parks Canada.  In the winter of 1968-69 a comprehensive magnetometer survey preceded an extensive three-year underwater project lasting from the 1969 through the 1971 field seasons, which yielded the vast majority of recovered artifacts.  The cutting and raising of some of the ship's timber occurred in 1972, along with minor artifact recovery (see Zacharchuk and Waddell 1984).   ("Artillery from the Machault, an 18th Century French Frigate", by Douglas Bryce, Studies in Archaeology, Architecture and History, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Environment Canada, 1984, Ottawa)

French Cast Iron 12-livre Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, salvaged from the Machault with fleur-de-lys on the barrel and a large letter P on the cascable, mounted on a British 24-pounder iron garrison carriage, in the No. 1 position (far right as you stand behind the guns).  5-inch bore (12.6-cm).

French Cast Iron 12-livre Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, with anchors on the barrel, F on both trunnions, mounted on a British 24-pounder iron carriage, in the No. 3 position.  5-1/2-inch bore (14-cm).

German First World War 7.7-cm FK 96 captured by Canadians, Battle of Amiens, Aug 1918.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3397896)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 2402), no data, No. 2 position.  This FK 96 was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade in a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of the First World War. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

Cap Pelé

105-mm C1A1 M2A2 Howitzer, CDN 129 AKA CFR 56- 34228, No. 1 of 2.  This gun was in the Central Command Militia Pool.  It  is located beside the town cenotaph near the intersection of Ch Acadie and Ch Saint Andre.  Beside the municipal building.

 

105-mm C1A1 M2A2 Howitzer, CDN 5 AKA CFR 55-34110, No. 2 of 2.  This guns served with 4 RCHA.  It is located beside the town cenotaph near the intersection of Ch Acadie and Ch Saint Andre.  Beside the municipal building.

Caraquet

 (Photo courtesy of Nelopics)

American 90-mm M1A1 Anti-Aircraft Gun on display in a memorial park facing the Bay of Chaleur.

Centreville

155-mm M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer, CFR 85-77237, No.1, right side of the Memorial Park.

155-mm M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer, CFR 68-34821, No. 2, left side of the Memorial Park.

Centreville, Fort Presqu' Île

This was the site of a  British blockhouse located at the mouth of the Presqu' Île River (1791 - 1824, 1837 - 1840's), near Simonds.  The post occupied five acres, with barracks, Officers' quarters, a guardhouse, stables and stores.  During the Maine/New Brunswick border dispute the post was repaired and used as an observation post, depot and rallying point for the local militia.  The only evidence remaining is the post cemetery. There is a provincial historic marker on the side of the road at the foot of the height of land upon which stood the blockhouse.

Chipman

 

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), trench mortars, 9.15-cm leichtes Minenwerfer System Lanz, 7.68-cm trench mortar, and spigot mortars captured by Canadians, Apr 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521871)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), trench mortar captured by Canadians, Apr 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3521845)

 

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 7095), H, 2, 1918.  This trench mortar was captured on 8 Aug 1918 by the 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Aubercourt, France.  The weapon is mounted on an iron-wheeled carriage in the Community Park on Main Street.

The 17 cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17 cm mMW).  This mortar was useful in destroying bunkers and field fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  It was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a standard hydro-spring recoil system. It fired 50 kilogram (110 lb) HE shells, which contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same calibre.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler. Furthermore, the low velocity allowed for the use of explosives like Ammonium Nitrate-Carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply.  This caused a large number of premature detonations that made crewing the minenwerfer riskier than normal artillery pieces.  A new version of the weapon, with a longer barrel, was put into production at some point during the war.  It was called the 17 cm mMW n/A (neuer Art) or new pattern, while the older model was termed the a/A (alter Art) or old pattern.  In action the mMW was emplaced in a pit, after its wheels were removed, not less than 1.5 meters deep to protect it and its crew.  It could be towed short distances by four men or carried by 17.  Despite its extremely short range, the mMW proved to be very effective at destroying bunkers and other field fortifications. Consequently its numbers went from 116 in service when the war broke out to some 2,361 in 1918.

Edmundston, Fort Madawaska

A stockaded blockhouse constructed during the border crisis with the United States.  Also known as the Petit Sault Blockhouse.  It had a stone foundation with two upper floors made with cut logs.  The P’tit Sault Blockhouse consists of a strategic site on a rocky hillock, overlooking the confluence of the Saint John and the Madawaska Rivers in the City of Edmundston, crowned by the reconstructed P’tit Sault Blockhouse.  Constructed on this strategic hillock in 1841, the P’tit Sault Blockhouse Provincial Historic Site was one of a number of blockhouses, also referred to as forts, the original blockhouse was built as part of the British line of defence during the bloodless Aroostook War.  This conflict was the result of disputes over the border between the New Brunswick and the State of Maine in the early 1800’s. The war is referred to as ‘bloodless’ because of the lack of casualties on either the British or American sides.  It ended with the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842.  The treaty settled the border conflict and divided the population of the Madawaska region between New Brunswick and the State of Maine.  The original fort was destroyed by lightning in August 1855.  A reproduction was built on site in 2001, located at 10-14 St-Jean Avenue.