Military History Books
by Harold A. Skaarup   
Artillery and Armoured Fighting Vehicles preserved in New England 1: Maine

Artillery and Armoured Fighting Vehicles  preserved in New England


The aim of this website is to locate, identify and document every historical piece of artillery preserved in New England.  Many contributors have assisted in the hunt for these guns to provide and update the data found on these web pages.  Photos are by the author unless otherwise credited.  Any errors found here are by the author, and any additions, corrections or amendments to this list of Guns and Artillery in New England would be most welcome and may be e-mailed to the author at

Data current to 3 March 2017.


M60A3 Patton tank, part of the State of Maine Vietnam Veterans Memorial Park, near the Cole Land Transportation Museum.

 (STAFF SGT. Fernando Serna, US Army Photo)

M60A3 main battle tank of the 3rd Armored Division, 3-32nd Armored Regt, moves along a street in Germany during Exercise REFORGER '85.

 (Billy Hawthorn Photo)

Bell UH-1D Iroquois (Serial No. 65-9915), Vietnam Memorial.  This Huey Helicopter was found at Patrick Air Force Base in Florida and served in Vietnam during the war.  At one time it suffered a crash landing but was recovered and placed back into service.  It was placed on 12 September 2003.


QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss Mark I, U.S. Navy, dated 1900, made at the Washington Navy Yard.  This gun is located at Washington Street, across from the Bath Iron Works.

 (MKFI Photo)

QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss Mark I, (57-mm 45-calibre) Bridgeport coastal gun.

 (Library of Congress Photo ID det.4a14619)

QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss Gun and crew on USS Oregon circa. 1896-1901.

The QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss was a light 2.25-inch (57-mm) naval gun and coast defence gun of the late 19th century used by many countries including the USA. The Hotchkiss six pounder (called the Rapid Fire gun rather than Quick Firer in the US) was used in United States Navy and Army service in conjunction with another maker's design, its primary rival being the Driggs-Schroeder six pounder.  One shipbuilding and naval supply company, Cramp & Sons, had a license to build both the Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder and sold both to the Navy in parallel. Both Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder guns used the same ammunition and eventually the Navy made certain that the ammunition for both was identical.  The six pounders were largely replaced by 3-inch (76-mm) RF naval guns starting around 1910.

The US Army also used the Hotchkiss six pounder. As the primary defender of coastal fortifications and harbors, the US Army had the need for lighter guns to supplement their shore batteries. Driggs-Schroeder guns, manufactured by the American Ordnance Company and designated Mark II and Mark III, were adopted along with Driggs-Seabury weapons designated M1898 and M1900.  The mountings for the Army six pounders were called "rampart mounts" or "parapet mounts", wheeled carriages with fittings that allowed them to be secured to pintle mounts.  (Wikipedia)

  (Taoab Photos)

10-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, Civil War Memorial, in front of the Bath Court House.

Bar Harbor

  (V.F. Thomas Co Photos)

10-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, No. 1 of 2, mounted side by side on a concrete stand, cannon near town pier end of Shore Path.

10-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, No. 2 of 2, mounted side by side on a concrete stand, cannon near town pier end of Shore Path.


 (Taoab Photo)

SBML 24 pounder Gun, (ca. 1775 - 1815), weight 49-1-0 (5,516 lbs), Serial No. 38.  Grove Cemetery.

SBML Gun mounted on an iron stand, No. 1 of 3,  outside the Belfast Memorial Hall.

SBML Gun mounted on an iron stand, No. 2 of 3,  outside the Belfast Memorial Hall.

SBML Gun mounted on an iron stand, No. 3 of 3,  outside the Belfast Memorial Hall.

 ( Photo)


10-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, Farragut Park, Route 302.

Columbiad, 8-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1844, weight 9,240-lbs, converted rifle.  Farragut Park, Route 302.

Vickers/Maxim QF 1 pounder 37-mm Automatic Gun (ca. 1890’s). Farragut Park, Route 302.


Maxim-Nordenfelt 37-mm 1-pounder auto-cannon on board USS Vixen (PY-4).  (Library of Congress Photo, left and USN Photo, right)

The QF 1 pounder, universally known as the pom-pom due to the sound of its discharge, was a 37-mm British auto-cannon, the first of its type in the world. It was used by several countries initially as an infantry gun and later as a light anti-aircraft gun.

