Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Artillery preserved in Canada 6a: Quebec

Artillery preserved in the province of Quebec

For all official data concerning the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, please click on the link to their website:

Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Website

The aim of this website is to locate, identify and document every historical piece of artillery preserved in Canada.  Many contributors have assisted in the hunt for these guns to provide and update the data found on these web pages.  Photos are by the author unless otherwise credited.  Any errors found here are by the author.  French Translation of the technical data presented here would be appreciated.  Corrections, amendments and suggested changes may be emailed to the author at hskaarup@rogers.com.

Une traduction au français pour l'information technique présente serait grandement apprécié. Vos corrections, changements et suggestions sont les bienvenus, et peuvent être envoyés au hskaarup@rogers.com

Canadian field batteries were combined to form the Royal CanadiaField Artillery (RCFA), which in 1905 became the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery (RCHA).  The garrison companies would become the Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery (RCGA).

Les batteries de campagne seront amalgamées plus tard au sein de la Royal Canadian Field Artillery (RCFA) qui, en 1905, deviendra la Royal Canadian Horse Artillery (RCHA): pour leur part, les compagnies de garnison donneront la Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery (RCGA).

Data current to 25 May 2017.

Quebec

Amos

25-pounder QF Field Gun, salute, Ottawa, ca 1960s.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4234280)

25-pounder QF Field Gun, No. 1, City Hall.

25-pounder QF Field Gun, No. 2, City Hall.

Arundel

American 90-mm M1A1 AA Gun, Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 192.

Bagotville, CFB Bagotville

American 90-mm M1A1 AA Gun, on display in the air memorial park.

Baie du Febvre

 

Cast Iron 18-pounder 10-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 9-3-21 (1,113 lbs), Caron Co., No CV, mounted on an iron garrison carriage.  The carronade is a short smoothbore, cast iron cannon, which was used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland.  It was used from the 1770s to the 1850s.  Its main function was to serve as a powerful, short-range anti-ship and anti-crew weapon.  While considered very successful early on, carronades eventually disappeared as rifled naval artillery changed the shape of the shell and led to fewer and fewer close-range engagements.  (Photo courtesy of Maxwell Toms)

Baie St Paul

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, mounted on a wooden naval gun carriage, No. 1 of 2.


Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, mounted on a wooden naval gun carriage, No. 2 of 2.  (Streetview Photo)

Beloeil

25-pounder QF Field Gun, No. 1 of 2, located with the town war memorial, near the Légion Royale Canadienne Dion 238, 30 Rue Choquette.

25-pounder QF Field Gun, No. 2 of 2, located with the town war memorial near the Légion Royale Canadienne Dion 238.

Brossard

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec.  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 215 at 8940 Raciot

Bryson

American 90-mm M1A1 AA Gun.   (Normand Roberge Photo)

Buckingham

QF 4-inch Gun Mk XVI mounted in a Naval gun turret from the HMCS Buckingham, a river-class frigate, which in the 1950s was recommissioned and modernized as a Prestonian-class escort, and was further modified as a platform to test the helicopter carrying concept.  This dual 4" gun would have been the bow gun (technically in a "B" gun position) and came to the community after the vessel was decommissioned and sold for scrap to an Italian firm in 1965.  (Author Photos)

Bury

American 90-mm M1A1 AA Gun, located beside Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 48, 59 St. Paul Street.  (Streetview Photo)

Cap-aux-Meules, Magdalen Islands

According to the DHH entry for Cap-aux-meules cenotaph there are "two naval weapons".   NICMM, Record # 24022-002.

Cap des-Rosiers

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown.

Causapscal

 

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun.  (Jean Dubé Photos)

Le 40 mm Bofors est un canon antiaérien conçu par l’armurier suédois Bofors au début des années 1930.  Sa version initiale était baptisée 40L60, car le tube a une longueur théorique égale à 60 fois le calibre.  Il fut fabriqué en Suède par la société Bofors elle-même, mais également sous licence dans de nombreux autres pays.  Une grande partie des nations impliquées dans le deuxième conflit mondial l'ont utilisé sous des versions différentes, et même après.  De nombreuses versions sont toujours en service dans les années 2010.  

Coteau-du-Lac

Bronze Coehorn Smoothbore Muzzleloading Land Service Mortar, 1-foot, 1-inch, ca. 1827-1860.

Chambly, Fort Chambl

Fort Chambly.  (Mickael Pollard Photo)


Smoothbore reinforced breech-loading swivel gun, of a kind that was invented in the 14th century.  They were loaded by inserting a mug-shaped chamber already filled with powder and projectiles (technically pieces of metal, and yes stone cannonballs were used as ammunition).  The breech-loading swivel gun had a high rate of fire, and was especially effective in repelling boarders and pirates on ships.  The earliest versions were made from strips of metal held together with reinforcing bands - and the real ones from the earliest voyages of explorers to Canada are quite rare, so the one at Fort Chambly may be a replica.  The Portuguese made great use of them off Canada's East coast.  (Photo courtesy of Jean Dube)

Bronze possible 3-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, heavily decorated, with dolphin carrying handles mounted on a wood naval gun carriage and set inside a firing embrasure inside the fort.  (Peter Sent Photo 1, Jean Dube Photo 2)

Chandler

25-pounder QF Mk. II Field Gun, Reg. No. unknown, No. 1 of 2 beside the cenotaph.  (Photos courtesy of Jean David)

 (Streetview Photo)

25-pounder QF Mk. II Field Gun, Reg. No. CA10099, No. 2 of 2 beside the cenotaph.   (Photos courtesy of Jean David)

Chateauguay

American 90-mm M1A1 Anti-Aircraft Gun, on display in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Provincial Command HQ, 39 Gilmour Street.

Cloridorme

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, facing the water.  (Streetview Photo)

Cowansville

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  CFR 34409.  The carriage plate reads: CARR. HOW. 155MM M1A2 CDN. SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD. CANADA (year unknown), REG. NO. CDN 181, INSP (symbol).  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 99.  (Photos courtesy of Normand Roberge)

This gun is dedicated in memory of the gunners who served with the 24th and 75th Field Battery RCA and the 2nd Canadian Medium Regiment RCA, and the 27th Field Regiment RCA M, 1936 – 1970, Cowansville.  Plaque dated 11 Nov 2000.   These Gunners served with the 2nd Medium Regiment made up the 1st French Canadian Artillery Unit during the Second World War.

Deux Montagnes

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 185, 141 du Grand Moulin.  (Author Photos)

In June 1947, Canada had 149 17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun in service.  These guns served until 1952, when they were offered to NATO.  Those remaining in 1959 were scrapped or became part of war memorials including at least 28 have been found and documented on these web pages.

Eccles Hill

Fenian gun captured by the home guard, Dunham's Red Sashes, ca 1870.  (Missisquoi Museum Photo)

Fenian gun captured by the home guard, Dunham's Red Sashes, ca 1870.  (Missisquoi Museum Photo)

Captured Fenian Breech Loading (possible 3-pounder) gun mounted on a stone cairn at the site of the Fenian Raid on Eccles Hill in 1870.  The Battle of Eccles Hill was part of a raid into Canadian territory from the United States led by John O'Neill of the Fenian Brotherhood.  The army of the Fenian Brotherhood was defeated by local militia units and armed citizens on 25 May 1870.  (Townships Heritage Photo 1, Ross Jones Photo 2)

Farnham

25-pounder QF Field Gun, and Ferret Scout Car mounted on a section of Engineer bridging.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, inside the fenced section of the detachment.

Gaspé

French Cast Iron possible 1-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, heavily corroded early 18th century, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage inside the Museé de la Gaspésie.  (Author Photo)

Cast Iron 6-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight unknown, SOLID on the left trunnion, B on the right trunion, 19 on the barrel, No. 1 mounted in front of the Hotel de Ville.  (Author Photos)

This Gun is on loan from the Museé de la Gaspésie.  The ‘B’ stands for Bersham, near Wrexham in north Wales, showing that this gun was cast by John Wilkinson at his foundry there. The legend ‘SOLID’ on the trunnion shows that this is a gun bored out of the solid, therefore at the time, both up-todate and expensive.  In fact this gun is a ‘B-SOLID’ product of Bersham.  These guns are based on what became known as the ‘Armstrong pattern’ which was introduced into British military service in 1729 and was current up until 1787.   The gun can be dated to ca. 1773 (when the ‘B-SOLID’ trunnion mark makes its first appearance) to 1796.  The last known reference to Wilkinson supplying guns dates to 1796, when the final guns definitely marked with ‘B-SOLID’ were proofed on 9 -10 May for Wiggins and Graham.  These were not guns for government service, as they have no royal badge or any other markings on the barrel, and also they are shorter than the normal government pattern Cast Iron 6-pounder. SBML Gun.  Information from the Ordnance Bill Books for the period 1773 - 1796 indicates that standard lengths for government service were 6, 6½ and 7ft, although a few were made in non-standard sizes of 4½ and 8½ft.  Guns of this type were cast by gunfounders for the civilian market, usually for smaller merchant ships, coastal communities or landowners who wanted some defence but also wanted something lighter and cheaper than a normal gun.  (Dr Brian G. Scott)

Cast Iron 12-pounder 35-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 35-0-19 (3,939 lbs) above the touchhole, King George II cypher, ca. 1740, B one the right trunnion, No. 2 mounted on a wood box in front of the Hotel de Ville.  On loan from the Museé de la Gaspésie.  (Author Photos)

Cast Iron 12-pounder 30-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 30-0-3 (3,363 lbs), W on the right trunnion, King George II cypher, ca. 1740, No. 3 mounted on a wood box in front of the Hotel de Ville.  On loan from the Museé de la Gaspésie.  (Author Photos)

Gaspé, Memorial Park

25-pounder QF Field Gun, with its barrel locked in the recoil position, No. 1 beside the war memorial in a Community Park.

