Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Artillery (6) Québec, Knowlton, Brome County Historical Society Museum

Artillery in QuébecKnowlton, 

Brome County Historical Society Museum

Data current to 14 July 2019.

The aim of this website is to locate, identify and document every historical piece of artillery preserved in Canada.  Many contributors have assisted in the hunt for these guns to provide and update the data found on these web pages.  Photos are by the author unless otherwise credited.  Any errors found here are by the author, and any additions, corrections or amendments to this list of Guns and Artillery in Canada would be most welcome and may be e-mailed to the author at hskaarup@rogers.com.

For all official data concerning the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, please click on the link to their website:

Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Website

Une traduction au français pour l'information technique présente serait grandement apprécié. Vos corrections, changements et suggestions sont les bienvenus, et peuvent être envoyés au hskaarup@rogers.com

Canadian field batteries were combined to form the Royal CanadiaField Artillery (RCFA), which in 1905 became the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery (RCHA).  The garrison companies would become the Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery (RCGA).

Les batteries de campagne seront amalgamées plus tard au sein de la Royal Canadian Field Artillery (RCFA) qui, en 1905, deviendra la Royal Canadian Horse Artillery (RCHA): pour leur part, les compagnies de garnison donneront la Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery (RCGA).

Knowlton, Brome County Historical Society Museum, 120 Lakeside, Quebec.

German trench mortars of various calibres captured by Canadians, being examined by LGen Sir Julian Byng, after Vimy, May 1917.  (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3213518)

German First World War Granatwerfer 16 spigot mortar (Serial Nr. unknown).

 

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), possibly (Serial Nr. 5001), captured by the 3rd Canadian Division.  On base, no wheels.

The 7.58 cm Minenwerfer a.A. (alter Art or old model) (7.58 cm leMW).  The Germans fielded a whole series of mortars before the beginning of the First World War.  Their term for them was Minenwerfer, literally mine-thrower; they were initially assigned to engineer units in their siege warfare role.  By the Winter of 1916-17, they were transferred to infantry units where the leMW's light weight permitted them to accompany the foot-soldiers in the advance.  In common with Rheinmetall's other Minenwerfer designs, the leMW was a rifled muzzle-loader that had hydraulic cylinders on each side of the tube to absorb the recoil forces and spring recuperators to return the tube to the firing position.  It had a rectangular firing platform with limited traverse and elevation.  Wheels could be added to ease transportation or it could be carried by at least six men.  In 1916, a new version, designated as the n.A. or neuer Art, was fielded that included a circular firing platform, giving a turntable effect, which permitted a full 360 degree traverse.  It also had a longer 16 inches (410 mm) barrel and could be used for direct fire between 0° and 27° elevation if the new 90 kg (200 lb) trail was fitted to absorb the recoil forces.  In this mode it was pressed into service as an anti-tank gun.

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), (Serial Nr. unknown), no base, no wheels.  352, G3298 (with an upside down 20 above).  Marked “captured by the 25th Battalion on 18 August 1917”.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer neuer Art, (7.58-cm leMW), possibly (Serial Nr. 41214), marked H516, 2.0 MR, mounted on wheels.  Captured by 2nd Battalion (Canadian Mounted Rifles), 2nd Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF),

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 17-cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17-cm mMW), (Serial Nr. 6043), 1917 M, captured ca 1918 by the 102ndBattalion (Central Ontario), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.  The Official War Record lists this trench mortar as captured by the 10th Battalion, 1st Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in France.

The 17 cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17 cm mMW).  This mortar was useful in destroying bunkers and field fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  It was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a standard hydro-spring recoil system. It fired 50 kilogram (110 lb) HE shells, which contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same calibre.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler. Furthermore, the low velocity allowed for the use of explosives like Ammonium Nitrate-Carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply.  This caused a large number of premature detonations that made crewing the minenwerfer riskier than normal artillery pieces.  A new version of the weapon, with a longer barrel, was put into production at some point during the war.  It was called the 17 cm mMW n/A (neuer Art) or new pattern, while the older model was termed the a/A (alter Art) or old pattern.  In action the mMW was emplaced in a pit, after its wheels were removed, not less than 1.5 meters deep to protect it and its crew.  It could be towed short distances by four men or carried by 17.  Despite its extremely short range, the mMW proved to be very effective at destroying bunkers and other field fortifications.  Consequently its numbers went from 116 in service when the war broke out to some 2,361 in 1918.