Hiram Maxim originally designed the Pom-Pom in the late 1880s as an enlarged version of the Maxim machine gun. Its longer range necessitated exploding projectiles to judge range, which in turn dictated a shell weight of at least 400 grams (0.88 lb), as that was the lightest exploding shell allowed under the St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and reaffirmed in the Hague Convention of 1899. Early versions were sold under the Maxim-Nordenfelt label, whereas versions in British service (i.e. from 1900) were labelled Vickers, Sons and Maxim (VSM) as Vickers had bought out Maxim-Nordenfelt in 1897. They are all effectively the same gun.

The U.S. Navy adopted the Maxim-Nordenfelt 37-mm 1-pounder as the 1-pounder Mark 6 before the 1898 Spanish–American War.  The Mark 7, 9, 14, and 15 weapons were similar.  It was the first dedicated anti-aircraft (AA) gun adopted by the US Navy, specified as such on the Sampson-class destroyers launched 1916-17.  It was deployed on various types of ships during the US participation in the First World War, although it was replaced as the standard AA gun on new destroyers by the 3-inch (76-mm)/23 caliber gun.  (Wikipedia)

Bowdoin, Sagadahawk

SBML Gun, Civil War Memorial, Bowdoin Center, Route 125.


 (Taoab Photos)

 (Vintage postcard Photo, left, 1909 photo, rightight, Photos)

8-inch Rodman Gun (Columbiad, 8-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1844), weight 9,240-lbs, muzzle data 17, SCLS. ?M & Co, star, 1864, 8454 lbs.  Mounted on an iron and concrete stand, this gun was originally part of the Fort Popham defences.  It was donated to the town of Bowdoinham to remember its soldiers who died in the Civil War. 


 (Taoab Photos)

Spanish SBML 24-pounder (TBC) Gun, mounted on a concrete stand, War Memorial Park.

Cape Elizabeth, Fort Williams

Fort Williams is a former United States Army fort in Cape Elizabeth which operated from 1872 to 1964.  It was part of the Coast Defenses of Portland, later renamed the Harbor Defenses of Portland, a command which protected Portland's port and naval anchorage 1904-1950.  After its closure, it was redeveloped into Fort Williams Park.  A 14-acre purchase near Portland Head Light in 1872 served to establish a sub-post to Fort Preble located at Spring Point.  This fortification became known as Fort Williams on 13 April 1899, by order of Army Headquarters (General Order No. 17, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C.).  It was named for Brevet Major General Seth Williams.  By 1903, the fort had grown to 90.45 acres.   It first test-fired its guns in 1898, shortly before the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, and was complete by 1906.

10-inch disappearing gun, Fort Casey, Whidbey Island, Washington.  (Jonathan Zander Photo, left, Joe Mabel Photo, right)


10-inch disappearing gun, Fort Casey, Whidbey Island, Washington.  (Articseahorse Photos)

(US Navy Photo)

12-inch gun mounted on an M1897 disappearing carriage. 

As built, the fort contained three batteries: Battery Sullivan (two 10-inch guns on disappearing carriages), Battery DeHart (three 10-inch disappearing guns), and Battery Hobart (one 6-inch Armstrong gun), all built between 1896 and 1898.  Three other two-gun batteries were added later: Battery Blair, two 12-inch disappearing guns (1903); Battery Garesché, two 6-inch disappearing guns (1906); and Battery Keyes, two 3-inch rapid-firing guns (1906), the latter to guard a minefield.  The remains of a wharf for loading mine planters can be seen near Battery Keyes.  An underground bunker for the submarine mine system, later used in Cold War civil defence, is near Battery Hobart.  Searchlights were also mounted at some of these batteries; the counterweight for a disappearing searchlight tower (it "disappeared" when folded down) remains on site.  Most of Fort Williams' support buildings were constructed between 1900 and 1911. In 1913, the 6-inch Armstrong gun of Battery Hobart was removed and transferred to Hawaii.

 (US War Department, US Archives Photo)

6-inch M1900 gun on M1900 pedestal mount.