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, No. 2 beside the war memorial in a Community Park.   (Streetview Photo)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, maker and Serial No. unknown, mounted on a wooden naval carriage near the Gaspé Lighthouse.

Gaspé Bay, Fort Peninsula, Forillon National Park

At the outbreak Second World War Canada’s Department of National Defence requisitioned the future site of Fort Peninsula and set up a coastal battery to protect Gaspé Port from possible enemy attack.  The Gaspé Bay is a vast natural port and offers one of the best harbours in North America.  Because it is well sheltered by both coastal relief and the sandy points of Penouille and Sandy Beach, the Gaspé basin was easy to defend.  In addition, large ships were able to drop anchor there.

Taking advantage of the natural features of Gaspé Bay, military strategists built a naval base there.  Fixed defences protected entry points.  This system included an anti-submarine net which stretched between Sandy Beach and Penouille and three coastal batteries: Fort Prével, Fort Haldimand and Fort Peninsula.

On 1 May 1942, the HMCS Fort Ramsay naval base was officially inaugurated.  Three months later, over 2000 men were dispatched to the base by all three arms of the Canadian military services, the Navy, Army, and Air Force.  The flotilla sent to the Gaspé included 19 warships: 5 minesweepers, 6 Fairmile patrol boats, 7 corvettes and an armed yacht.  The Air Force also dispatched a few amphibious planes.

Ordnance QF 4.7-inch B Mk. IV Star Gun, 1902, mounted on No. 2748 CARR TRAV REc No. C9703, TEST.T.T.2, on a Central Pivot Mount Mk I.  No. 1 of 2.  (Author Photos)

Ordnance QF 4.7-inch B Mk. IV Star Gun, 1903, mounted on a Central Pivot Mount Mk I.  No. 2 of 2.  (Author Photos)

Official records indicate these two 4.7-inch guns should be (Serial No. 1145) on mounting A8209 or CLP No. 8; and (Serial No. 1126) on mounting A2915 or CLP No. 7.

Gaspé, Fort Prével

Ordnance QF 4.7-inch Gun, RGF 1899, (Serial No. 793) mounted on an iron pivot.  No. 3.  This gun is mounted upside down with the gun shield mounted in reverse (which would have turned it into a deadly shot trap).  Records indicate this gun was originally mounted in a coastal defence position in Saint John, New Brunswick.  The No. 1 gun position still exists, but there is no gun or mount in it.  (Author Photos)

This is a view of an American 6-inch gun on M1900 pedestal mount, showing how the gun shield is normally installed. (US Archives Photo)

Gun platform previously used for a BL 10-inch M1888 Gun No. 7, mounted on Disappearing Carriage No. 22.  A second BL 10-inch M1888 Gun No. 36 mounted on M1893 Barbette Carriage No. 9 was also present.  Both guns were scrapped.  (Photo courtesy of the Museé Gaspé)

From as early as 1941 German U-boats patrolled the Gulf of St. Lawrence and due to its strategic location fortified gun positions were built at a number of Gaspé sites.  These included the Fort Peninsula galleries at the entrance to Forillon National Park, the Fort Ramsay naval base at Sandy Beach, and the shoreline batteries at Cap-aux-Os and Fort- Prével.  The Fort Prével gun battery was equipped with two giant guns.  Remains of the battery can be viewed on the property of the Auberge Fort Prével located at 2053, boulevard Douglas, (highway 132) Saint-Georges-de-Malbaie.

Gaspé Bay, Fort Haldimand

Remains of defence positions.

Gatineau

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. and location unknown.

Granby

Blomefield Cast Iron 64-pounder Muzzleloading Rifle converted from a  Muzzleloading 32-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, Carron, weight and Serial No. unknown, mounted on a concrete gun stand, King George III cypher, 18.  No. 1 located beside a war memorial dedicated to Major William Latimer in Victoria Park. on Dufferin Street.  (Photos courtesy of Normand Roberge)

Blomefield Cast Iron 64-pounder Muzzleloading Rifle converted from a  Muzzleloading 32-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, mounted on a concrete gun stand, King George III cypher, 18.  No. 2 located beside a war memorial to Major William Latimer in Victoria Park. on Dufferin Street.

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, No. 1 flanking the cenotaph in Victoria Park.

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, No. 2 flanking the cenotaph in Victoria Park.

 

9-pounder 8-cwt Muzzleloading Rifle Mk. 1, weight 8-1-7 (931 lbs), RGF 1874, No. unknown, possibly associated with No.15 Shefford-Granby Battery.  Private collection.  (Doug Knight Photos)

Grosse-île

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, King George III cypher, mounted on an iron garrison carriage.  The Blomefield 32-pounder 56-cwt Gun has a length of 9 feet 6 inches.  It is the most common 32-pounder in Canada and can be recognized by a reinforcing ring that is slightly raised followed by a definite "step-down" in the barrel just forward of the trunnions heading to the muzzle.

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, King George III cypher, mounted on a concrete stand with iron wheels cemented in place.  

There were originally three guns.  According to Marianna O'Gallagher, author of Grosse-Ile Gateway to Canada, "on 1 May 1832 Capt Ralph Anderson and his troop from the 32nd Regiment with Dr Griffin went to Grosse-Île to establish the quarantine station...they installed a cannon to signal the ships they had to stop".

Île aux Noix, Fort Lennox

(Photo courtesy of Jean-Philipe Boulet)

Cast Iron 2-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 2-3-25 (333 lbs), BP & Co.  (Photos courtesy of Jean Dube)

Cast Iron 18-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, ca. 1800-1820.

Bronze Smoothbore Muzzleloading Land Service Mortar, 1-foot, 2-inches, weight 1-1-14 (154 lbs), ca. 1760-1820.

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight unknown, The Carron Company of Falkirk, Scotland (Serial No. unknown, CARRON, year unknown), mounted on wood blocks.

Joliette

 (Streetview Photo)

Cast Iron 18-pounder 10-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, mounted on a naval gun carriage, No. 1 forward of the cenotaph, 570 Rue Archambault.

Cast Iron 18-pounder 10-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, mounted on a naval gun carriage, No. 2 forward of the cenotaph, 570 Rue Archambault.

105-mm C1A1 M2A2 Howitzer, CDN No. unknown, No. 3 forward of the cenotaph, 570 Rue Archambault.

Jonquiere

 (Streetview Photo)

American 90-mm M1A1 AA Gun, mounted in front of Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 209 at 2691 Rue de la Salle.
 
Kahnawake
 
German First World War 7.58-cm leMW n.A. (Serial Nr. unknown).  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade within a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force CEF, in France.  This trench mortar is mounted on top of the cenotaph.

Knowlton, Brome County Historical Society Museum, 120 Lakeside.

German trench mortars of various calibres captured by Canadians, being examined by LGen Sir Julian Byng, after Vimy, May 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3213518)

German First World War Granatenwerfer 16 spigot mortar (Serial Nr. unknown).

 

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), possibly (Serial Nr. 5001), captured by the 3rd Canadian Division.  On base, no wheels.

The 7.58 cm Minenwerfer a.A. (alter Art or old model) (7.58 cm leMW).  The Germans fielded a whole series of mortars before the beginning of the First World War.  Their term for them was Minenwerfer, literally mine-thrower; they were initially assigned to engineer units in their siege warfare role.  By the Winter of 1916-17, they were transferred to infantry units where the leMW's light weight permitted them to accompany the foot-soldiers in the advance.  In common with Rheinmetall's other Minenwerfer designs, the leMW was a rifled muzzle-loader that had hydraulic cylinders on each side of the tube to absorb the recoil forces and spring recuperators to return the tube to the firing position.  It had a rectangular firing platform with limited traverse and elevation.  Wheels could be added to ease transportation or it could be carried by at least six men.  In 1916, a new version, designated as the n.A. or neuer Art, was fielded that included a circular firing platform, giving a turntable effect, which permitted a full 360 degree traverse.  It also had a longer 16 inches (410 mm) barrel and could be used for direct fire between 0° and 27° elevation if the new 90 kg (200 lb) trail was fitted to absorb the recoil forces.  In this mode it was pressed into service as an anti-tank gun.

 

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. unknown), no base, no wheels.  352, G3298 (with an upside down 20 above).  Marked “captured by the 25th Battalion on 18 August 1917”.

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), possibly (Serial Nr. 41214), marked H516, 2.0 MR, mounted on wheels.  Captured by 2nd Battalion (Canadian Mounted Rifles), 2nd Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditonary Force (CEF),

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 6043), 1917 M, captured ca 1918 by the 102ndBattalion (Central Ontario), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  The Official War Record lists this trench mortar as captured by the 10th Battalion, 1st Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in France.

The 17 cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17 cm mMW).  This mortar was useful in destroying bunkers and field fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  It was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a standard hydro-spring recoil system. It fired 50 kilogram (110 lb) HE shells, which contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same calibre.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler. Furthermore, the low velocity allowed for the use of explosives like Ammonium Nitrate-Carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply.  This caused a large number of premature detonations that made crewing the minenwerfer riskier than normal artillery pieces.  A new version of the weapon, with a longer barrel, was put into production at some point during the war.  It was called the 17 cm mMW n/A (neuer Art) or new pattern, while the older model was termed the a/A (alter Art) or old pattern.  In action the mMW was emplaced in a pit, after its wheels were removed, not less than 1.5 meters deep to protect it and its crew.  It could be towed short distances by four men or carried by 17.  Despite its extremely short range, the mMW proved to be very effective at destroying bunkers and other field fortifications.  Consequently its numbers went from 116 in service when the war broke out to some 2,361 in 1918.

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), damaged, no markings visible, possibly (Serial Nr. 1524), captured on 9 April 1917 by the 102ndBattalion (Central Ontario), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Vimy Ridge.

