Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   www.SilverHawkAuthor.com   
 
Artillery, Tanks and AFVs in the USA: Maine (Part I)

Artillery, Tanks and Armoured Fighting Vehicles in Maine (Part I)

Data current to 21 Oct 2019.

One of the aims of this website is to locate, identify and document every historical piece of artillery and all armoured fighting vehicles preserved in New England.  Many contributors have assisted in the hunt for these tangible pieces of our military history and the list you see here is constantly being revised as new finds are discovered and the data is updated.  The photos have come from various contributors, but the author likes to "ground truth" the reports, so a good number of the photos are by the author unless otherwise credited.  Any errors found here are by the author.   It often happens that military monuments that are relatively mobile, have been moved for restoration or scrapped, sometimes they are repainted with different markings and serial numbers, or they are replaced with a different piece of kit.  For those reasons, any additions, deletions, corrections or amendments that you may be able to add to this list of Artillery and AFVs in New England would be most welcome and may be e-mailed to the author at hskaarup@rogers.com.  The primary aim is preserve our military history and to keep the record accurate. 

Augusta

 (Author Photos, 28 May 2019)

M48A1 Patton Main Battle Tank, American Legion Post 2, Capitol St.

Maine State Capitol Building, Augusta.  (Author Photo)

Bangor

 (Author Photos)

Cast Iron possibly 24-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun, weight unknown, mounted on a concrete stand.  This gun was on board one of Commodore Saltonstall's Sloops of War, blown up in Bangor's harbour during the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition in August, 1776.  It was recovered in August, 1876, and is heavily corroded.   It is located in a park between State and Central Streets, pointing toward the Joshua Chamberlain Bridge and the Brewer shore, beside the Bronze Spanish 18-pounder RML Gun.

Bangor and the Penobscot River saw their share of battles in the Revolutionary War and in the War of 1812.  In 1779 during the Revolutionary War the British navy took control of Castine using only three warships and began building a fort. The Americans sent 19 warships and 24 troop ships carrying about 1,000 men to Castine to oust the British, who countered by sending three more warships and four transport ships.

Despite outnumbering the British, American Commodore Dudley Saltonstall ordered his men to flee up the Penobscot River after he and his men reached Castine on 24 July. American ground troops, led by Paul Revere, abandoned their ships near Bangor and fled into the Maine woods, headed to the Augusta area. The British burned American ships in Winterport, about 15 miles from Bangor, leaving 20 ships to escape to the mouth of the Kenduskeag Stream in Bangor. Of the 20 ships that remained, the Americans scuttled 10.  Saltonstall was court-martialed for cowardice.

Thirty-five years later, in 1814, the British returned in the War of 1812 and hammered American forces in the Battle of Hampden, which borders Bangor to the south, before moving on to Bangor and forcing its selectmen to surrender unconditionally.  A thick fog crept through the Penobscot Valley as militiamen from the Greater Bangor area waited for the British on 3 Sep 1814. When the Americans heard the British coming sometime between 7 a.m. and 8 a.m., they began firing their guns. But this time the British clearly had the upper hand, using two warships in the Penobscot to bombard American troops on land. Once again, the British chased the Americans to Bangor. 

Although the British crushed the Americans, casualties for both sides were light: One British troop died, nine were wounded, and one went missing; one American troop died, 11 troops were wounded, and one civilian died watching the battle. The British captured 80 Americans as prisoners of war.

After forcing the Bangor selectmen to surrender their town, the British looted shops and homes and occupied the town for 30 hours. Before leaving, they threatened to burn ships in Bangor's harbor and unfinished ships on stocks. The Bangor selectmen feared the fires from the ships on stocks would spread into the town and destroy everything, so they struck a deal with the British in which they put up a bond and promised to deliver the ships by the end of November.

With the bond and the frightened Americans' promise to deliver the unfinished ships, the British floated the seaworthy ships into the middle of the Penobscot and set ablaze all but two ships, one brig, six schooners, and three sloops. They then took the remaining ships, horses and cattle back to their post in Castine, which they occupied until 26 April 1815, when they left for Canada.  The British didn't stay longer than 30 hours because in the midst of celebrating their victory with rum they became drunk and in danger of becoming vulnerable, according to one account of the British occupation.  (Ryan R. Robbins)

 (Author Photos)

Spanish Bronze 18-pounder rifled muzzle-loading (RML) Gun with Dolphin carrying handles mounted on an iron stand.  This Gun was cast in a Spanish foundry ca 1790 and was used for coastal defence Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, until it was removed during the Spanish-American War.   It is located in Kenduskeag Parkway, downtown Bangor between State and Central streets, pointing toward the Joshua Chamberlain Bridge and the Brewer shore.  It stands beside the Cast Iron possibly 24-pounder Smoothbore Muzzleloading Gun from one of Commodore Saltonstall's Sloops of War, blown up in Bangor's harbour during the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition in August, 1776.

Bangor, Cole Land Transportation Museum

 (Author Photos)

M60A3 Patton tank (Serial No. 4120A), part of the State of Maine Vietnam Veterans Memorial Park, near the Cole Land Transportation Museum, 405 Perry Rd.

 (Author Photo)

Bell UH-1D Iroquois (Serial No. 65-9915), Vietnam Memorial.  This Huey Helicopter was found at Patrick Air Force Base in Florida and served in Vietnam during the war.  At one time it suffered a crash landing but was recovered and placed back into service.  It was placed on 12 September 2003.

 (Author Photo)

M3 Half-track, inside the Cole Land Transportation Museum, 405 Perry Rd.

Bar Harbor

  (V.F. Thomas Co Photo)

 (Campbase Camping Photo)

 (Author Photos, 27 May 2019)

10-inch cast iron Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, No. 1 of 2, mounted side by side on a concrete stand, cannon near town pier end of Shore Path.

 

 (Author Photos, 27 May 2019)

10-inch cast iron Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, No. 2 of 2, mounted side by side on a concrete stand, cannon near town pier end of Shore Path.

These Rodman gun are part of a series of American Civil War–era Columbiads designed by Union artilleryman Thomas Jackson Rodman (1815–1871).  These heavy guns were designed to fire both shot and shell and were intended to be mounted in seacoast fortifications.  They were built in 8-inch, 10-inch, 13-inch, 15-inch, and 20-inch bore sizes.  Other than size, the guns were all nearly identical in design, with a curving bottle shape and large flat cascabels with ratchets or sockets for the elevating mechanism.  Rodman guns were true guns that did not have a howitzer-like powder chamber, as did many earlier columbiads.  Rodman guns differed from all previous artillery because they were hollow cast, a new technology that Rodman developed that resulted in cast-iron guns that were much stronger than their predecessors.

Rodman guns were mounted on three types of carriages, a front-pintle barbette carriage, a center-pintle barbette carriage, and a casemate carriage.  All of these carriages were made of wrought iron.