During the First World War, the fort was fully manned by artillery companies of the Coast Artillery Corps and Maine National Guard troops.  Anti-aircraft guns were added to the defenses during this time. In 1917, the two 10-inch guns of Battery Sullivan and both 6-inch guns of Battery Garesché were removed to be shipped to the Western Front in France, but of the four guns only one of the 6-inch guns was actually sent to France.  The 10-inch guns were intended to serve as railway artillery, but few guns of this type were so mounted, none were sent to France, and the 10-inch railway gun program was abandoned soon after the war.  A history of the Coast Artillery in the First World War states that none of the regiments in France equipped with 6-inch guns completed training in time to see action before the Armistice.  The three 10-inch guns of Battery DeHart were also dismounted, but were soon remounted. After the war, the 10-inch guns were returned to Fort Williams, but Battery Garesché remained disarmed.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

Towed 155-mm M1917 Field Gun employed in Coastal Defence.

A plaque next to one of the fort's remaining buildings states that it housed towed 155-mm guns following the First World War.  These weapons, based on the French 155-mm GPF gun used by the Coast Artillery in that war, were adopted to introduce mobility to US coast defenses.  Circular concrete platforms called "Panama mounts" were constructed at Fort Baldwin in Phippsburg, Maine and at Biddeford Pool to allow more effective use of these guns.  A four-gun battery of these weapons, most likely from Fort Williams, was deployed to Fort Baldwin from early 1942 to 17 January 1944.  Fort Williams served as the headquarters of the Harbor Defenses of Portland throughout the Second World War.  By the middle of the war the last of the coastal artillery pieces (except Battery Keyes' two 3-inch guns) were removed due to age and obsolescence.

3-inch gun M1903 on masking parapet mounts.  (War Department Photos)

3-inch guns, Fort Casey, Whidbey Island, Washington.  (Articseahorse Photos)

The 3-inch gun M1903 and its predecessors the M1898 and M1902 were rapid fire breech-loading artillery guns with a 360-degree traverse.  In some references they are called "15-pounders" due to their projectile weight.  They were originally emplaced from 1899 to 1917 and served until near the end of the Second World War.  These 3-inch guns were placed to provide fire to protect submarine mines and nets against minesweepers, and also to protect against motor torpedo boats.  In some documentation they are called "mine defense guns".  The 3-inch guns were mounted on pedestal mounts (retractable "masking parapet" mount for the M1898) that bolted into a concrete emplacement that provided cover and safety for the gun's crew.  (Wikipedia)

Early in the Second World War the major units garrisoning the Harbor Defenses of Portland were the 8th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Regular Army and the 240th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Maine National Guard.  

 (US Navy Photo)

16-inch gun mounted on a model M4 barbette carriage in a coastal defence casemate. 

By 1945 the fort was replaced by the 16-inch Battery Steele on Peaks Island and a few other more recent batteries.  Fort Williams received its last guns in 1943, in the form of four 90-mm dual-purpose guns of Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat Battery (AMTB) 961, the emplacements for two of which remain a bit south of the lighthouse.  With little threat to the East Coast from surface ships by 1944, the coast defenses were drawn down and the Coast Artillery regiments reduced to battalions or their personnel were reassigned.  In January 1950, with the dissolution of the Coast Artillery Corps, Fort Williams' mission was officially changed from a harbor defense post to a logistical and administrative support installation for all military units and personnel in the State of Maine.

In 1950-51 Fort Williams hosted a station of the Air Defense Command's Lashup Radar Network.  The station was called Site L-2 and had a TPS-1B radar operated by the 657th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron from January-September 1951.  The radar station was deactivated in October 1951 and Fort Williams became an Air National Guard training site.  Other Air Force units stationed at Fort Williams included the 127th AC&W Squadron September 1951-September 1953 and the 677th AC&W Squadron September 1953-April 1954.

Fort Williams officially closed on 30 June 1962 and turned over to the General Services Administration to be sold.  The property was sold to the Town of Cape Elizabeth on 1 December 1964.  Many of the fort's buildings were gradually torn down, though several structures remain, either intact or as preserved ruins.  Most of the concrete bunkers and gun emplacements were backfilled, although Batteries Keyes and Garesche survive relatively intact, and the outlines of all the other emplacements were preserved on the surface.  One of the two emplacements of Battery Blair was recently unearthed again, with its surfaces cleaned and painted and interpretive signage added; plans are being made to restore Blair's second emplacement in like manner.  (Wikipedia)

Small heavily corroded SBML Gun, near Portland Headlight in Fort Williams Park.