The 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer (German for "mine launcher"), often abbreviated as 25 cm sMW, was a heavy trench mortar developed for the Imperial German Army in the first decade of the 20th century.  It was developed for use by engineer troops for destroying bunkers and fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  The 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a hydro-spring type recoil system.  It fired either a 97 kg (210 lb) shell or a 50 kg (110 lb) shell, both contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same caliber.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler for the same weight shell.  The low velocity also allowed the use of explosives like ammonium nitrate–carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply at the time.  Shells filled with TNT caused a large number of premature detonations, making the Minenwerfer riskier for the gun crew than normal artillery pieces.  In service, the wheels were removed and the sMW was then placed in a pit or trench at least 1.5 meters (4 ft 11 in) deep, protecting the mortar and its crew.  Despite the extremely short range, the sMW proved to be very effective as its massive shells were almost as effective in penetrating fortifications as the largest siege guns in the German inventory, including the 42 centimeters (17 in) Dicke Bertha (Big Bertha), a howitzer that was more than 50 times the weight of the sMW.  The effectiveness of the sMW is indicated by the number in service, which increased from 44 when the war broke out, to 1,234 at its end.  In 1916, a new longer barrelled version was put into production.  This new model, which had a longer range, was designated the 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer neuer Art (German for "new pattern"), which was abbreviated as 25 cm sMW n/A.  The older, short-barrel model was then designated as the 25 cm sMW a/A (alter Art)(German for "old pattern").

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 8382), captured on 9 Oct 1918 by the 5th Battalion (Canadian Mounted Rifles), 8th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditonary Force (CEF), Cambrai, France.  (Normand Roberge Photos)

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of the First World War. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08 Machinegun, mounted on a Schlitten stand, (Serial Nr. 7290).

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Erfurt MG 08/15 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 7446).

German First World War 7.92-mm Schwarzlose Osterreichische Waffen M07.12 MG, Machine Gun, (Serial Nr. 38761), unmounted.  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade, with a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

German First World War 7.92-mm Spandau Maxim Luft Maschinen Gewehr 08/18 (LMG 08/18) air-cooled pair of machine-guns (Serial Nr. 883B),  and (Serial Nr. 921B), mounted on an original Fokker D.VII.

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, Carriage No. 5998, (should be associated with recoil mechanism No. 1016 and barrel No. 26040).  The RCA held 138 of these guns.  In June 1947 the Canadian Army had 149 17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Guns in the inventory.  Infantry anti-tank platoons also used them (apparently under protest). 25 CIBG quickly replaced theirs in Korea, but did not turn them in.  Canada did not manufacture them during the war, but CAL and 202WD carried out a major overhaul on them in the late 1940s.  On 12 Sep 1952, the anti-tank defence role was turned over to the RCAC and the 17-pounders were withdrawn and offered to NATO.   Many later became memorials or gate guards, beginning in 1959. (Doug Knight)

Kahnawake

155-mm M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer, Royal Canadian Legion, Legion Rd and River Rd. 

Labelle

American 90-mm M1A1 AA Gun, park/rest area along Hwy 117.

Lac Megantic

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 6502), no data.  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade within a Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force CEF, in France.  This gun stands in a park facing the lake.

Probable German Second World War 2-cm Flakvierling 38 AA gun barrel on top of a cairn at the Lac Megantic Legion at 3458 Rue Milette.

Lachute

German First World War 7.58-cm leMW n.A. (Serial Nr. 46643).  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  This guns stands in front of Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 70, 634 Rue Lafleur.   (Streetview Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. unknown).  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  No. 1 of 2.  (Streetview Photo)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. unknown).  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  No. 2 of 2.

Lacolle

Cast Iron possible 3-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, mounted on a concrete stand.  It is located next to the Odelltown United Church, 243, route 221.  The plaque behind the gun at Odelltown reads in part: THIS GUN CAPTURED AT THE BATTLE OF ODELLTOWN AND PRESENTED BY THE GOVERNOR GENERAL TO COLONEL EDWARD MARCH WAS DONATED BY HIS GRANDCHILDREN IN 1924 TO THE DOMINION OF CANADA.  From this, and the description of the battle, it is likely that this gun was brought from the USA by the rebels for their attack.  (More details are required to determine its original origin).  (Photos courtesy of Jean Dube)

Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, mounted on a wood carriage.  This gun was found in the Richelieu River in 1961 and given to the city to commemorate the War of 1812.   (Photo courtesy of Jean Dube)

Laval

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, Laval West, Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No. 216, 861 Ste-Rose Blvd.  The RCA held 138 of these guns.  (Author Photos)

Lennoxville

American M116 75-mm Pack Howitzer M1, located beside the Cenotaph, 105 Queen St.  Intersection of Queen St and Samuel-Gratham St.

Lévis, 6th Field Artillery Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery

The 6th Field Artillery Regiment, is a Primary Reserve Royal Canadian Artillery (RCA) regiment located at 10 Arsenal Street, Lévis, Québec.  It is part of 35 Canadian Brigade Group in the 2nd Canadian Division.  Its headquarters is located in Lévis, Quebec.  The regiment is composed primarily of members from different batteries in the regions of Lévis, Montmagny and Val-Belair, and has a total authorized strength of 335.   The 6th Field Artillery Regiment consists of four Batteries.  The 57th Battery surveillance and target acquisition, and the Command and Service Battery are located in Lévis.  The 58th Field Artillery Battery (formerly Air Defense) is located in Val Bel-Air. Finally, the 59th Field Artillery Battery is located in Montmagny.  The 6th Field Artillery Regiment is the first artillery regiment in Canada to be commanded by a woman : Lieutenant-Colonel Chantal Bérubé.

2nd Division Shoulder patch.   Écusson de la 2e Division du Canada

Lévis, 6e Régiment d'artillerie de campagne, RAC

Le 6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne (6 RAC) est un régiment d'artillerie de campagne de la Première réserve de l'Armée canadienne des Forces canadiennes.  Il fait partie du 35e Groupe-brigade du Canadadans la 2Division du Canada.  Son quartier général est situé à 10 Rue Arsenal, Lévis au Québec.  Le régiment est surtout composé de membres provenant des différentes batteries dans les régions de Lévis, Montmagny et Val-Belair, et a un effectif total autorisé de 335.

Le 6 RAC est composé de quatre batteries.  La 57e Batterie de surveillance et d'acquisition d'objectifs, ainsi que la Batterie de Commandement et Service sont situées à Lévis.  La 58e Batterie d'artillerie de campagne (anciennement de défense aérienne) est située à Val Bel-Air. Finalement, la 59e Batterie d'artillerie de campagne est située à Montmagny.  Le 6 RAC est le premier régiment d’artillerie au Canada à être commandé par une femme, la Lieutenant-colonel Chantal Bérubé.

 

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 1022), captured on 8 Aug 1918 by the 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), North of Aubercourt, France. 10 rue de l’Arsenal Lévis.  (Author Photos)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15-cm sFH 02), (Serial Nr. 360), this gun was also captured on 8 Aug 1918 by the 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), North of Aubercourt, France.  10 rue de l’Arsenal.  (Author Photos)

The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 1902 (15 cm sFH 02) was a German heavy field howitzer introduced in 1903.  It was the first artillery piece to use a modern recoil system in the German Army. Some 416 were in service at the beginning of the war.  Its mobility, which allowed it to be deployed as medium artillery, and fairly heavy shell gave the German army a firepower advantage in the early battles in Belgium and France in 1914 as the French and British armies lacked an equivalent.

25-pounder QF Field Gun.  Originally with the Irish Army, now with 6e RAC.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, Camping du Fort De La Martinière, 9825 Bd de la Rive Sud, Lévis, QC G6V 9R4 at the Royal Canadian Legion Memorial.

Lévis, Fort No. 1

Armstrong 7-inch 72-cwt (110-pounder) Rifled Breech-Loading Gun, weight unknown, (Serial No. unknown) Queen Victoria cypher, broad arrow mark, mounted on a long wood traversing carriage on the ramparts of Fort No. 1 facing East.  (Bernard Gagnon Photos 1 & 2, Jean-Phillipe Bourgoin Photo 3)

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, Samuel Walker & Company of Rotherham, England (WCo) on left trunnion, (Serial No. 39) on right trunnion, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage.  (Bernard Gagnon Photo)

Cast Iron 18-pounder 10-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring,  weight and maker unknown, No. 1, unmounted.

Cast Iron 18-pounder 10-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring,  weight and maker unknown, No. 2, unmounted.

Fort No. 1 was was begun in 1865 and was surrounded with a 16-foot deep ditch, which was covered by flank howitzers in each of the fort's caponnieres, as well as loopholes from whence the garrison could fire their rifles at attackers who had made it into the ditch.  The fort was designed to mount twenty big guns, and there were thirteen brick casemates under the terreplein, in which the garrison would be housed and/or be protected whilst under bombardment.  None of the forts was ever garrisoned, though each received a single Armstrong 7-inch 72-cwt (110-pounder) Rifled Breech-Loading Gun in 1878.

Lévis, Fort No. 2

Also begun in 1865, Fort No. 2 had earthen ramparts on three sides and a masonry wall along the back side and a 40' wide ditch surrounded the perimeter. Outside the ditch a 45% sloped earthwork hid the ditch from the enemy.  Two interior caponiers provided protection for the ditches should the enemy penetrate that far. Interior casemates provided quarters for a garrison of about 170 officers and men.  Fort No. 2 was essentially complete by 1 July 1869 except for the bridges over the ditch and the doors.  The Levis Fort No. 2 Site has been overbuilt by an Insurance Building.  It was also armed with a single Armstrong 7-inch 72-cwt (110-pounder) Rifled Breech-Loading Gun in 1878, which appears to have been relocated.