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 25-cm schwerer Minenwerfer alt Art (25-cm sMW), damaged, no markings visible, possibly (Serial Nr. 1524), captured on 9 April 1917 by the 102ndBattalion (Central Ontario), 11th Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), at Vimy Ridge.

The 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer (German for "mine launcher"), often abbreviated as 25 cm sMW, was a heavy trench mortar developed for the Imperial German Army in the first decade of the 20th century.  It was developed for use by engineer troops for destroying bunkers and fortifications otherwise immune to normal artillery.  The 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar that had a hydro-spring type recoil system.  It fired either a 97 kg (210 lb) shell or a 50 kg (110 lb) shell, both contained far more explosive filler than ordinary artillery shells of the same caliber.  The low muzzle velocity allowed for thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler for the same weight shell.  The low velocity also allowed the use of explosives like ammonium nitrate–carbon that were less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply at the time.  Shells filled with TNT caused a large number of premature detonations, making the Minenwerfer riskier for the gun crew than normal artillery pieces.  In service, the wheels were removed and the sMW was then placed in a pit or trench at least 1.5 meters (4 ft 11 in) deep, protecting the mortar and its crew.  Despite the extremely short range, the sMW proved to be very effective as its massive shells were almost as effective in penetrating fortifications as the largest siege guns in the German inventory, including the 42 centimeters (17 in) Dicke Bertha (Big Bertha), a howitzer that was more than 50 times the weight of the sMW.  The effectiveness of the sMW is indicated by the number in service, which increased from 44 when the war broke out, to 1,234 at its end.  In 1916, a new longer barrelled version was put into production.  This new model, which had a longer range, was designated the 25 cm schwerer Minenwerfer neuer Art (German for "new pattern"), which was abbreviated as 25 cm sMW n/A.  The older, short-barrel model was then designated as the 25 cm sMW a/A (alter Art)(German for "old pattern").

(Normand Roberge Photos)

German First World War 7.7-cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7-cm FK 96 n.A.), (Serial Nr. 8382), captured on 9 Oct 1918 by the 5th Battalion (Canadian Mounted Rifles), 8th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditonary Force (CEF), Cambrai, France.

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) is a German field gun.  The gun combined the barrel of the earlier 7.7 cm FK 96 with a recoil system, a new breech and a new carriage. Existing FK 96s were upgraded over time.  The FK 96 n.A. was shorter-ranged, but lighter than the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the British Ordnance QF 18 pounder gun; the Germans placed a premium on mobility, which served them well during the early stages of the First World War. However, once the front had become static, the greater rate of fire of the French gun and the heavier shells fired by the British gun put the Germans at a disadvantage. The Germans remedied this by developing the longer-ranged, but heavier 7.7 cm FK 16.  As with most guns of its era, the FK 96 n.A. had seats for two crewmen mounted on its splinter shield.

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08 Machinegun, mounted on a Schlitten stand, (Serial Nr. 7290).

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Erfurt MG 08/15 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 7446).

 (Author Photos)

German First World War 7.92-mm Schwarzlose Osterreichische Waffen M07.12 MG, Machine Gun, (Serial Nr. 38761), unmounted.  Likely captured ca 1918 by a Battalion of an Infantry Brigade, with a Canadian Division, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), in France.

 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.92-mm Spandau Maxim Luft Maschinen Gewehr 08/18 (LMG 08/18) air-cooled pair of machine-guns (Serial Nr. 883B),  and (Serial Nr. 921B), mounted on an original Fokker D.VII.

 (Author Photos)

17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Gun, Carriage No. 5998, (should be associated with recoil mechanism No. 1016 and barrel No. 26040).  The RCA held 138 of these guns.  In June 1947 the Canadian Army had 149 17-pounder QF Towed Anti-Tank Guns in the inventory.  Infantry anti-tank platoons also used them (apparently under protest). 25 CIBG quickly replaced theirs in Korea, but did not turn them in.  Canada did not manufacture them during the war, but CAL and 202WD carried out a major overhaul on them in the late 1940s.  On 12 Sep 1952, the anti-tank defence role was turned over to the RCAC and the 17-pounders were withdrawn and offered to NATO.   Many later became memorials or gate guards, beginning in 1959. (Doug Knight)