Castine, Fort George

  (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library)

Map of Fort George.

Fort George (also sometimes known as Fort Majabigwaduce, Castine, or Penobscot) was a palisaded earthworks fort built in 1779 by Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War in Castine.  Located at a high point on the Bagaduce Peninsula, the fort was built as part of an initiative by the British to establish a new colony called New Ireland.  It was the principal site of the British defense during the Massachusetts-organized Penobscot Expedition, a disastrous attempt to retake Castine launched in response to the British move. 

The Penobscot Expedition was a 44-ship American naval task force mounted during the Revolutionary by the Provincial Congress of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.  The flotilla of 19 warships and 25 smaller support vessels sailed from Boston on 19 July 1779 for the upper Penobscot Bay in the District of Maine carrying a ground expeditionary force of more than 1,000 colonial Marines and militiamen.  Also included was a 100-man artillery detachment under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Paul Revere.  The Expedition's goal was to reclaim control of what is now mid-coast Maine from the British who had seized it a month earlier and renamed it New Ireland.  It was the largest American naval expedition of the war.  The fighting took place both on land and at sea in and around the mouth of the Penobscot and Majabigwaduce Rivers at what is today Castine, Maine, over a period of three weeks in July and August of 1779.  The battle was a significant victory for the British with the Expedition resulting in a disastrous naval defeat for the American fleet.

On June 17 of that year, British Army forces under the command of General Francis McLean landed and began to establish a series of fortifications centered on Fort George, located on the Majabigwaduce Peninsula in the upper Penobscot Bay, with the goals of establishing a military presence on that part of the coast and establishing the colony of New Ireland.  In response, the Province of Massachusetts, with some support from the Continental Congress, raised an expedition to drive the British out.

The Americans landed troops in late July and attempted to establish a siege of Fort George in a series of actions that were seriously hampered by disagreements over control of the expedition between land forces commander Brigadier General Solomon Lovell and the expedition's overall commander, Commodore Dudley Saltonstall, who was subsequently dismissed from the Navy for ineptness and failure to effectively prosecute the mission.  For almost three weeks General McLean held off the assault until a British relief fleet under the command of Sir George Collier arrived from New York on 13 August, driving the American fleet to total self-destruction up the Penobscot River.  The survivors of the American expedition were forced to make an overland journey back to more populated parts of Massachusetts with minimal food and armament.

A year later the British Cabinet formally approved the New Ireland project on 10 August 1780, and King George III gave his assent the following day to the proposal to separate “the country lying to the northeast of the Piscataway [Piscataqua] River” from the province of Massachusetts Bay in order to establish “so much of it as lies between the Sawkno [Saco] River and the St. Croix, which is the southeast [sic] boundary of Nova Scotia into a new province, which from its situation between the New England province and Nova Scotia, may with great propriety be called New Ireland.”  Pursuant to the terms of the 1783 Peace of Paris all British forces then evacuated Fort George (followed by some 600 Loyalists who removed from the area to St. Andrews on Passamaquoddy Bay) and abandoned their attempts to establish New Ireland.  During the War of 1812, however, British forces again occupied Fort George (still calling the area New Ireland) from September 1814 to April 1815 and used it as a naval base before withdrawing again with the arrival of peace.  Full ownership of present-day Maine (principally the northeastern borders with New Brunswick) remained disputed until the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842.  The "District of Maine" was a part of Massachusetts until 1820 when it was admitted into the Union as the 23rd state as part of the Missouri Compromise.

The remains of Fort George, now little more than its earthworks, are part of a state-owned and town-maintained park.  Fort George is today a roughly square earthworks, about 200 feet (61 m) on each side, with bastions at the corners that project out an additional 40 feet (12 m).  These works are for the most part about 10 feet (3.0 m) in height, although the easternmost bastion is 20 feet (6.1 m) high.  Features of the fort that have not survived include a palisade, moat, and gateway.  The fort is one of a series of defenses erected by the British in 1779, which notably included the digging of a canal across much of the neck separating the Bagaduce Peninsula from the rest of the mainland.

Castine is set at a strategically significant location near the head of Penobscot Bay, and was a point of conflict at several times between the 17th and 19th centuries.  Pursuant to plans for establishing a military presence on the coast of Maine as well as the colony of New Ireland, a British force led by General Francis McLean arrived off Castine in June 1779, seized the town, and established Fort George and other fortifications in the area.  The state of Massachusetts, of which Maine was then a part, responded by raising a large militia force, which in an operation known as the Penobscot Expetition, disastrously failed in its attempt to dislodge the British.  The fort was not abandoned by the British until 1784.