Lévis, Fort No. 3

Fort No. 3 is located near the intersection of Gagnon St. and Boulevard de la Rive South, Levis City.  Construction began on Fort No. 3 on 7 Aug 1865.  All of the forts were of similar but not identical design, differing sites and the necessity to protect one another dictated the differences.  Fort No. 3 had earthen ramparts on three sides and a masonry wall along the back side and a 40' wide ditch surrounded the perimeter.  Outside the ditch a 45% sloped earthwork hid the ditch from the enemy.  Two interior caponiers provided protection for the ditches should the enemy penetrate that far.  Interior casemates provided quarters for a garrison of about 170 officers and men.  Fort No. 3 was essentially complete by 1 Jul 1869 except for the bridges over the ditch and the doors.  The contractors had finished work on both their forts before the Royal Engineers had finished work on Fort No. 1.  In 1878 all three of the forts received a single Armstrong 7-inch 72-cwt (110-pounder) Rifled Breech-Loading Gun, and Fort No. 3's gun remains in situ.  Since all three of the forts faced America and not the Saint Lawrence River they were of little defensive value and by 1905 they were deactivated.

Cast Iron 18-pounder 10-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring,  weight and maker unknown, No. 1, mounted on an iron garrison carriage.

Cast Iron 18-pounder 10-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight and maker unknown, No. 2, mounted on an iron garrison carriage.

Armstrong 7-inch 72-cwt (110-pounder) Breech-Loading Rifle, weight unknown, (Serial No. unknown) Queen Victoria cypher, broad arrow mark, the vent is missing in the breech area.  This gun is mounted on a long wood traversing carriage on the ramparts of the Fort facing South.  (Author Photos)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-18 (1,922 lbs), mounted on an iron garrison carriage, No. 1.  (Author Photos)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring,  weight 17-3-0 (1,988 lbs), mounted on an iron garrison carriage, No. 2.  (Author Photos)

L’Islet-sur-Mer, Musée Maritime du Québec, 55 Pionniers Rue E.

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-12 (1,916 lbs), mounted on a cement carriage.  A cannonball is cemented in the mouth of the gun.  No. 1.  (Author Photo)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight numbers heavily corroded, possibly 17-x-x (>1,900 lbs), mounted on a cement carriage.  A cannonball is cemented in the mouth of the gun, No. 2. (Author Photo)

Longueuil

American 90-mm M1A1 AA Gun, city park.

Maple Grove

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 146, Hwy 132.

Montmagny

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-9 (1,913 lbs), CARRON, 1801, mounted on a wood carriage in front of the 59th Battery, 6 RAC Armoury, Avenue de la Gare.  No. 1.  (Author Photos)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-11 (1,915 lbs), CARRON, 1803, mounted on a wood carriage in front of the 59th Battery, 6 RAC Armoury, Avenue de la Gare.  No. 2.

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-9 (1,913 lbs), CARRON, 1812, mounted on a wood carriage in front of the 59th Battery, 6 RAC Armoury, Avenue de la Gare.  No. 3.  (Author Photo)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-23 (1,927 lbs), CARRON, 1821, mounted on a wood carriage in front of the 59th Battery, 6 RAC Armoury, Avenue de la Gare.  No. 4.  All four guns are in excellent shape.

Montréal, Fusiliers Mont-Royal

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight and maker unknown, CARRON, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage in front of the Fusiliers Mont-Royal Armoury at 3721 Henri Julien Avenue,  No. 1.  (Streetview Photo)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight and maker unknown, CARRON, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage in front of the Fusiliers Mont-Royal Armoury at 3721 Henri Julien Avenue,  No. 2.

Montréal, 2nd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA (2e Régiment d'artillerie de campagne, ARC)

2e ARC is a Royal Canadian Artillery reserve regiment.  It is located in Montreal and shares its headquarters with The Royal Canadian Hussars (Montreal) at the Côte-des-Neiges Armory.  Although there had been temporary volunteer artillery units formed in Montreal as early as 1828, the regiment has its origin in the 3rd Montreal Battery formed in 1855 as a result of the departure of British regular troops for the Crimean War and the passage of the Militia Act of 1855.  Militia forces, including the five field batteries formed, would for the first time be maintained at public expense.  In 1856 the Battalion of Montreal Artillery was formed and in 1895 it was renamed the 2nd "Montreal" Regiment, RCA.  The 2nd Field Regiment reformed in 1966 with initially two and then three batteries, the 7th, 50th, and 66th Field Batteries, each perpetuating a different regiment of the post-war artillery in Montreal.  Côte-des-Neiges Armoury.

 

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer, (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 6219), 1917.  This trench mortar was captured on 8 August 1918 by the 16th Battalion 13th (Canadian Scottish), 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Aubercourt, France.  On display outside the 3e batterie d’artillerie de Montréal Armoury, 4185 De la Côte-des-Neiges Ch.   (Author Photos)

25-pounder QF Field Gun, barrel highly polished and on a stand in a display cabinet inside the armouries.

25-pounder QF Field Gun, with limber and FAT, 2nd Field RCA, 3e batterie d’artillerie de Montréal re-enactment group.

25-pounder QF Field Gun, brought to Canada from Ireland, 2nd Field RCA.

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  This gun is on display outside the 3e batterie d’artillerie de Montréal Armoury.  (Author Photos)

3e Batterie d’artillerie de Montréal, refers to the original 3rd Montreal Field Battery of Artillery, now the 7th Bty of the 2nd Field Artillery Regiment in Montréal, Côte des neiges Armoury.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun.  (Normand Roberge Photos)

Montréal, HMCS Donnacona

Bronze Lyle type Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun (2.5-inch bore), weight and maker unknown, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, 2-inch bore (a 1.9-inch ball is 1 lb).  (Photos courtesy of LCdr Geoff Hamilton)

This gun is is on display inside the ship’s drill hall at 3525 St-Jacques Street.  It was used to fire life lines from ship or shore.  Light-weight rope was shot out to a wreck after it had been carefully wound on a rope-board so it would uncoil without snagging. The crews would then use this rope to haul out the heavier lines which actually carried the breeches buoy. The survivors would brought ashore or to the tugboat in a breeches buoy, which was a pair of canvas pants sewed onto a life-preserver.  These line guns are used primarily for shore based rescue operations.  The shooter would fire, aiming over the victims head and then pull the line within reach of the victim.  They are also useful for rescuing victims that have fallen through the ice, or are stranded on a cliff or burning building.  Boats in distress need larger lines.  Lyle guns were designed to throw projectiles weighing approximately 15 pounds, carrying heavier rope over 1000 feet.  Getting this equipment close to a wreck would have been difficult, given the likelihood the conditions that caused the wreck would still have been present.

Montréal La Tour du Souvenir

Possible 4.7-inch naval gun on a single mounting, No. 1 at La Tour du Souvenir near Alexandra Pier (Originally Victoria Pier).   (NICMM Photo)

Possible 4.7-inch naval gun on a single mounting, No. 2 at La Tour du Souvenir near Alexandra Pier (Originally Victoria Pier).  

Montréal, Isle St Helene

Russian Cast Iron probable 24-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight and Serial No. unknown,  by Foullon at Alexandrovski, with double-headed Eagle, Crimean War trophy.

At least eight Bronze and Cast Iron guns and two large Cast Iron Mortars are on display on the grounds of Fort Stewart.  (Mike B Photo 1, Jean Gagnon Photo 2)

Bronze 12-pounder 18-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, King George III cypher.  (Photos courtesy of Jean Gagnon)

Bronze 24-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, dolphin carrying handles.  (Photos courtesy of Jean Gagnon)


Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, mounted on an iron garrison carriage.  (Photo courtesy of Jean Gagnon)

Cast Iron 10-inch 18-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Land Service Mortar with dolphin handles, one broken.  (Photo courtesy of Jean Gagnon)

Cast Iron 10-inch 18-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Land Service Mortar.

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, unmounted.  (Photo courtesy of Jean Gagnon)

Cast Iron possible 32-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun with Millar pattern breeching ring, unmounted.

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, unmounted.

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, unmounted.

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, unmounted.

Cast Iron possible 6-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, unmounted.

Montréal, Chateau Ramsay

Guns and Mortars, Chateau Ramsay, Montreal, 1955.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4312503)

Montréal, Mont Royal Cemetery

9-pounder 8-cwt Muzzleloading Rifle, weight 8-1-8 (932 lbs), RGF No. unknown, mounted on a ca. 1840 field carriage, No. 1 on the North side of the Section Militaire du cimetière Mont-Royal, on a hill overlooking the military gravestones.  (Author Photos)

9-pounder 8-cwt Muzzleloading Rifle, weight 8-1-9 (933 lbs), RGF No. unknown, mounted on a ca. 1840 field carriage, No. 2 on the South side of the Section Militaire du cimetière Mont-Royal, on a hill overlooking the military gravestones.  (Author Photos)

Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight stamp 6-1-26 (726 lbs), mounted on a concrete stand, inside the iron fence next to the military gravestones.  (Author Photos)

 (Photo courtesy of Jean-Philippe Boulet)

9-pounder 8-cwt Muzzleloading Rifle, weight unknown, RGF No. unknown, mounted on a ca. 1840 field carriage.  This gun stands inside the Cemetery Gates to the National Field of Honour.

Montréal, Place du Canada

25-pounder QF Field Gun, Place du Canada.  A bronze plaque mounted on the gun states: “This 25-pounder QF Field Gun was presented to the city by the Montreal Units of the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery to commemorate the service of the Regiment in time of War.  13 October 1962”.  (Author Photos)

Russian Cast Iron probable 24-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight and Serial No. unknnown, forged by Foullon at Alexandrovski, with double-headed Eagle, Crimean War trophy.  No. 1.  Removed from Place du Canada, possibly in storage for preservation.

Russian Cast Iron probable 24-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight and Serial No. unknown, forged by Foullon at Alexandrovski, with double-headed Eagle, Crimean War trophy.  No. 2.  Removed from Place du Canada, possibly in storage for preservation.