Bath

 (MKFI Photo)

QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss Mark I, (57-mm 45-calibre) Bridgeport coastal gun.

QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss Mark I, U.S. Navy, dated 1900, made at the Washington Navy Yard.  This gun is located at Washington Street, across from the Bath Iron Works.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss Gun and crew on USS Oregon circa. 1896-1901.

The QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss was a light 2.25-inch (57-mm) naval gun and coast defence gun of the late 19th century used by many countries including the USA. The Hotchkiss six pounder (called the Rapid Fire gun rather than Quick Firer in the US) was used in United States Navy and Army service in conjunction with another maker's design, its primary rival being the Driggs-Schroeder six pounder.  One shipbuilding and naval supply company, Cramp & Sons, had a license to build both the Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder and sold both to the Navy in parallel. Both Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder guns used the same ammunition and eventually the Navy made certain that the ammunition for both was identical.  The six pounders were largely replaced by 3-inch (76-mm) RF naval guns starting around 1910.

The US Army also used the Hotchkiss six pounder. As the primary defender of coastal fortifications and harbors, the US Army had the need for lighter guns to supplement their shore batteries. Driggs-Schroeder guns, manufactured by the American Ordnance Company and designated Mark II and Mark III, were adopted along with Driggs-Seabury weapons designated M1898 and M1900.  The mountings for the Army six pounders were called "rampart mounts" or "parapet mounts", wheeled carriages with fittings that allowed them to be secured to pintle mounts.  (Wikipedia)

 

 (Taoab Photos)

10-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, Civil War Memorial, in front of the Bath Court House.

 (BA Bartlett Photo)

Cast iron 24-cwt smoothbore muzzleloading Gun, weight 24-3-24 (2,796 lbs), King George II raised cypher, broad arrow, mounted on a concrete stand in Library Park.

Belfast

 (Taoab Photo)

Cast-iron 24-pounder 50-cwt smoothbore muzzle-loading Gun, (ca. 1775 - 1815), weight 49-1-0 (5,516 lbs), Serial No. 38.  Grove Cemetery.

 

 (Author Photos, 5 Oct 2018)

IX-inch Dahlgren 32-pounder smoothbore muzzle-loading Shell Gun, C.A. & Co. No. 169 on the barrel, (P, TAH) on the left trunnion, (32 Pdr, 1865) on the right trunnion, mounted on an iron stand, No. 1 of 2, beside the Civil War Memorial, outside the Belfast Memorial Hall.

 

 (Author Photos, 5 Oct 2018)

IX-inch Dahlgren 32-pounder smoothbore muzzle-loading Shell Gun, C.A. & Co. No. 170 on the barrel, (P, TAH) on the left trunnion, (32 Pdr, 1866) on the right trunnion, mounted on an iron stand, No. 2 of 2, beside the Civil War Memorial, outside the Belfast Memorial Hall.

Bridgton

10-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, Farragut Park, Route 302. 

8-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 8-inch smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1844), weight 9,240-lbs, converted rifle.  Farragut Park, Route 302.

Vickers/Maxim QF 1 pounder 37-mm Automatic Gun (ca. 1890’s). Farragut Park, Route 302.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

 

Maxim-Nordenfelt 37-mm 1-pounder auto-cannon on board USS Vixen (PY-4).  (USN Photo)

The QF 1 pounder, universally known as the pom-pom due to the sound of its discharge, was a 37-mm British auto-cannon, the first of its type in the world. It was used by several countries initially as an infantry gun and later as a light anti-aircraft gun.

Hiram Maxim originally designed the Pom-Pom in the late 1880s as an enlarged version of the Maxim machine gun. Its longer range necessitated exploding projectiles to judge range, which in turn dictated a shell weight of at least 400 grams (0.88 lb), as that was the lightest exploding shell allowed under the St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and reaffirmed in the Hague Convention of 1899. Early versions were sold under the Maxim-Nordenfelt label, whereas versions in British service (i.e. from 1900) were labelled Vickers, Sons and Maxim (VSM) as Vickers had bought out Maxim-Nordenfelt in 1897. They are all effectively the same gun.

The U.S. Navy adopted the Maxim-Nordenfelt 37-mm 1-pounder as the 1-pounder Mark 6 before the 1898 Spanish–American War.  The Mark 7, 9, 14, and 15 weapons were similar.  It was the first dedicated anti-aircraft (AA) gun adopted by the US Navy, specified as such on the Sampson-class destroyers launched 1916-17.  It was deployed on various types of ships during the US participation in the First World War, although it was replaced as the standard AA gun on new destroyers by the 3-inch (76-mm)/23 caliber gun.  (Wikipedia)

Bowdoin, Sagadahawk

 (Bowdoin Historical Society Photo)

8-inch Rodman Gun (Columbiad, 8-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1844), weight great than 9,000-lbs, Civil War Memorial, Bowdoin Center, Route 125.  

Bowdoinham

 (Taoab Photos)

 (Vintage postcard Photo)

 (1909 Maine.gov Photo)

8-inch Rodman Gun (Columbiad, 8-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1844), weight 9,240-lbs, muzzle data 17, SCLS. ?M & Co, star, 1864, 8454 lbs.  Mounted on an iron and concrete stand, this gun was originally part of the Fort Popham defences.  It was donated to the town of Bowdoinham to remember its soldiers who died in the Civil War.

Brunswick

 (Taoab Photos)

Bronze 24-pounder smoothbore muzzle-loading Gun, cast in Spain, mounted on a concrete stand, War Memorial Park.  

Cape Elizabeth, Fort Williams

Fort Williams is a former United States Army fort in Cape Elizabeth which operated from 1872 to 1964.  It was part of the Coast Defenses of Portland, later renamed the Harbor Defenses of Portland, a command which protected Portland's port and naval anchorage 1904-1950.  After its closure, it was redeveloped into Fort Williams Park.  A 14-acre purchase near Portland Head Light in 1872 served to establish a sub-post to Fort Preble located at Spring Point.  This fortification became known as Fort Williams on 13 April 1899, by order of Army Headquarters (General Order No. 17, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C.).  It was named for Brevet Major General Seth Williams.  By 1903, the fort had grown to 90.45 acres.   It first test-fired its guns in 1898, shortly before the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, and was complete by 1906.

 (Drawing, courtesy of the Coast Defense Study Group)

M1901 Buffington–Crozier disappearing carriage for an M1900 12-inch gun, generally similar to 10-inch disappearing carriages.  Illustration from "The Service of Coast Artillery," by Frank T. Hines and Franklin W. Ward, Goodenough & Woglom Co., New York, 1910, following p. 112. 

 (U.S. Army Ordinance Dept Drawing, courtesy of the Coast Defense Study Group)

Diagram of a 10-inch Coast Artillery gun mounted on an M1896 disappearing carriage showing the gun retracted behind the parapet and ready to be swabbed out and reloaded.