The site of the fort's remains is now a park of 7 acres (2.8 ha), owned by the state and maintained by the town.  The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969.  Fort George is the site of Majabigwaduce, the location for Bernard Cornwell's 2010 book The Fort, which is about the Penobscot Expedition.  (Wikipedia)

 (Jerrye and Roy Klotz MD Photo, left and John Stanton Photo, right)

SBML 24 pounder Gun mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, (ca. 1775 - 1815), weight 49-1-0 (5,516 lbs), Serial No. 69.

The SBML 24-pounder long gun was a heavy calibre piece of artillery mounted on warships of the Age of sail.  24-pounders were in service in the navies of the France, Spain, England, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States.  24-pounders were used as main guns on the heaviest frigates of the early 19th century and on fourth-rate ships of the line, on the second deck of first-rate ships of the line, and on the second deck of a few large third-rate ships.

Castine, Fort Madison

Fort Madison was a U.S. Army Second System fort established in 1808, named for James Madison, 4th President of the United States.  A sign on the site of the fort records it was built by the United States in 1811 and mounted with four 24-pounder guns.  The fort was captured and held by the British during the War of 1812 from 1 September 1814 to 15 April 1815, and renamed Fort Castine.   It was garrisoned 1814 by a detachment of U.S. Artillery commanded by Lt. A. Lewis.  Upon the approach of the British Fleet, 1 September 1814, the officer discharged and spiked his cannon, blew up the Magazine, and then withdrew his force to Portland.  Occupied by the enemy it was named by them Fort Castine.  It was returned to U.S. Control in 1815 and remained active until 1819.  It was renamed Fort Porter for Major Moses Porter, U.S. Army engineer.  Abandoned in 1819, the fort was rebuilt in 1862-1863 by Union forces during the American Civil War and renamed Fort United States.  The fort was armed with three 32-pounder gun embrasures and two 24-pounder guns mounted in barbettes.  It was garrisoned until the close of the Civil War by a company of U.S. Volunteers.  It was finally abandoned in 1865.

 (John Stanton Photos)

SBML 24-pounder Gun (TBC) mounted on a wood naval gun carriage.

Cushing Island, Fort Levett

Fort Levett was a former U.S. Army fort built on Cushing Island in Casco Bay, beginning in 1898.  The fort was heavily fortified with coastal defence guns and was manned during both World Wars.  Fort Levett's construction began in 1898 (on land acquired in 1894) and was largely completed in 1903.  The fort initially comprised five batteries.  Battery Bowdoin was named for James Bowdoin, former governor of Massachusetts (which included Maine in his day), and had three 12-inch M1898 disappearing guns.  Battery Kendrick was named for Henry Lane Kendrick, an Army officer and professor at West Point, and had two 10-inch M1895 disappearing guns.  Battery Ferguson was named for Major William Ferguson, killed in action against Native Americans in 1791, was completed in 1906, and had two 6-inch M1900 guns on pedestal mounts.b Battery Daniels was named for Lieutenant Napoleon Daniels, killed in action against Native Americans at Crazy Woman's Fork in 1866, and had two 3-inch M1898 guns (also called 15-pounder guns) on retractable masking parapet mounts.  The fort also briefly had several 6-pounder rapid-fire guns on field mounts.  (Wikipedia)

 (Coast Defense Study Group Photo)

12-inch disappearing gun similar to those at Fort Levett. 

In 1915, with the First World War raging in Europe and with rapidly-improving dreadnought battleships providing an increased threat, the Board of Review recommended that Fort Levett receive a new, modernized battery as part of a program to increase the range of coastal forts.  The battery was named Battery Foote in 1919, after Colonel Stephen M. Foote, a Coast Artillery officer who died in that year.  Battery Foote had two 12-inch M1895 guns on new, high-angle M1917 barbette carriages for increased range and was completed in 1920.  This type of battery was initially built in the open, relying on camouflage for concealment, and was incredibly vulnerable to air attack, as were the older disappearing batteries.  The two 10-inch guns of Battery Kendrick were ordered dismounted as part of a railway artillery program in 1917, but were not shipped out and were soon remounted.  Fort Levett was operationally manned during the war, but probably not until the American entry into the First World War in 1917. After the war the two 3-inch guns of Battery Daniels were removed as part of a decommissioning of several types of guns.  At some point between the wars the fort reverted to caretaker status.  (Wikipedia)

 (US Navy Photo)

16-inch, 50 Caliber, Mark 2, Mod. 1 Gun Barrel on display in East Willard Park, Washington Navy Yard, D.C.