Montréal, CFB Montréal, Longue Point Garrison, Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps (RCOC) Museum, 6560 Hochelaga Street.

12-pounder 6-cwt Breechloading Mk. IV Gun, mounted on a wooden carriage, No. 1.  (One of these guns was recorded in Quebec in 1922: Reg. No. 271.  Another was recorded in Quebec in 1933: Reg. No. 116, RGF 96, with the R22eR, possibly used as time gun in 1921.)  (Author Photos)

12-pounder 6-cwt Breechloading Mk. IV Gun, mounted on a wooden carriage, No. 2.  (Author Photos)

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun.  (Author Photos)

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun.  The RCA held 138 of these guns.  (Author Photo)

25-pounder QF Field Gun, inside the fenced compound.  (Author Photo)

25-pounder QF Field Gun, outside the main gate.  (Author Photos)

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  CFR 40118.  The carriage plate reads: CARR. HOW. 155MM M1A2 CDN. SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD. CANADA (year 1955), REG. NO. CDN 18, INSP (Symbol).  (Author Photos)

4.2-inch Mortar.  (Author Photos)

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun.  (Author Photos)

American 90-mm AA Gun on its wheels in towing form.  (Author Photo)

American 90-mm AA Gun, on its stand.  (Author Photos)

155-mm M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer, (Reg. No. 34802), 1968, AC: MD, ECC: 119204, HUI C: 1941, SAUI C: 1941, VMO No. DLE21343, VMO Date: 10 Jun 2005.

Montréal, Westmount Park

Bronze 12-pounder 18-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, 1810, H.J. King, turned over by the British to the Dominion of Canada government as a gift in 1870.   No. 1.  In storage for restoration.

Broùze 12-pounder 18-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, 1810, H.J. King, turned over by the British to the Dominion of Canada government as a gift in 1870.   No. 2.  In storage for restoration.

Mont Saint Hilaire

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), (Serial Nr. unknown).  This trench mortar was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division, with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

New Carlisle

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 17391), captured on 29 Sep 1918 by the 42nd Battalion, 7th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on the Douai-Cambrai Road West of Tillby, France.  (Author Photos)

Cast Iron probable 3-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, heavily corroded, no markings, mounted on a wooden stand across from the park with the FK 16.  (Author Photos)

Nicolet

8-inch Breechloading Mk. VIII Howitzer M1917, on Mk. VIIA Carriage inside a fenced compound.  After the war, four Mk. VIII howitzers and their firing platforms were brought to Canada with two sent to the 9th Heavy Battery at Halifax (Serial Nos. 952 and 1111), and two sent to the 12th Heavy Battery in Victoria, British Columbia (Serial Nos. 974 and 975).  This gun is possibly the second eastern 8-inch howitzer from the 9th Heavy Battery in Halifax (Serial No. 952).  (Photo courtesy of Maxwell Toms)

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  This gun is inside a fenced compound.  (Photo courtesy of Maxwell Toms)

Pointe-au-Père

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, heavily corroded having been recovered from the shipwreck of Sir Hoveden Walker's ships in 1711.  No. 1.  Located behind the Sea Museum.


Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, heavily corroded having been recovered from the shipwreck of Sir Hoveden Walker's ships in 1711.  No. 2.  Located behind the Sea Museum.  (Streetview Photo)


Blomefield Cast Iron probable 24-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight and maker unknown, mounted on an iron garrison carriage, No. 3.  Rue du Phare.  (Streetview Photo)

Pointe-à-la-Croix

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, probably recovered from a wreck near the site of the Battle of the Restigouche.

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade, recovered from the site of the Battle of the Restigouche.  The Battle of Restigouche was a naval battle fought during the French and Indian War on the Restigouche River between the British Royal Navy and the small flotilla of vessels of the French Navy, Acadian militia and Mi'kmaq militias.  The French vessels had been sent to relieve New France after the fall of Quebec.  Supplies were extraordinarily important because France ran their colonies such that the colonies were wholly dependent on products and manufacturing of the motherland.  The loss of the Battle of Restigouche and the consequent inability to supply the troops, marked the end of any serious attempt by France to keep hold of their colonies in North America, and it severely curtailed any hopes for a lengthy resistance to the British by the French forces that remained.  The battle was the last major engagement of the Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias before the Burying of the Hatchet Ceremony between the Mi'kmaq and the British.  (Wikipedia)

Pointe-à-la-Frégate

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Guns visible at low tide, buried in the sand.  These guns are the remnants of the English frigate HMS Penelope, a ship that ran aground near the area.

Quebec City and the Citadel

The page for artillery preserved in Quebec has grown too large to download quickly, so the guns on display in the Citadel and Quebec City fortifications are listed on a separagte web page.  (This should keep the webpage from crashing).

Quyon

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  This gun was on display in a Memorial Park, but appears to have been moved, location unknown.

Rawdon

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 198 at 3604 Albert St.  (Streetview Photo)

Remparts porte Saint-Jean

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, mounted on an iron garrison carriage, No. 1. (Photo courtesy of Malimage)

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, mounted on an iron garrison carriage, No. 2.

Rimouski

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage.  This gun stands near the cenotaph in the Rimouski Veterans Park (on Hwy 132 between Ave de la Cathedrale and Rue des Marins).

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun.  This gun stands near the cenotaph in the Rimouski Veterans Park.  (Streetview Photo)

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun.  This gun stands near the cenotaph in the Rimouski Veterans Park.

RimouskiHMCS D’Iberville

Rivière du Loup

Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a broken Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 6--- (672 lbs), with broken trunnions mounted on an iron carriage designed for a larger gun.  This Carronade is located on the North side of Fraser Street and Domaine Street facing the St Lawrence River.

Saguenay, HMCS Champlain

Saint Claude

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08 Machinegun (Serial Nr. unknown), mounted on a Schlitten stand, This trench mortar was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division, with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  No. 1 of 2 beside the cenotaph.

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08/15 Machinegun (Serial Nr. unknown), mounted on a home-made tripod.  This weapon was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division, with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  No. 2 of 2 beside the town cenotaph.

Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, CFB Saint Jean

105-mm C1A1 M2A2 Howitzer, Memorial Park in front of the main school building.  (Author Photos)

Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean (CMR), et Le Musée du Fort Saint-Jean, 15, rue Jacques-Cartier Nord

Cast Iron 3-½ pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight and maker unknown, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, 6-feet 7-inches long, small ring on the button, no numbers visible.  No. 1 of 3 guns mounted on the ramparts facing North near the main gate to CMR.  (Author Photos)

Pour cette bouche à feu, seuls le calibre et les dimensions peuvent nous guider, puisque aucun marquage n’est visible. Le canon fait 6 pieds et 7 pouces de long, pour un calibre de plus ou moins 3,5 pouces. Dans l’artillerie britannique, ce calibre correspondrait au canon de 5 livres et quart, dont le boulet devait faire environ 3,34 pouces. Si nos calculs sont exacts et qu’il s’agit bien de ce canon, force est de constater qu’on ne peut aller plus loin; en effet, Mc Connell (1989) ne fait que mentionner ce canon, pour dire qu’il demeure une énigme et que ce calibre avait disparu au milieu du XIXème siècle. Cette rare information est d’autant plus inexplicable que l’auteur mentionne du même souffle un canon de bronze et un de fer pour ce calibre, sans autre précision. Étrange aussi que l’artillerie britannique possède un canon de 4 livres, un de 5 livres et quart ( qui nous intéresse) et un de six livres, tous calibres assez proches, alors que la pièce de quatre livres et celle de six livres pouvaient sans doute remplir les mêmes fonctions. Une possibilité serait que ce canon, qui ne possède pas de monogramme royal, soit une pièce plus ancienne ayant été conservée dans l’inventaire britannique, car certains canons coulés sous le règne de la reine Anne (1702- 1714) en sont exempts (Mc Connell 1989 : 97). Cette hypothèse n’explique cependant pas que des exemplaires en bronze et en fer aient survécu en assez grand nombre pour figurer dans l’inventaire de l’ordonnance britannique en 1825. Une autre explication pourrait être que ce canon non-identifié soit une prise de guerre, mais il ne s’agit que d’une supposition en l’absence d’autres éléments. Si on se base sur les dimensions des canons de 6 livres, le canon dont il est question ici devait sans doute peser autour de 1500-1600 livres.

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight corroded, King George III cypher, mounted on a concrete carriage.  No. 2 of 3 guns mounted on the ramparts facing North near the main gate to CMR.  (Author Photo)

L’exemplaire en place porte le monogramme royal de George III prouvant qu’il fut fabriqué sous le règne de ce dernier, se terminant en 1820. D’ailleurs, le tourillon gauche porte le marquage CARRON 1811, indiquant son année de fabrication par la firme Carron, établie près de Falkirk en Écosse. Par contre, les chiffres 7773 , étampées sur le même tourillon, restent mystérieux; il ne s’agit sans doute pas du poids, puisque selon McConnell 1989 :77-81, les diverses pièces de 24 livres ne dépassaient guère 52 quintaux (5 200 livres), et ce pour le modèle de 10 pieds. Le canon du Fort Saint-Jean, de 9 pieds, ne devait vraisemblablement peser « que » 47 quintaux et 3/4 (4775 livres), excluant son affût, bien sûr. Le tourillon droite est quant à lui étampé 24 Pr, pour « 24 pounder ».