12-inch gun mounted on an M1897 disappearing carriage. (US Navy Photo)

As built, the fort contained three batteries: Battery Sullivan (two 10-inch guns on disappearing carriages), Battery DeHart (three 10-inch disappearing guns), and Battery Hobart (one 6-inch Armstrong gun), all built between 1896 and 1898.  Three other two-gun batteries were added later: Battery Blair, two 12-inch disappearing guns (1903); Battery Garesché, two 6-inch disappearing guns (1906); and Battery Keyes, two 3-inch rapid-firing guns (1906), the latter to guard a minefield.  The remains of a wharf for loading mine planters can be seen near Battery Keyes.  An underground bunker for the submarine mine system, later used in Cold War civil defence, is near Battery Hobart.  Searchlights were also mounted at some of these batteries; the counterweight for a disappearing searchlight tower (it "disappeared" when folded down) remains on site.  Most of Fort Williams' support buildings were constructed between 1900 and 1911. In 1913, the 6-inch Armstrong gun of Battery Hobart was removed and transferred to Hawaii.

6-inch M1900 gun on M1900 pedestal mount.  (US War Department, US Archives Photo)

During the First World War, the fort was fully manned by artillery companies of the Coast Artillery Corps and Maine National Guard troops.  Anti-aircraft guns were added to the defenses during this time. In 1917, the two 10-inch guns of Battery Sullivan and both 6-inch guns of Battery Garesché were removed to be shipped to the Western Front in France, but of the four guns only one of the 6-inch guns was actually sent to France.  The 10-inch guns were intended to serve as railway artillery, but few guns of this type were so mounted, none were sent to France, and the 10-inch railway gun program was abandoned soon after the war.  A history of the Coast Artillery in the First World War states that none of the regiments in France equipped with 6-inch guns completed training in time to see action before the Armistice.  The three 10-inch guns of Battery DeHart were also dismounted, but were soon remounted. After the war, the 10-inch guns were returned to Fort Williams, but Battery Garesché remained disarmed.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

155-mm M1917 Field Gun.

155-mm M1917 Field Gun employed in Coastal Defence.  (Library of Congress Photo)

A plaque next to one of the fort's remaining buildings states that it housed towed 155-mm guns following the First World War.  These weapons, based on the French 155-mm GPF gun used by the Coast Artillery in that war, were adopted to introduce mobility to US coast defenses.  Circular concrete platforms called "Panama mounts" were constructed at Fort Baldwin in Phippsburg, Maine and at Biddeford Pool to allow more effective use of these guns.  A four-gun battery of these weapons, most likely from Fort Williams, was deployed to Fort Baldwin from early 1942 to 17 January 1944.  Fort Williams served as the headquarters of the Harbor Defenses of Portland throughout the Second World War.  By the middle of the war the last of the coastal artillery pieces (except Battery Keyes' two 3-inch guns) were removed due to age and obsolescence.

3-inch gun M1903 on masking parapet mounts.  (US War Department Photos)

3-inch guns, Fort Casey, Whidbey Island, Washington.  (Articseahorse Photos)

The 3-inch gun M1903 and its predecessors the M1898 and M1902 were rapid fire breech-loading artillery guns with a 360-degree traverse.  In some references they are called "15-pounders" due to their projectile weight.  They were originally emplaced from 1899 to 1917 and served until near the end of the Second World War.  These 3-inch guns were placed to provide fire to protect submarine mines and nets against minesweepers, and also to protect against motor torpedo boats.  In some documentation they are called "mine defense guns".  The 3-inch guns were mounted on pedestal mounts (retractable "masking parapet" mount for the M1898) that bolted into a concrete emplacement that provided cover and safety for the gun's crew.  (Wikipedia)

Early in the Second World War the major units garrisoning the Harbor Defenses of Portland were the 8th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Regular Army and the 240th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Maine National Guard.  

16-inch gun mounted on a model M4 barbette carriage in a coastal defence casemate.  (US Navy Photo)

By 1945 the fort was replaced by the 16-inch Battery Steele on Peaks Island and a few other more recent batteries.  Fort Williams received its last guns in 1943, in the form of four 90-mm dual-purpose guns of Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat Battery (AMTB) 961, the emplacements for two of which remain a bit south of the lighthouse.  With little threat to the East Coast from surface ships by 1944, the coast defenses were drawn down and the Coast Artillery regiments reduced to battalions or their personnel were reassigned.  In January 1950, with the dissolution of the Coast Artillery Corps, Fort Williams' mission was officially changed from a harbor defense post to a logistical and administrative support installation for all military units and personnel in the State of Maine.

In 1950-51 Fort Williams hosted a station of the Air Defense Command's Lashup Radar Network.  The station was called Site L-2 and had a TPS-1B radar operated by the 657th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron from January-September 1951.  The radar station was deactivated in October 1951 and Fort Williams became an Air National Guard training site.  Other Air Force units stationed at Fort Williams included the 127th AC&W Squadron September 1951-September 1953 and the 677th AC&W Squadron September 1953-April 1954.

Fort Williams officially closed on 30 June 1962 and turned over to the General Services Administration to be sold.  The property was sold to the Town of Cape Elizabeth on 1 December 1964.  Many of the fort's buildings were gradually torn down, though several structures remain, either intact or as preserved ruins.  Most of the concrete bunkers and gun emplacements were backfilled, although Batteries Keyes and Garesche survive relatively intact, and the outlines of all the other emplacements were preserved on the surface.  One of the two emplacements of Battery Blair was recently unearthed again, with its surfaces cleaned and painted and interpretive signage added; plans are being made to restore Blair's second emplacement in like manner.  (Wikipedia)

 (cachegame Photo)

Cast-iron smoothbore muzzle-loading Gun, heavily corroded, mounted on an iron stand, near Portland Headlight in Fort Williams Park.

Castine, Fort George

 (Author Photo)

Fort George and the penobscott Expedition, 1779.  Plaque below the fort.

Map of Fort George.  (The map is drawn with North pointing south).  (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library)

Fort George (also sometimes known as Fort Majabigwaduce, Castine, or Penobscot) was a palisaded earthworks fort built in 1779 by Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War in Castine.  Located at a high point on the Bagaduce Peninsula, the fort was built as part of an initiative by the British to establish a new colony called New Ireland.  It was the principal site of the British defense during the Massachusetts-organized Penobscot Expedition, a disastrous attempt to retake Castine launched in response to the British move. 

The Penobscot Expedition was a 44-ship American naval task force mounted during the Revolutionary by the Provincial Congress of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.  The flotilla of 19 warships and 25 smaller support vessels sailed from Boston on 19 July 1779 for the upper Penobscot Bay in the District of Maine carrying a ground expeditionary force of more than 1,000 colonial Marines and militiamen.  Also included was a 100-man artillery detachment under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Paul Revere.  The Expedition's goal was to reclaim control of what is now mid-coast Maine from the British who had seized it a month earlier and renamed it New Ireland.  It was the largest American naval expedition of the war.  The fighting took place both on land and at sea in and around the mouth of the Penobscot and Majabigwaduce Rivers at what is today Castine, Maine, over a period of three weeks in July and August of 1779.  The battle was a significant victory for the British with the Expedition resulting in a disastrous naval defeat for the American fleet.