Shortly after the Fall of France in mid-1940 the United States manned its coast defenses, activated the National Guard, and developed a coast defense modernization program that was partially implemented during the war.  During the Second World War the Harbour Defences of Portland were garrisoned by the 8th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Regular Army and the 240th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Maine National Guard until late 1944, when the Coast Artillery was reorganized and reduced in strength.  The basis of the Second World War modernization program was to add new 16-inch gun batteries, retain long-range 12-inch batteries such as Battery Foote, and also add new long-range 6-inch gun and 90-mm M1A2 anti-aircraft gun batteries.  The disappearing gun batteries that had served for 25-45 years would be scrapped.  The 16-inch battery that anchored the Harbor Defences of Portland was Battery Steele on Peaks Island.  Battery Foote was casemated against air attack during the war, and a four-gun 90-mm Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat (AMTB) battery designated AMTB 962 was added.  The other batteries of Fort Levett were scrapped by 1943 except the two 6-inch guns of Battery Ferguson, which were retained until after the war.  With the end of the Second World War in 1945 all US coast defence guns were scrapped by 1948, and subsequently the obsolete Fort Levett was sold by the government.  (Wikipedia)

 (Coast Defense Study Group Photo)

12-inch casemated gun, similar to those at Battery Foote, Fort Levett. 


 ( Photo)

RML 4.2-inch (30-pounder) Parrott Rifle, mounted on a concrete stand, No. 1 of 2 in Monument Square.

RML 4.2-inch (30-pounder) Parrott Rifle, mounted on a concrete stand, No. 2 of 2 in Monument Square.


 (Library of Congress Photo)

Bronze SBML Model 1841 6-pounder Field Gun, Cyrus Alger & Company, Serial No. 14.

The Bronze SBML Model 1841 6-pounder Field Gun had a 3.6-inch diameter smoothbore barrel approximately 5 feet long with a swell at the muzzle.  Most 1841 6-pounders were cast in bronze but a few were cast in iron with a broader taper.  This gun had a range of 1,500 yards although it was likely most effective at 1,000 yards depending on the type of shot being fired.  It was usually mounted on a horse-drawn two-wheeled carriage with a limber attached with ammunition ready to load.  The limber typically carried 30 6.1-lb cannister shots and 15 spherical case shots loaded with 48 cast-iron balls, in three chests.  The 6-pounder was a lightweight mobile piece weighing approximately 880-lbs and usually was operated by an 8-man crew.  The 6-pounder gun was one of a number of guns designed by the U.S. Army Ordnance Department in 1841 (companion pieces were the Model 1841 12-pounder, 24-pounder, and 32-pounder field Howitzers; the Model 1841 12-pounder Gun and the SBML 12-pounder Mountain Howitzer Model 1835).  The effectiveness of the 1841 series had been proven in the Mexican War, during which these guns demonstrated excellent maneuverability and reliability.   The 6-pounder was common to both armies in the early war years.  The piece gradually fell into disfavour at the introduction of the Model 1857 12-pounder Napoleon because of its bigger bore and hitting power, although in the western theater the 6-pounder remained in service until the end of the war.  (Wikipedia)

SBML 12-pounder Mountain Howitzer Model 1841, US Army Field Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, Oklahoma.  (Sturmvogel 66 Photo)

 (Hlj Photo)

SBML 12-pounder Mountain Howitzer Model 1835, Gettysburg.