Cast Iron 4-pounder 12-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 12-2-0 (1,400 lbs), King George II cypher heavily corroded.  Mounted on a wood naval gun carriage.  No. 3 of 3 guns mounted on the ramparts facing North near the main gate to CMR.  (Author Photos)

Ce canon de fonte, qui a sans doute séjourné dans l’eau en raison de l’importante détérioration de la surface du métal, représente sans doute une pièce de quatre livres. Bien que le diamètre de la bouche ait été rendu irrégulier par la corrosion, le calibre faisait sans doute entre 3,10 et 3,20 pouces. Il porte un monogramme royal couronné, moulé en relief sur le dessus entre les tourillons, mais il est impossible de Obusier de 24 livres en bronze : à gauche, monogramme de George Murray, à droite, celui de le reine Victoria. l’attribuer directement à George II ou George III. Toutefois, sa longueur (6,13 pieds) et son poids, (1250 livres, indiqué par les chiffres 12-2-0 sur la culasse), correspondraient à un « quatre livres » modèle court destiné à la marine, sans doute fabriqué vers le milieu du XVIIIème siècle; si c’est bien le cas, on pourrait l’attribuer au règne de George II, puisque celui-ci décède en 1760. L’ancienneté de ce canon semble confirmée par le fait que les canons de quatre livres conçus après 1780 sont encore plus courts, ne dépassant pas 5 pieds de long.

Cast Iron 24-pounder 15-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Howitzer, weight 15-0-17 (1,697 lbs), (L) on the left trunnion, (Serial No. 42) on the right trunnion, mounted on an iron garrison carriage, weight 15-2-16 (1,752 lbs).  No. 1 of 2 in front of the Officer’s Mess.

Obusiers de fonte de 24 livres.  Il est identique au premier décrit, sauf en ce qui concerne le chiffre « 45 » sur le tourillon droit, et le poids indiqué sur l’affût, indiqué par les chiffres 15-2-16. Ce dernier doit donc peser 1566 livres, soit un peu plus que son voisin de droit.

Ces deux obusiers en fonte font partie d’un type qui aurait été conçu pour équiper les tours Martello, et furent surtout utilisés dans la défense de garnisons. Les premières mentions d’obusiers de garnison de 24 livres en fonte dateraient d’autour de 1810, mais on possède un dessin à l’échelle daté de 1853 seulement. Leur appellation de « 24 livres », qui devrait normalement désigner le poids de l’obus qui leur était destiné, reste plutôt nébuleuse. Cet obus, de 5 pouces et demie de diamètre pesait en fait 15 livres, tout en étant désigné comme « 5 pouces et demie ou 24 livres » dans une table de projectiles d’artillerie datée de 1825 (McConnell 1989 : 314). Cette pièce ne semble toutefois pas avoir été beaucoup utilisée et il en restait encore quelques exemplaires en 1864, époque à laquelle on la considérait cependant comme périmée. Les dimensions des pièces du Fort Saint-Jean correspondent tout à fait à celles données dans McConnell 1989 :165-167 : diamètre de l’âme de 5,7 pouces (14,4 cm. ), longueur de 40 pouces (correspondant presque exactement à 7 calibres).

Cast Iron 24-pounder 15-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Howitzer, weight 15-0-26 (1,706 lbs), (L) on the left trunnion, (Serial No. 45) on the right trunnion, mounted on an iron garrison carriage.  No. 2 of 2 in front of the Officer’s Mess.

Le tube de l’obusier lui-même porte peu de marquages, soit simplement la flèche de l’ordonnance britannique sur le dessus de la culasse 1 , la lettre « L » sur le tourillon droit, et « 42 » sur le gauche, cette indication marquant peut-être l’année de coulage de la pièce, soit 1842. L’obusier repose sur son affût d’origine , marqué 24 Pr HOWr (24 pounder howitzer) C&H (sans doute les initiales du fondeur) , ainsi que le poids, 15-2-0. Ces derniers 1 Pour la terminologie des diverses parties, voir le dessin à la fin de l’article. Canon de 24 livres. chiffres sont intéressants : le premier indique le nombre de quintaux (1 quintal = 100 livres), le second les quarts de quintaux , et le dernier les livres. L’affût pèse donc : 1 500 livres, + 50= 1550 livres. On trouve d’ailleurs souvent ces inscriptions sur les canons, mortiers ou obusiers eux-mêmes, mais ce n’est pas le cas ici, seul l’affût exhibe son poids. On sait cependant que ces obusiers pesaient entre 13 et 15 quintaux, soit de 1300 à 1500 livres. La pièce et son affût pesaient donc ensemble plus de 3000 livres.

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 16 (7.7-cm FK 16), (Serial Nr. 14585).  This gun was captured on 27 Sep 1918 by the 87th Battalion (Canadian Grenadier Guards), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on the sunken road SW of Bourlon, France.  (Author Photos)

Ce canon baptisé feldkanone 16 ou FK 16 apparut dans l’artillerie allemande en 1916, après que l’armée eut constaté les lacunes du modèle précédent, le FK 96 NA (feldkanone 96 neues Art). Ce premier modèle, apparu en 1896, ne possédait pas la portée des canons français équivalents, ce qui entraîna la nécessité de concevoir le FK 16. La pièce tirait divers type de projectiles : shrapnel, explosifs, fumigènes, éclairants, etc., d’un poids maximal de 6 kg, avec une portée maximale de 11 000 mètres (vs 7 000 mètres pour le FK 96). Après la Grande Guerre, ces canons furent les seules pièces d’artillerie que l’Allemagne fut autorisée à conserver. Ce modèle poursuivit sa carrière dans les années 20 et 30, étant recalibré en 75 millimètres, qui était le format courant des canons de campagne de la plupart des autres nations. Comme tel, ce canon servit encore dans des unités de second échelon et certains exemplaires participèrent même à la bataille de Normandie (Tubergue, 1985 : 996). L'exemplaire du Fort Saint-Jean montre de nombreux marquages, certains à peine discernables sous de nombreuses couches de peinture, la plupart difficiles à déterminer avec précision. On peut donc en conclure que ce canon fut construit, utilisé et capturé entre 1916 et la fin de la guerre en 1918.

Canadian Vickers de Montréal BL 6-pounder saluting gun from HMCS MacKenzie, mounted on an iron deck stand facing the river.  B/R No. L/17117, T G – 1966.  (Author Photos)

Ce petit canon porte une plaque signalant qu’il s’agit « d’un canon de signalisation navale de 6 livres, enlevé du HMCS MacKenzie en 1970 ». Il possède plusieurs marquages dont certains sont illisibles, en raison des nombreuses couches de peinture appliquées au cours des années. Le HMCS MacKenzie était un destroyer d’escorte, construit par la Canadian Vickers de Montréal. Entré en service en 1962, il donna son nom à une classe de destroyers comprenant le Saskatchewan, le Yukon, le Qu’Appelle ainsi que le MacKenzie lui-même. Destiné principalement au lancement de charges anti-submersibles, il était aussi équipé de deux ensembles de deux canons jumelés de 3 pouces (76,2 mm), pour la défense anti-aéronefs. L’un de ces ensembles était constitué de canons de 50 calibres de longueur (3,81 mètres) , l’autre de canons de 70 calibres (5,33 mètres), tous deux de conception britannique. Le canon du Fort Saint-Jean ne correspond pas aux armes susmentionnées, puisque son calibre ne fait que 55 mm et sa longueur 2,59 mètres; il était sans doute utilisé pour la signalisation et le tir de semonce. Quant au bâtiment, sa fonction changea pour devenir un navire-école en 1972, opération au cours de laquelle le canon de signalisation a probablement été détourné de sa fonction originale, puisque c’est en 1970 qu’il fut enlevé, selon sa plaque d’identification. Le destroyer lui-même fut tout de même largement modernisé en 1983, avant d’être déclassé en 1993. Deux ans plus tard, il fut vendu à une société privée, la Artificial Reef Society de Sydney, Colombie-Britannique, qui le décontamina et le fit couler au large de Sydney, dans le dessein de créer un récif artificiel pour la pratique de la plongée sous-marine.

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, No. 1 of 2, NW corner of the parade square.  The RCA held 138 of these guns.  (Author Photos)

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, No. 2 of 2, NE corner of the parade square.  (Author Photos)

Ce canon britannique sortit de chaînes d’assemblages en 1942 et faisait suite à la prise de conscience par l’armée britannique que les blindés allemands étaient devenus de plus en plus protégés. Comme on manquait d’affûts pour les utiliser, certains furent montés sur des affûts de canons de campagne de 25 livres, avant que la production de l’équipement requis fut au point. Leur désignation temporaire était à ce moment « Ordnance QF 17/25, mais leur véritable appellation était « Ordnance, QF de 17 livres ». C’était une arme de 76,2 mm de calibre, assez lourde, mais à profil bas et pouvant soutenir une cadence de tir importante si besoin était. Ce canon représentaint l’une des armes antichar les plus puissantes dont disposaient les Alliés durant la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, et la plupart des armées l’utilisèrent. L’exemplaire du Fort Saint-Jean porte une plaque avec l’inscription : « Canon antichar britannique calibre 17 livres 76,2mm). Nous ignorons à quelle période ces canons cessèrent d’être employés, mais le développement rapide des missiles antichar en a certainement rendu l’usage moins fréquent à partir des années 1960.

Bronùze 24-pounder 18-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, markings partly erased possibly from damage when it was laying in the Richelieu River.  The gun was recently mounted on a wheeled wood carriage.  Monogram of George Murray and Queen Victoria cypher.   (Normand Roberge Photos 1-4, Terry Honour Photo 5)

Obusier de 24 livres en bronze : à gauche, monogramme de George Murray, à droite, celui de le reine Victoria.  Cette pièce représente un excellent exemple des modèles d’obusiers des campagne du XIXème siècle. Les premiers obusiers de ce type sont entrées en service vers 1820 dans l’armée britannique, et leur calibre est passé de 5,66 pouces à 5,7 pouces vers 1830, comme l’exemplaire du fort Saint-Jean. Nous pouvons être certains que cette pièce date d’après 1837, puisqu’elle porte le monogramme de la reine Victoria, régnant à partir de 1837. Cet obusier « de 24 livres » (voir la discussion sur le « 24 livres » au début du rapport), de même qu’un autre semblable de « 12 livres », fut conçu par William Millar pour remplacer les modèles précédents, plus courts. En fait, la longueur de 10 calibres (10 fois 5,7 pouces, ou 57 pouces) rapproche ces obusiers des canons-obusiers de la même époque. Destinés à l’artillerie de campagne, les pièces comme celle du fort Saint-Jean étaient à l’origine montées sur affût de bois à roues, pour un déplacement aisé. Les deux obusiers de Millar ( de « 12 » et « 24 » livres) se déclinaient aussi en version de service naval, se distinguant par l’ajout d’un anneau à la cascabelle et quelques autres détails peu apparents.