On June 17 of that year, British Army forces under the command of General Francis McLean landed and began to establish a series of fortifications centered on Fort George, located on the Majabigwaduce Peninsula in the upper Penobscot Bay, with the goals of establishing a military presence on that part of the coast and establishing the colony of New Ireland.  In response, the Province of Massachusetts, with some support from the Continental Congress, raised an expedition to drive the British out.

The Americans landed troops in late July and attempted to establish a siege of Fort George in a series of actions that were seriously hampered by disagreements over control of the expedition between land forces commander Brigadier General Solomon Lovell and the expedition's overall commander, Commodore Dudley Saltonstall, who was subsequently dismissed from the Navy for ineptness and failure to effectively prosecute the mission.  For almost three weeks General McLean held off the assault until a British relief fleet under the command of Sir George Collier arrived from New York on 13 August, driving the American fleet to total self-destruction up the Penobscot River.  The survivors of the American expedition were forced to make an overland journey back to more populated parts of Massachusetts with minimal food and armament.

A year later the British Cabinet formally approved the New Ireland project on 10 August 1780, and King George III gave his assent the following day to the proposal to separate “the country lying to the northeast of the Piscataway [Piscataqua] River” from the province of Massachusetts Bay in order to establish “so much of it as lies between the Sawkno [Saco] River and the St. Croix, which is the southeast [sic] boundary of Nova Scotia into a new province, which from its situation between the New England province and Nova Scotia, may with great propriety be called New Ireland.”  Pursuant to the terms of the 1783 Peace of Paris all British forces then evacuated Fort George (followed by some 600 Loyalists who removed from the area to St. Andrews on Passamaquoddy Bay) and abandoned their attempts to establish New Ireland.  During the War of 1812, however, British forces again occupied Fort George (still calling the area New Ireland) from September 1814 to April 1815 and used it as a naval base before withdrawing again with the arrival of peace.  Full ownership of present-day Maine (principally the northeastern borders with New Brunswick) remained disputed until the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842.  The "District of Maine" was a part of Massachusetts until 1820 when it was admitted into the Union as the 23rd state as part of the Missouri Compromise.

The remains of Fort George, now little more than its earthworks, are part of a state-owned and town-maintained park.  Fort George is today a roughly square earthworks, about 200 feet (61 m) on each side, with bastions at the corners that project out an additional 40 feet (12 m).  These works are for the most part about 10 feet (3.0 m) in height, although the easternmost bastion is 20 feet (6.1 m) high.  Features of the fort that have not survived include a palisade, moat, and gateway.  The fort is one of a series of defenses erected by the British in 1779, which notably included the digging of a canal across much of the neck separating the Bagaduce Peninsula from the rest of the mainland.

Castine is set at a strategically significant location near the head of Penobscot Bay, and was a point of conflict at several times between the 17th and 19th centuries.  Pursuant to plans for establishing a military presence on the coast of Maine as well as the colony of New Ireland, a British force led by General Francis McLean arrived off Castine in June 1779, seized the town, and established Fort George and other fortifications in the area.  The state of Massachusetts, of which Maine was then a part, responded by raising a large militia force, which in an operation known as the Penobscot Expetition, disastrously failed in its attempt to dislodge the British.  The fort was not abandoned by the British until 1784.

The site of the fort's remains is now a park of 7 acres (2.8 ha), owned by the state and maintained by the town.  The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969.  Fort George is the site of Majabigwaduce, the location for Bernard Cornwell's 2010 book The Fort, which is about the Penobscot Expedition.  (Wikipedia)

 (Jerrye and Roy Klotz MD Photo)

 

 (Author Photos, 5 Oct 2018)

Cast-iron 24-pounder 50-cwt smoothbore muzzle-loading Gun, weight 49-1-0 (5,516 lbs), Serial No. 68 on the barrel above the first reinforcing ring, both trunnions corroded, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, (ca. 1775 - 1815).

The cast-iron smoothbore muzzle-loading 24-pounder 50-cwt long gun was a heavy calibre piece of artillery mounted on warships of the Age of sail.  24-pounders were in service in the navies of the France, Spain, England, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States.  24-pounders were used as main guns on the heaviest frigates of the early 19th century and on fourth-rate ships of the line, on the second deck of first-rate ships of the line, and on the second deck of a few large third-rate ships.

Castine harbourfront

 (Author Photos, 5 Oct 2018)

Cast-iron smoothbore muzzle-loading possibly 6-pounder Gun with an anchor on the barrel mounted on a wood box.

Castine, Fort Madison

Fort Madison was a US Army Second System fort established in 1808, named for James Madison, 4th President of the United States.  A sign on the site of the fort records it was built by the United States in 1811 and mounted with four 24-pounder guns.  The fort was captured and held by the British during the War of 1812 from 1 September 1814 to 15 April 1815, and renamed Fort Castine.   It was garrisoned 1814 by a detachment of US Artillery commanded by Lt. A. Lewis.  Upon the approach of the British Fleet, 1 September 1814, the officer discharged and spiked his cannon, blew up the Magazine, and then withdrew his force to Portland.  Occupied by the British, it was named by them Fort Castine.  It was returned to US Control in 1815 and remained active until 1819.  It was renamed Fort Porter for Major Moses Porter, a US Army engineer.  Abandoned in 1819, the fort was rebuilt in 1862-1863 by Union forces during the American Civil War and renamed Fort United States.  The fort was armed with three 32-pounder gun embrasures and two 24-pounder guns mounted in barbettes.  It was garrisoned until the close of the Civil War by a company of US Volunteers.  It was finally abandoned in 1865. 

Cushing Island, Fort Levett

Fort Levett was a former U.S. Army fort built on Cushing Island in Casco Bay, beginning in 1898.  The fort was heavily fortified with coastal defence guns and was manned during both World Wars.  Fort Levett's construction began in 1898 (on land acquired in 1894) and was largely completed in 1903.  The fort initially comprised five batteries.  Battery Bowdoin was named for James Bowdoin, former governor of Massachusetts (which included Maine in his day), and had three 12-inch M1898 disappearing guns.  Battery Kendrick was named for Henry Lane Kendrick, an Army officer and professor at West Point, and had two 10-inch M1895 disappearing guns.  Battery Ferguson was named for Major William Ferguson, killed in action against Native Americans in 1791, was completed in 1906, and had two 6-inch M1900 guns on pedestal mounts.b Battery Daniels was named for Lieutenant Napoleon Daniels, killed in action against Native Americans at Crazy Woman's Fork in 1866, and had two 3-inch M1898 guns (also called 15-pounder guns) on retractable masking parapet mounts.  The fort also briefly had several 6-pounder rapid-fire guns on field mounts.  (Wikipedia)

 (Coast Defense Study Group Photo)

12-inch disappearing gun similar to those at Fort Levett.