Il est maintenant temps de décrire les marquages de cet obusier ; sur le premier renfort, on peut voir le monogramme de la reine Victoria reposant sur une banderole portant la devise: DIEU ET MON DROIT, le tout surmonté d’une couronne en relief. De plus, un autre monogramme est visible sur la volée : il s’agit d’un G et d’un M stylisés, entourés de la devise de l’ordre du Bain, TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO. Une croix de Malte est suspendue à la partie inférieure de la banderole. Il s’agit vraisemblablement du monogramme de sir George Murray, grandObusier de 24 livres en bronze. maître de l’ordonnance ( Master general of the ordnance , MGO), puisqu’il est courant, depuis le XVIIIème siècle, d’intégrer aux pièces d’artillerie le monogramme de ce fonctionnaire haut gradé. Ce symbole peut parfois être surmonté d’un diadème (coronet), si le personnage en question possède un titre de noblesse, ce qui ne semble pas être la cas ici. Sir George Murray occupa le poste de grand-maître à deux reprises : de décembre 1834 à mai 1835, puis de septembre 1841 à juillet 1846. La présence de sa « signature » sur cet obusier, en conjonction avec le monogramme de la reine Victoria nous indique qu’il a été coulé au cours de sa seconde période en fonction, de même que la devise de l’ordre du Bain signifie aussi l’appartenance de Sir George Murray à cet ordre de chevalerie, fondé par le roi George Ier. On voit aussi la flèche de l’ordonnance sur le second renfort. D’autres marquages furent impossibles à interpréter : le premier, NORTH 18, est visible sur le bourrelet de culasse ; le second, arborant les chiffres 2 et 3 séparés chacun par une petite étoile, apparaissent sur la ceinture séparant le premier et le second renfort. En terminant, nous ne pouvons passer sous silence la rareté de telles bouches à feu en bronze, ce qui rend leur conservation d’autant plus importante. Par exemple, sur les 169 pièces d’artillerie dans l’ensemble des lieux et Parcs historiques nationaux gérés par Parcs Canada, il n’existe en tout et pour tout que 10 canons et deux mortiers de bronze.

   Bronze 3-pounder 3-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 3-0-3 (339 lbs), Serial No. 439, IH King (John and Henry King), 1810, Monogram of Lord Chatham Chief of Ordnance (1807-1810), and King George III cypher, inside the Fort St Jean Museum.   (Terry Honour Photos)

Canon de 3 livres en bronze.  Ce canon, placé à l’intérieur du musée, possède un calibre de ± 2,95 pouces (7,5 cm), correspondant à la pièce britannique de trois livres en bronze, dont le calibre original faisant 2,91 pouces pour être légèrement augmenté à 2,95 pouces vers 1845. Plusieurs versions de cette arme virent le jour entre 1720 et 1859, et certains modèles étaient encore en service en 1881. Le canon du musée porte la marque des fondeurs John et Henry King et la date 1810 sur la ceinture du premier renfort (I & H King 1810), ainsi que les chiffres romains CCCCXXXI sur la ceinture du second renfort. On peut aussi voir sur le premier renfort le monogramme royal de George III couronné et entouré du symbole de la jarretière, renfermant l’inscription HONNI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE. Quant à la volée, elle est frappée d’un autre monogramme, cette fois avec la lettre C, et toujours entouré du symbole de la jarretière et de la devise HONNI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE.

Cette dernière marque constitue le sceau du deuxième comte de Chatham, John Pitt, qui fut du grand maître de l’ordonnance britannique du 4 avril 1807 au 5 mai 1810. On peut donc en conclure que la pièce fut coulée dans les premiers mois de l’année 1810. Le canon de trois livres fut fabriqué en diverses longueurs et donc en différents poids, les plus gros mesurant six pieds de long et pesant six quintaux (672 livres), les plus légers ne faisant que trois pieds de long pour un poids d’à peine deux quintaux et demie ( 280 livres). L’exemplaire du musée semble correspondre à l’un des deux modèles conçus par Thomas Blomefield vers les années 1790; il est toutefois légèrement plus court que celui de Blomefield (4 pieds vs 4 pieds et 1,5 pouces), mais un peu plus lourd, à quatre quintaux trois quarts et 9 livres (tel qu’indiqué sur le tourillon droit par les chiffres N 4-3-9), vs quatre quintaux et demie (McConnell 1898 :52). Nous savons également qu’il existe à la même époque un autre canon de longueur identique, portant la même date et la marque du même fondeur (John et Henry King), mais pesant seulement un peu plus de trois quintaux, et dont nous ignorons le concepteur (McConnell 1898 :53).  Ces canons furent conçus pour un déplacement sur affût mobile de campagne, et le poids total de la pièce avec son caisson d’équipement et de munitions pouvait atteindre 12 quintaux (1344 livres) ( Hughes, 1969 :73). Après les guerres napoléoniennes, il semble que l’armée britannique n’ait conservé en service que la version légère de ce canon de trois livres, en tant que pièce de montagne et de service colonial. Son boulet pouvait porter à 1200 verges au maximum (un peu plus de 1 000 mètres), sous une élévation de 4 degrés.  (Ouvrages consultés Hughes, B.P., British smoothbore artillery, Harrisburgh, Stackpole Books, 1969. McConnell, David, L’artillerie lisse britannique: une étude technologique, Ottawa, Service canadien des Parcs, 1989. Tubergue, Jean-Pierre, L’encyclopédie des armes, les forces armées du monde, Paris, Éditions Atlas, 1986).  Rapport d’identification des canons Michel Brassard, Services archéologiques / Service du patrimoine culturel Centre de service du Québec Parcs Canada Avril 2007.

155-mm M109 155-mm SP Howitzer, CFR 85-34825, located at CMR St Jean.  It is located in the north West corner of the college (visible from the road).  (Terry Honour Photos)

Sayabec

German First World War 10.5-cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 (10.5-cm FH 98/09), (Serial Nr. 2908).  This gun was captured on 9 Oct 1917 by the 27th Battalion (City of Winnipeg), 6th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near the edge of Farbus Wood at Vimy, France.  The gun was taken over by the 4th Howitzer Battery and used in action against the Germans.   It was on display in a park at Tournant-de-la-Rivière de Sayabec.  The gun was relocated to the Municipal Park in 1977.  (Photo courtesy of Amqui)

Sept-Îles, HMCS Joliet

Shawville

25-pounder QF Field Gun, located in a small park.  (Photo courtesy of Normand Roberge)

Shawinigan

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 77, acquired from the 62nd Field Regiment (Shawinigan) in 2002.   (Photos courtesy of Michel Lapointe)

Shawinigan, 62nd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA

The 62nd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA (62e Régiment d'artillerie de campagne, ARC) is a Primary Reserve Royal Canadian Artillery (RCA) regiment of the Canadian Army that has its own military band and is located in Shawinigan, Quebec.  It recruits primarily in Shawinigan, Joliette and Victoriaville.  Sub units of 62e include the 81st Field Battery and the 185th Field Battery.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, on loan to 62 RAC from HMCS Radisson, Trois-Rivières (Marine).  (Photos courtesy of LCol Yvon Begin)

Sherbrooke

Cast Iron 18-pounder 10-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight stamp 9-3-11 (1,103 lbs), mounted on an iron garrison carriage, to the right of the Sherman tank.  (Author Photos)

Blomefield Cast Iron 9-pounder 19-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight stamp 19-3-21 (2,233 lbs), maker and Serial No. unknown, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, mounted on a concrete stand, left of the Sherman tank.  (Author Photos)

QF 4-inch Gun Mk XVI mounted in a Naval gun turret, in front of the ANAF Veterans Unit No. 318 at 300 St Francis St.  (Streetview Photo)

Sorel

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun No. 1, mounted on a concrete stand behind the Governor's Cottage at 90 des Patriotes Road.

Cast Iron Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun No. 2, mounted on a concrete stand behind the Governor's Cottage at 90 des Patriotes Road.

Saint-Agathe-des-Monts

German Great War 24-cm Flügelminenwerfer ‘Iko’, Albrecht (finned smoothbore Trench Mortar), (Serial Nr. 1351), no data.  This trench mortar was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in France.  It is mounted on a concrete stand at the corner of Rue St Joseph and Rue Leblanc.  (Streetview Photo)

Saint-Félicien

 

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-11 (1,915 lbs), mounted on a wood carriage, No. 1 of 4.  (Normand Roberge Photos)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-3 (1,907 lbs), mounted on a wood carriage, No. 2 of 4.  (Normand Roberge Photos)

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-0-21 (1,925 lbs), mounted on a wood carriage, No. 3 of 4.  (Normand Roberge Photos)

 

Cast Iron 32-pounder 17-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, weight 17-2-0 (1,960 lbs), mounted on a wood carriage, No. 4 of 4.  (Normand Roberge Photos)

Blomefield Cast Iron 32-pounder 56-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, Samuel Walker & Company of Rotherham, England (WCo) on left trunnion, (Serial No. 161) on right trunnion, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage.  No. 1.  (Normand Roberge Photos)

12-pounder 6-cwt Breechloading Mk. I Gun, weight 6-0-12 (682 lbs), (RGF No. unknown) on the left trunnion, blank on the right trunnion, Queen Victoria cypher, mounted on a wheeled iron carriage.  This gun stands facing the water, No. 1 of 2.  The telescopic sight bracket on the right indicates this gun is a Mk 1.  (Normand Roberge Photos)

12-pounder 6-cwt Breechloading Mk. I Gun, weight 6-0-8 (680 lbs), (RGF No. unknown) on the left trunnion, blank on the right trunnion, Queen Victoria cypher, mounted on a wheeled iron carriage.  This gun stands facing the water, No. 2 of 2.   (Normand Roberge Photos)

Saint-Hubert

155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 159, 4040 Montee St Hubert.