In 1915, with the First World War raging in Europe and with rapidly-improving dreadnought battleships providing an increased threat, the Board of Review recommended that Fort Levett receive a new, modernized battery as part of a program to increase the range of coastal forts.  The battery was named Battery Foote in 1919, after Colonel Stephen M. Foote, a Coast Artillery officer who died in that year.  Battery Foote had two 12-inch M1895 guns on new, high-angle M1917 barbette carriages for increased range and was completed in 1920.  This type of battery was initially built in the open, relying on camouflage for concealment, and was incredibly vulnerable to air attack, as were the older disappearing batteries.  The two 10-inch guns of Battery Kendrick were ordered dismounted as part of a railway artillery program in 1917, but were not shipped out and were soon remounted.  Fort Levett was operationally manned during the war, but probably not until the American entry into the First World War in 1917. After the war the two 3-inch guns of Battery Daniels were removed as part of a decommissioning of several types of guns.  At some point between the wars the fort reverted to caretaker status.  (Wikipedia)

 (US Navy Photo)

16-inch, 50 Caliber, Mark 2, Mod. 1 Gun Barrel on display in East Willard Park, Washington Navy Yard, D.C.

Shortly after the Fall of France in mid-1940 the United States manned its coast defenses, activated the National Guard, and developed a coast defense modernization program that was partially implemented during the war.  During the Second World War the Harbour Defences of Portland were garrisoned by the 8th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Regular Army and the 240th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Maine National Guard until late 1944, when the Coast Artillery was reorganized and reduced in strength.  The basis of the Second World War modernization program was to add new 16-inch gun batteries, retain long-range 12-inch batteries such as Battery Foote, and also add new long-range 6-inch gun and 90-mm M1A2 anti-aircraft gun batteries.  The disappearing gun batteries that had served for 25-45 years would be scrapped.  The 16-inch battery that anchored the Harbor Defences of Portland was Battery Steele on Peaks Island.  Battery Foote was casemated against air attack during the war, and a four-gun 90-mm Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat (AMTB) battery designated AMTB 962 was added.  The other batteries of Fort Levett were scrapped by 1943 except the two 6-inch guns of Battery Ferguson, which were retained until after the war.  With the end of the Second World War in 1945 all US coast defence guns were scrapped by 1948, and subsequently the obsolete Fort Levett was sold by the government.  (Wikipedia)

 (Coast Defense Study Group Photo)

12-inch casemated gun, similar to those at Battery Foote, Fort Levett.

Dover-Foxcroft

 (Author Photos, 16 May 2018)

Dover-Foxcroft Civil War Memorial, flanked by a pair of 30-pounder Parrot Rifles.

 (Author Photos, 16 May 2018)

30-pounder Parrott Rifle, R.P.P. (Robert Parker Parrott) No. 385, 3,460 lbs, 1864, mounted on a concrete stand, No. 1 of 2 in Monument Square.

 (Author Photos, 16 May 2018)

30-pounder Parrott Rifle, R.P.P. No. 350, 3,470 lbs, 1864, mounted on a concrete stand, No. 2 of 2 in Monument Square. 

Eastport

(Author Photos, 20 Sep 2019) 

Bronze 6-pounder Model 1841 smoothbore muzzle-loading Field Gun, 1839 on left trunnion, CA & Co, BOSTON (Cyrus Alger & Company) on right trunnion, Serial No. 14, 695, JWR above the button.  This guns stands in front of the Peavy Memorial Library facing the harbour.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

The Bronze smoothbore muzzle-loading Model 1841 6-pounder Field Gun had a 3.6-inch diameter smoothbore barrel approximately 5 feet long with a swell at the muzzle.  Most 1841 6-pounders were cast in bronze but a few were cast in iron with a broader taper.  This gun had a range of 1,500 yards although it was likely most effective at 1,000 yards depending on the type of shot being fired.  It was usually mounted on a horse-drawn two-wheeled carriage with a limber attached with ammunition ready to load.  The limber typically carried 30 6.1-lb cannister shots and 15 spherical case shots loaded with 48 cast-iron balls, in three chests.  The 6-pounder was a lightweight mobile piece weighing approximately 880-lbs and usually was operated by an 8-man crew.  The 6-pounder gun was one of a number of guns designed by the U.S. Army Ordnance Department in 1841 (companion pieces were the Model 1841 12-pounder, 24-pounder, and 32-pounder field Howitzers; the Model 1841 12-pounder Gun and the smoothbore muzzle-loading 12-pounder Mountain Howitzer Model 1835).  The effectiveness of the 1841 series had been proven in the Mexican War, during which these guns demonstrated excellent maneuverability and reliability.   The 6-pounder was common to both armies in the early war years.  The piece gradually fell into disfavour at the introduction of the Bronze 12-pounder Napoleon Model 1857 smoothbore muzzle-loading Gun-Howitzer, (Federal Gun with muzzle swell used in the Civil War), because of its bigger bore and hitting power, although in the western theater the 6-pounder remained in service until the end of the war.  (Wikipedia)

Union Artillery during the Civil War

 (Library of Congress Photo)

Bronze 12-pounder Napoleon Model 1857 smoothbore muzzle-loading Gun-Howitzer, (Federal Gun with muzzle swell used in the Civil War), which equipped the 5th Maine Horse Artillery Battery in which every man was mounted.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

Union artillery in action during the Civil War.

Following artillery training in early 1862, the 5th Maine Battery was sent into the field in May. During the Second Battle of Bull Run in August, 1862, one of its guns helped cover the army’s retreat.  Later that year, the battery was part of the Union’s left flank at the Battle of Fredericksburg.  On 3 May 1863, in the Battle of Chancellorsville, the 5th Maine Battery was supporting the Second Corps near the Chancellor House when it came under heavy fire from Confederate guns.  The battery was credited with helping the 1st division of the Second Corps withdraw from a dangerous position.

Eastport, (Moose Island), Fort Sullivan

Fort Sullivan (1808-1873) was a Federal Second System fort established in 1808 by Major Lemuel Trescott on Moose Island, in present day Eastport, Washington County, near the New Brunswick/Maine border.  It is the island’s only main village.  Before the War of 1812, the ownership of Moose Island had been a sticking point in Anglo-American relations since the American Revolution.  Fearing British encroachment, the US Army established Fort Sullivan in 1808, named for Revolutionary War General John Sullivan.  It was a timber blockhouse fort with a four gun circular stone battery, a magazine, blockhouse, and barracks.  The battery mounted four heavy guns.  The fort was surrendered to a British Fleet under Sir Thomas Hardy in July 1814.  The British renamed the fort, Fort Sherbrooke.  Standing opposite the Province of New Brunswick, the fort served as an important coastal defense for the easternmost USA during the 19th century.  The island remained in the care of Major Perley Putnam and a small garrison of men from the 40th US Infantry.

As part of the establishment of New Ireland during the War of 1812, British Commodore Sir Thomas Hardy, 1st Baronet conquered the fort in 1814 and renamed it Fort Sherbrooke after John Coape Sherbrooke, the Governor of Nova Scotia.  The British left 800 regular troops in the fort to prevent any American attempt at retaking it.  When the war ended with the Treaty of Gent in 1815, the issue with the border remained unsettled, even though the treaty stipulated that all boundaries were to return to the lines that existed before the war.  As a result, Moose Island and Fort Sherbrooke remained in British hands until 1818 when the territorial disputes were resolved.  Moose Island, the town and the fort were returned to the United States on 30 June 1818.  The fort was then renamed Fort Sullivan.  The last garrison was withdrawn in 1873 and the fort was abandoned.  The post remained intact until 1880 when local residents began to remove items for constructing other town buildings.  Today there is little left.  A sign marks the original location of the fort and a cast iron smoothbore muzzleloading gun from the war now sits in front of Shead High School, next to the fort site.  The powder magazine is still be there.  The only original part of the fort that remains standing today is the 1808 barracks, a wooden frame building that now houses the town’s museum and Historical Society, located on Washington Street.

Fort Sullivan sign beside Shead High School.

Fort Sullivan plaque in front of Shead High School SBML gun.

 (Author Photos, 20 Sep 2019)

Cast Iron (possibly) 12-pounder smoothbore muzzleloading gun, weight 20-0-0 (2,240 lbs), crown over P on the barrel, SOLID on left trunion, corroded letter on right trunnion, mounted on a concrete stand in in front of Shead High School.

The legend ‘SOLID’ on the trunnion shows that this is a gun bored out of the solid, therefore at the time, both up-to-date and expensive.  These SBML guns have been observed by this author marked with the letters B, F, W and Z on the right trunnion in various models.  The letter on this gun is corroded, but if it is a B, it would stand for for Bersham, near Wrexham in north Wales, showing that this gun was cast by John Wilkinson at his foundry there.  These guns are based on what became known as the ‘Armstrong pattern’ which was introduced into British military service in 1729 and was current up until 1787.  The gun can be dated to ca. 1773 (when the ‘B-SOLID’ trunnion mark makes its first appearance) to 1796.  The last known reference to Wilkinson supplying guns dates to 1796, when the final guns definitely marked with ‘B-SOLID’ were proofed on 9 -10 May for Wiggins and Graham.  These were not guns for government service, as they have no royal badge (although this one has a crown of the letter P (proofed).  Guns of this type were cast by gunfounders for the civilian market, usually for smaller merchant ships, coastal communities or landowners who wanted some defence but also wanted something lighter and cheaper than a normal gun.  (Dr Brian G. Scott)

East Millinocket

 (Author Photos, 16 May 2018)

East Millinocket Veterans War Memorial, with a pair of 16-inch Naval Gun shells and two 37-mm M3 AT Guns.

 (Author Photos, 16 May 2018)

37-mm M3 Anti-tank Gun, No. 1597, 1942, 190 lbs, No. 1 of 2, flanking the Veterans Memorial.

 (Author Photos, 16 May 2018)

37-mm M3 Anti-tank Gun, No. 1584, 1942, 190 lbs, No. 2 of 2, flanking the Veterans Memorial.

Edgecomb, Fort Edgecomb

 (Kenneth C. Zirkel Photo)

Fort Edgecomb, built in 1808–1809, is a two-story octagonal wooden blockhouse with restored fortifications located on Davis Island.

Fort Edgecomb is located at Davis Island's southern end.  It has an eight-sided blockhouse, whose second floor is larger than its first, measuring 30 feet (9.1 m) compared to 27 feet (8.2 m).  The ground floor walls have loopholes through which muskets could be fired, while the upper level had portholes for firing smoothbore guns.   Although the blockhouse is the most visible feature, the fort's main armament was a water battery to defend the river.  This battery originally had five guns, including a 50-pounder Columbiad and four 18-pounder smoothbore guns.  Each gun was mounted in its own bastion, with the bastions arranged in three tiers.  The blockhouse also had two carronades.

The fort was built as part of the U.S. second system of fortifications, guarding the then-important port of Wiscasset, not only for its defense, but also to prevent ships from breaking the embargo.  Thomas Jefferson's Embargo was not popular with American merchants, and it is said that the only time Fort Edgecomb's cannon were fired was in salute at James Madison's inauguration (or, less tactfully, to celebrate his lifting of the Embargo).

During the War of 1812, this post saw considerable activity holding British prisoners of war, many of them brought to Wiscasset harbor by American privateersmen.  In 1814, Fort Edgecomb became an important base in defending against a possible British attack on mid-coast Maine. It remained manned until 1818, and was reactivated during the Civil War.  (Wikipedia)

Ellsworth

  (PTCRAZY Photo)

 (Author Photos, 27 May 2019)

32-pounder 4,500 lb M1864 (6.2-inch) Dahlgren Shell Gun, mounted on a concrete stand, No. 1 of 2, beside a Civil War Monument.

 (Author Photos, 27 May 2019)

32-pounder 4,500 lb M1864 (6.2-inch) Dahlgren Shell Gun, mounted on a concrete stand, mounted on a concrete stand, No. 2 of 2, beside a Civil War Monument.  

Fort Fairfield

 (Author Photo, 18 Aug 2017)

Fort Fairfield (1839-1843) was a U.S. Army post established in 1839 as a border defense during the border dispute known as the Aroostook War.  A replica Blockhouse is located along the south bank of the Aroostook River in Aroostook County, Maine.  It was named for John Fairfield, twice governor of Maine (1839-1841, 1842-1843).  The Fort was abandoned in 1843 after the end of the border dispute. 

When the Aroostook War ended without a battle being fought, federal troops were withdrawn and the Maine Militia disbanded.  Governor John Fairfield kept a sizable civil force in the disputed territory pending a new treaty.  These volunteers built a large blockhouse surrounded by a heavy stockade on GFort Hill and another smaller fort on what is now Main Street.  It was here that the bronze 6-pounder Model 1838 was mounted.

 (Author Photos, 18 Aug 2017)

Bronze 6-pounder Model 1838 smoothbore muzzle-loading Field Gun, Cyrus Alger & Company, mounted on iron stand on the front lawn of the Carnegie Public Library in Fort Fairfield.  This gun was brought to the area by either the Maine militia or the land agent’s posse.  Cast in Boston in 1839, it is typical of the cannon deployed by both sides during the "Bloodless Aroostook War" of 1839.  It was unveiled on 3 July 1917 as a war memorial.

German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08 Machine-gun (Serial Nr. 47264), mounted on a Schlitten stand in the folded position.  This Deutsche Waffen un Munition (DWM) MG 08 was manufactured in Berlin in 1918.  It has been meticulously restored and is kept in a boxed container and is securely stored. 