Saint-Hyacinthe

M30 4.2-inch Mortar, located beside a war memorial.

Saint-Jérôme

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr.  3743), no data.  This gun was likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion within an Infantry Brigade of a Canadian Division in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in France.  No. 1 in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 190, 940 Rue du Souvenir.  (Streetview Photo)

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, No. 2 in front of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 190, 940 Rue du Souvenir.

Sainte-Thérèse

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun mounted on a wheeled carriage), No. 1 of 2 flanking the cenotaph at place du Souvenir at the corner of Rue Saint-Charles and Rue Saint-Louis.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun mounted on a wheeled carriage), No. 2 of 2 flanking the cenotaph at place du Souvenir at the corner of Rue Saint-Charles and Rue Saint-Louis.

155-mm M109 Self-propelled Howitzer, (Reg. No. unknown), 1 rue Lamarque.

Sutton

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, No. 1 of 2, flanking the cenotaph on Maple Street and Hwy 139.  (Photo courtesy of Terry Honour)

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, No. 2 of 2, flanking the cenotaph on Maple Street and Hwy 139.  (Photos courtesy of Terry Honour)

Témiscaming

5.5-inch Breechloading Mk. III Gun on a Mk. I Carriage, city park.  Canada made carriages for these guns during the Second World War, and after the war acquired 85 of them for the RCA.  The gun fired a 45.5-kg (100-pound) shell to a range of 14,800 metres (16,200 yards).

4.5-inch Breechloading Mk. III Gun on a Mk. I Carriage, Canadian Gunners, 2nd Medium Regiment, RCA, Netherlands, 2 Apr 1945.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3209132)

Terrebonne

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art (7.57-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. 305), no data.  765 Rue Léopold Lachapelle.  (Internet Photo)

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, No. 1 of 2, beside the War Memorial.  (Author Photos)

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, No. 2 of 2, beside the War Memorial.  The RCA held 138 of these guns. (Author Photos)

25-pounder QF Field Gun, Mascouche.

Trois-Rivières

Russian Cast Iron 24-pounder Gun, weight and Serial No. unknown, forged by Foullon at Alexandrovski, with double-headed Eagle, Crimean War trophy, mounted on a wooden box, Place d’Armes.  (Photo courtesy of Daniel Robert)

Trois-Rivières, HMCS Radisson

QF BL 3-inch/50 Gun on a Naval gun mount, No. 1 of 2, in front of the Naval Reserve HQ.  1000, Île Saint-Christophe.  (Photos courtesy of J.L.C. Primeau)

QF BL 3-inch/50 Gun on a Naval gun mount, No. 2 of 2, in front of the Naval Reserve HQ.  (Photos courtesy of J.L.C. Primeau)

12-pounder 8-cwt QF Royal Navy Landing Gun, Flag Ceremony, Cornwallis, 1965.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4821529)

(Photos courtesy of LCol Yvon Begin)

 (Photos courtesy of WO Michel Paprocki)

 (Photos courtesy of LCdr Martin Bouchard)

12-pounder 8-cwt QF Royal Navy Landing Gun, weight 7-3-10 (878 lbs), Gun Serial No. TBC, Breech Block Serial No. TBC, Carriage weight 6-cwt, Admiralty No. 17, dated 1896, with Limber.  King Edward VII cypher.  The 12-pounder 8-cwt Naval Landing Gun was carried on ships of the British and Commonwealth navies for use by naval landing parties.  This gun is on loan to 62e RAC from HMCS Quebec, (Naval Cadet Unit), Trois-Rivières (Marine).  The Naval Landing Guns found in Canada probably originated on early ships of the Royal Canadian Navy, such as HMCS Niobe, HMCS Aurora, HMCS Rainbow and others.  Details on the gun may be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordnance_QF_12_pounder_8_cwt.

CFB Valcartier

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), (Serial Nr. 1098), 1916, 788 M.V.  This gun was captured on 27 Aug 1918 by the Royal 22nd Regiment, 5th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), near Cherisy, France.  This gun is on display beside the Garrison Officer’s Mess.  The barrel of the gun is in the recoil position.  (Photos courtesy of James Simmonds)

The 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), was a German heavy field howitzer.  The gun was a development of the previous standard howitzer, the 15 cm sFH 02.  Improvements included a longer barrel resulting in better range and a gun shield to protect the crew.  Variants were: the original "kurz" (L/14 – 14 calibre short barrel version), the lg. sFH13 with a longer barrel; and lg. sFH13/02 with minor modifications to simplify wartime manufacture of the lg. sFH weapons. Initially there were serious issues of weak recoil spring mechanisms that would break, and gun barrel explosions.  The problems were solved with the upgrades.  The British referred to these and their shells as "5 point 9"s or "5 9"s as the bore was 5.9 inches (150 mm).  The ability of these guns to deliver mobile heavy firepower close to the frontline gave the Germans a major firepower advantage on the Western Front early in the First World War, as the French and British lacked an equivalent.  It was not until late 1915 that the British began to deploy their own 6 inch 26 cwt howitzer.  About 3,500 of these guns were produced from 1913 to 1918.

7.5-cm PaK 40 Anti-Tank Gun, Italy.  (Willi Ude Photo, Wikipedia)

German Second World War 7.5-cm PaK 40 AT Gun (Serial Nr. unknown), in front of the WO and Sgt’s Mess.  (James Simmonds Photo, left, Chadley Wagar Photo, right)

6-pounder 7-cwt AT Gun, 3rd AT Regt, RCA, UK, 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4542723)

6-pounder 7-cwt QF Anti-Tank Gun, Building 302 (Men’s Quarters).  (Author Photos)

25-pounder, 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery near Cattolica, Italy, 9 September 1944.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo 1, MIKAN No. 3533088), and 25-pounder QF Field Gun, CMP FAT.   (Library and Archives Canada Photo 2, MIKAN No. 3607521).

25-pounder QF Field Guns, two, in front of Building 513 (5e GBMC HQ) HQ.  (Author Photos)

25-pounder QF Field Gun, stored in a  5e RALC hangar.

25-pounder QF Field Gun,  used for funerals, also stored in a 5e RALC hangar.

105-mm C1A1, Canada Day salute, Ottawa, 1960.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4234683)

105-mm C1A1 M2A2 Howitzer, CDN No. unknown, Building 311 (5 RALC).  (Author Photo)

105-mm L5 Pack Howitzer, Building 311 (5 RALC).  (Author Photo)

155-mm M109 SP Howitzer, Fallex Oct 87, Germany.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4730776)

155-mm M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer, (Reg. No. 77246), 1985, AC: MD, ECC: 119205 HUI C: 1735 SAUI C: 1735, VMO No. DLE21950, VMO Date: 15 Aug 2005.  Building 311 (5 RALC).  (Author Photos)

DRDC Valcartier

Blomefield Cast Iron 12-pounder 34-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 34-0-11 (3,819 lbs), Samuel Walker & Company of Rotherham, England (WCo) on left trunnion, (Serial No. 168) on right trunnion, King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, DRDC Building.

Blomefield Cast Iron 12-pounder 34-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight 34-0-11 (3,819 lbs), Samuel Walker & Company of Rotherham, England (WCo) on left trunnion, (Serial No. 172), King George III cypher, broad arrow mark, DRDC Building.

Victoriaville

17-pounder anti-tank gun of the 57th Battery, 1st Anti-Tank Regiment, RCA near Campobasso, Italy, 25 October 1943.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3599876)

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, located in a small park across the street from Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 86 at 34 Rue Saint Maire.  Photo courtesy of Terry Honour)

 

25-pounder QF Field Gun, originally owned by the Royal Canadian Legion on 232 8th Ave., in Asbestos, this gun now stands beside the 17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun in a small park across the street from Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 86 at 34 Rue Saint Maire in Victoriaville.   (Photos 1 & 2 courtesy of Terry Honour, PTCRAZY Photo 3)

Le 25 livre de la LRC Filiale Asbestos 232 8th Ave, était la propriété de la Filiale No. 86 de Victoriaville. Lors de la fermeture de la Filiale d'Asbestos, le canon a été déménagé à Victoriaville. Il apparait sur votre site internet dans la section Victoriaville.

40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, Breech Casing No L. 30968 O.F.E./C, Made in Canada by the Otis-Fensom Elevator Company Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, 1944.  The gun has been moved from the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 41, 136 Grove Street in Danville to Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 86 located at 34 rue Ste-Marie in Victoriaville and is awaiting restoration.  (Photos courtesy of Jacques Verville)

Le Bofors de la Filiale No. 41 de Danville a été donné et déménagé à la Filiale No. 86 situé  au 34 rue Ste-Marie à Victoriaville et est en attente pour une restauration.

Waterloo

155-mm C1A1 Howitzer, aka M114 in service, ca 1950s.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4235877)


155-mm C1 (M1A2) Towed Medium Howitzer, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher.  Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 70, 77 Lewis E. Street.  (Streetview Photo)

Windsor

Blomefield Cast Iron 24-pounder 50-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight, maker and Serial No. unknown, beside the cenotaph on Rue Principale 100m south of Hwy 249.  (Streetview Photo)