Fort Kent  

 (John Stanton Photo)

Cast-iron smoothbore muzzle-loading light gun on display at Fort Kent (1839-1845), a U.S. border post established in 1839 by a Maine Civil Posse during the United States - Canada border dispute known as the Aroostook War.  The post was located at the confluence of the St. John River and the Fish River in the present day town of Fort Kent, Aroostook County, Maine.  It was taken over by U.S. Army troops and expanded in 1841, abandoned by them in 1843.  Abandoned as a fortification in 1845 and sold to private owners in 1858.  It was named in 1840 for Edward Kent, twice Governor of Maine (1838-1839, 1841-1842).  Also known as Camp Jarvis. 

  (John Stanton Photo)

A blockhouse was originally built on the site of Fort Kent by a Maine Civil Posse under the command of Captain Nye and later Captain Stover Rines.  The civil posse garrison was replaced late in 1839 by U.S. troops under the command of Captain John Winder.  The blockhouse was completed and the post was expanded by Captain Winder to include a barracks, officer's quarters, and other support buildings.  The blockhouse is a two story structure with a base 23.5 feet square and second story with a 15-inch overhang on each side.  The walls were built from cedar timbers, some 19-inches square placed on a shale rock foundation.  A powder magazine was built into the base of the structure.  In 1843 the post was deactivated and abandoned on 11 Sep 1845.  In 1857 it became the property of the State of Maine who then sold it to a private individual in 1858.  The property was returned to the state in 1891 but was neglected until 1959 when preservation efforts began.

Freeport, Veterans Memorial Square

 (Craig Swain Photo)

Cast-iron 24-pounder smoothbore muzzle-loading M1844 Siege and Garrison Howitzer, used to cover blind approaches and moats around masonry fortifications, specifically the flanks of the walls, thereby earning the nick-name “Flank Howitzer”. 

Great Diamond Island, Fort McKinley

Fort McKinley is a former United States Army coastal defence fort on Great Diamond Island, Casco Bay, which operated from 1873 to 1947.  It was named for President William McKinley.  Fort Lyon on Cow Island, just north of Great Diamond Island was a sub-post of Fort McKinley, named for Nathaniel Lyon.  Both forts were part of the Coast Defenses of Portland, later renamed the Harbor Defenses of Portland, a command which protected Portland's port and naval anchorage 1904-1950.  In 1946 Fort Lyon was closed and turned over to the City of Portland.  After Fort McKinley's closure it was transferred to the United States Navy, which sold the site to private interests in 1961.  The Fort McKinley Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.

Construction on Fort McKinley began in 1897 and was complete by 1906.  The fort was divided by Diamond Cove into a North Fork and a South Fork, with nine gun batteries:

Great Diamond Island, Fort McKinley, North Fork

Battery Ingalls with eight 12-inch coast defence M1890 Mortars mounted on M1896 barbettes; Battery Berry with two 12-inch M1888 guns mounted on M1896 disappearing gun carriages; Battery Thompson with three 8-inch M1888 guns mounted on disappearing gun carriages; Battery Acker with two 6-inch M1897 guns mounted on M1898 disappearing gun carriages; and Battery Farry with two 3-inch M1898 guns mounted on an M1898 masking parapet.

 (Library of Congress Photos)

8-inch Model 1888 gun mounted on a disappearing carriage, Battery McIntosh, Fort Dade, Edgmont Key, Forida in 1918. 

 (Library of Congress Photos)

8-inch Model 1888 gun mounted on a disappearing carriage M1886, Battery McIntosh, Fort Dade, Edgmont Key, Forida in 1918. 

 (Library of Congress Photo)

8-inch Model 1888 gun mounted on a Buffington-Crozier disappearing gun carriage Model 1896, diagram. 

Great Diamond Island, Fort McKinley, South Fork

Battery Weymouth with three 8-inch M1888 guns mounted on M1896 disappearing gun carriages; Battery Honeycutt with two 8-inch M1888 guns mounted on M1896 disappearing gun carriages; Battery Carpenter with two 6-inch M1900 guns mounted on M1900 pedestals; and Battery Ramsay with two 3-inch M1898 guns mounted on M1898 masking parapets.

Fort Lyon was completed by 1909 with two gun batteries, Battery Bayard with three 6-inch M1903 guns mounted on M1903 disappearing gun carriages and Battery Abbot with three 3-inch M1903 guns mounted on M1903 pedestals.  (Wikipedia)

 (Coastal Defense Study Group Photo)

12-inch breech-loading gun, M1895, on a M1897 disappearing carriage at the moment of firing.  The soldier in the foreground has just pulled the long firing lanyard, which can be seen stretching up to the breechlock of the gun. The gun is "in battery", raised just above the edge of the parapet of the gun position. The crew member on the catwalk at the upper left of the gun is looking through the optical telescopic gun sight. On the left in the group of crew members can be seen the talker (wearing a headset), who passes firing data from the Range Section of the battery to the man on the gun sight.  

12-inch gun (left) on early low-angle barbette carriage circa 1895 with 10-inch and 8-inch guns, Sandy Hook coastal defence.  (Library of Congress Photo)

12-inch 1890 M1 Mortars in a pit, similar to Battery Ingalls.  (National Park Service Photo)

12-inch 1890 M1 Mortar (305-mm) caliber coast defense mortar was a massive weapon emplaced during the 1890s and early 20th century to defend U.S. harbors from seaborne attack.

Hog Island, Fort Gorges

 (Historic American Buildings Survey Photo)

Fort Gorges, Hog Island Ledge, Portland Harbor, Portland, Cumberland County, Maine.  

Fort Gorges is a former United States military fort built on Hog Island Ledge in Casco Bay.  Built from 1858 to 1864, no battles were fought there and no troops were stationed there. Advancing military technology, including iron clad ships and long range guns, made the fort obsolete before it could be used. The fort is now a park, accessible only by boat.  It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

The fort was designed by Colonel Reuben Staples Smart, and is built of granite.  The fort was completed in 1865 as the American Civil War ended.  Modern explosives made the fort obsolete by the time it was completed.  A modernization plan was begun in 1869, but funding was cut off in 1876, with the third level of the fort still unfinished.  During the modernization project, sod-covered sand was added to the top level of the fort to protect gun encasements and powder magazines from attacks.  The Fort's armament consisted of thirty-four 10-inch Rodman Guns, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, mounted in the fort's casemates. 

 (Library of Congress Photo)

10-inch (300-pounder) Model 1862 Parrot rifle, used for seacoast defence during the American Civil War.  

 (Ryan Victor Photo)

10-inch (300-pounder) Model 1862 Parrot rifle, used for seacoast defence, which was emplaced on the top of the fort.  In 1898, all the guns except for this one were removed from the fort.  This Parrott rifle, weighing 26,900-lbs, remains in place unmounted, and is one of the largest surviving specimens of Civil War vintage artillery.  The fort was last used by the Army during the Second World War, when it was used to store submarine mines.

Houlton

 (Houlton Postcard Photo, 1944)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), First World War Memorial.  This gun may have been scrapped.

Houlton, Hancock Barracks

Hancock Barracks (1828-1845) - A U.S. Army barracks established by the U.S. Army 5 May 1828 on the U.S. - Canada border to provide a presence during a border dispute with Canada known as the Aroostook War.  The barracks was garrisoned with three companies of the 1st U.S. Artillery.  The post was abandoned 9 Sep 1845.

House Island, Fort Scammel

 (Econrad Photo)

House Island is a private island in Portland Harbor in Casco Bay, with Fort Scammel located on the West side of the island.  

Henry A.S. Dearborn, an officer of the Massachusetts Militia and a future general, built Fort Scammell on the island in 1808 as part of the national second system of fortifications.  It was named after Alexander Scammel, Adjutant-General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, who was killed in action during the Battle of Yorktown.  The fort was designed for harbour defence, with cannon batteries designed to protect the main shipping channel into Portland harbor, along with Fort Preble.  The fort was made of stone, brick, and earth, and initially mounted fifteen guns and a 10-inch mortar.  The Secretary of War's report on fortifications for 1811 describes Fort Scammell as "a circular battery of masonry with circular flanks, mounting fifteen heavy guns, is covered in the rear with a wooden blockhouse, mounting six guns...". Typical weapons of the period were 24-pounder or 32-pounder smoothbore guns.

In the 1840s–1850s, as part of the national third system of fortifications, Fort Scammell was modernized by extending its walls to enclose a larger area.  Thomasa Lincoln Casey, an Army Engineer Officer known for his work on the Washington Monument, completely rebuilt the fort beginning in 1862 during the American Civil War.  As rebuilt to the new Third System design Fort Scammell was unique in the US, with the design centered on two stone-and-brick bastions connected by earth walls rather than stone curtain walls.  A third bastion was never completed.  The west bastion had a single tier of casemates and the east bastion had two tiers.  In the 1870s additional earthworks to accommodate 10-inch and 15-inch Rodman Guns were constructed, but only some of these were completed due to a national freeze on fort construction in the late 1870s.  Fort Scammell was not re-armed in the Spanish-American War of 1898, and was listed as disarmed in a 1903 report.  Two emplacements for anti-aircraft guns were added in 1917, probably for the 3-inch gun M1917.  Of all the forts in Casco Bay, Fort Scammell was the only fort to fire a shot and be fired upon in battle, in early August 1813.

3-inch AA gun on M1917 pedestal mount.  (Library of Congress Photo)

Howland

 (Author Photos, 16 May 2018)

M60A3 Main Battle Tank (Serial No. 4196A), American Legion Post 97.

Kenduskeag

 (Author Photos, 16 May 2018)

32-pounder 4,500 lb M1864 (6.2-inch) Dahlgren Shell Gun, No. 502, 57.0.14, CA & Co, mounted on a concrete stand,mounted on a concrete stand in the Penobscott Cemetery, Levant Road.

Kennebunkport

 (US Army Photo)

M20 Armoured Car of the 801st Tank Destroyer Battalion in action during the Second World War.

M20 Armoured Car (Serial No. 2446), private owner.

The M20 armored utility car, also known as the M20 scout car, was a Greyhound with the turret replaced with a low, armoured open-topped superstructure and an anti-aircraft ring mount for a .50 cal. M2 heavy machine gun.  A bazooka was provided for the crew to compensate for its lack of anti-armour weaponry.  The M20 was primarily used as a command vehicle and for forward reconnaissance, but many vehicles also served as armoured personnel carriers and cargo carriers.  The M20 offered high speed and excellent mobility, along with a degree of protection against small arms fire and shrapnel.  When employed in the command and control role, the M20 was fitted with additional radio equipment.  A total of 3,680 M20s were built by Ford during its two years in production (1943–1944).

Kittery, Fort Foster

Fort Foster, now part of Fort Foster Park, is a historic fort active 1901-1946 on the southwest tip of Gerrish Island in the Kittery Point area.  The park includes beaches and trails.  Battery Bohlen and Battery Chapin were the major parts of the fort.  The land was acquired by the U.S. federal government in 1872 and the fort was built from 1898 to 1901 as part of the large-scale Endicott Program.  Other forts of this era in the Coast Defences of Portsmouth included Fort Constitution and Fort Stark.  The site was a sub-post of Fort Constitution and was named for American Civil War-era Brevet Major General John G. Foster of New Hampshire.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

Practice loading of a 10-inch gun at Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn, NY.

Fort Foster originally had two gun batteries: Battery Bohlen with three 10-inch (254-mm) M1895 disappearing guns and Battery Chapin with two 3-inch (76-mm) M1902 guns on pedestal mounts.  Battery Bohlen was built in 1898-1901 and Battery Chapin was completed in 1904.  Battery Bohlen was named for Brigadier General Henry Bohlen, killed in the Civil War, and Battery Chapin was named for Brigadier General Edward Chapin, also killed in the Civil War.  In 1909 a secondary control station for an underwater minefield in the harbor was added; Battery Chapin was built primarily to defend this minefield against minesweepers.  After the American entry into the First World War in early 1917, many guns were removed from coast defenses for potential service on the Western Front.  Most of these weapons were not sent overseas or did not see action.  All three 10-inch (254-mm) guns of Battery Bohlen were removed for potential use as railway artillery in October 1917, and were returned to the fort in September 1919.

 (US Navy Photo)

16-inch casemated gun, Battery Davis at Fort Funston in San Francisco.

During the Second World War Fort Foster's heavy guns were superseded by a new 16-inch (406-mm) gun battery at Fort Dearborn.  The 10-inch guns of Battery Bohlen were scrapped in 1942.  However, new construction also took place at Fort Foster as part of the general improvement of US coast defenses that began in 1940. In 1940-1944 the Harbor Defences of Portsmouth were garrisoned by the 22nd Coast Artillery Regiment.  A new mine control station and mine casemate were built, along with two new gun batteries.  Battery 205, begun in 1942, was to have two 6-inch (152-mm) M1 guns on shielded barbette carriages with a bunker for ammunition and fire control, but construction was suspended in 1944 and the battery was never armed.  A six-story fire control tower was constructed to spot targets for this battery.  Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat Battery (AMTB) 952 was also built at Fort Foster in 1943, with an authorized strength of two fixed 90-mm M1A2 anti-aircraft guns and two towed 90-mm M1A2 anti-aircraft guns.  The remaining batteries were deactivated in 1946 and the fort was closed in 1948.
 (Author Photo)
90-mm M1A2 anti-aircraft gun, similar to this one displayed at 5 Canadian Division Support Group Base Gagetown, New Brunswick.