Eastport, Moose Island, Fort Sullivan

Fort Sullivan (1808-1873) was a Federal Second System fort established in 1808 by Major Lemuel Trescott on Moose Island, in present day Eastport, Washington County.  It was named for Revolutionary War General John Sullivan.  It was a timber blockhouse fort with a four gun circular stone battery, a magazine and barracks. The battery mounted four heavy guns.  The fort was surrendered to a British Fleet under Sir Thomas Hardy in July 1814.  The British renamed the fort, Fort Sherbrooke.  It lay opposite New Brunswick, Canada, and served as an important coastal defense for the easternmost USA during the 19th century.  As part of the establishment of New Ireland during the War of 1812, British Commodore Sir Thomas Hardy, 1st Baronet conquered the fort in 1814 and renamed it Fort Sherbrooke after John Coape Sherbrooke, the Governor of Nova Scotia.  The fort and the town remained in British hands until territorial disputes were resolved.  Moose Island, the town and the fort were returned to the United States on 30 June 1818.  The fort was then renamed Fort Sullivan.  The last garrison was withdrawn in 1873 and the fort was abandoned.  (Wikipedia)

East Millinocket

 (Thierry H. Bonneville Photo)

57-mm Anti-tank Gun M1, No. 1 of 2, flanking the Veterans Memorial.

57-mm Anti-tank Gun M1, No. 2 of 2, flanking the Veterans Memorial.


Dahlgren 32-pounder Shell Gun (TBC) mounted on a concrete stand, No. 1 of 2, beside a Civil War Monument.

Dahlgren 32-pounder Shell Gun (TBC) mounted on a concrete stand, No. 2 of 2, beside a Civil War Monument.

Fort Fairfield

 (John Stanton Photo)

Fort Fairfield (1839-1843) was a U.S. Army post established in 1839 as a border defense during the border dispute known as the Aroostook War.  A replica Blockhouse is located along the south bank of the Aroostook River in Aroostook County, Maine.  It was named for John Fairfield, twice governor of Maine (1839-1841, 1842-1843).  The Fort was abandoned in 1843 after the end of the border dispute.

 (Fort Fairfield Public Library Photo)

Bronze 6-pounder Field Gun, Model 1838, Cyrus Alger & Company.  This gun was brought to the area by either the Maine militia or the land agent’s posse. Cast in Boston in 1839, it is typical of the cannon deployed by both sides during the Aroostook War.  This gun is mounted on iron stand in front of the Fort Fairfield Library.

Fort Kent

 (John Stanton Photo)

Light SBML on display at Fort Kent (1839-1845), a U.S. border post established in 1839 by a Maine Civil Posse during the United States - Canada border dispute known as the Aroostook War.  The post was located at the confluence of the St. John River and the Fish River in the present day town of Fort Kent, Aroostook County, Maine.  It was taken over by U.S. Army troops and expanded in 1841, abandoned by them in 1843.  Abandoned as a fortification in 1845 and sold to private owners in 1858.  It was named in 1840 for Edward Kent, twice Governor of Maine (1838-1839, 1841-1842).  Also known as Camp Jarvis.

 (John Stanton Photo)

A blockhouse was originally built on the site of Fort Kent by a Maine Civil Posse under the command of Captain Nye and later Captain Stover Rines.  The civil posse garrison was replaced late in 1839 by U.S. troops under the command of Captain John Winder.  The blockhouse was completed and the post was expanded by Captain Winder to include a barracks, officer's quarters, and other support buildings.  The blockhouse is a two story structure with a base 23.5 feet square and second story with a 15-inch overhang on each side.  The walls were built from cedar timbers, some 19-inches square placed on a shale rock foundation.  A powder magazine was built into the base of the structure.  In 1843 the post was deactivated and abandoned on 11 Sep 1845.  In 1857 it became the property of the State of Maine who then sold it to a private individual in 1858.  The property was returned to the state in 1891 but was neglected until 1959 when preservation efforts began.  (Wikipedia)

Freeport, Veterans Memorial Square

 (Craig Swain Photos)

SBML 24-pounder Siege and Garrison Howitzer, M1844, used to cover blind approaches and moats around masonry fortifications, specifically the flanks of the walls, thereby earning the nick-name “Flank Howitzer”.

Great Diamond Island, Fort McKinley

Fort McKinley is a former United States Army coastal defence fort on Great Diamond Island, Casco Bay, which operated from 1873 to 1947.  It was named for President William McKinley.  Fort Lyon on Cow Island, just north of Great Diamond Island was a sub-post of Fort McKinley, named for Nathaniel Lyon.  Both forts were part of the Coast Defenses of Portland, later renamed the Harbor Defenses of Portland, a command which protected Portland's port and naval anchorage 1904-1950.  In 1946 Fort Lyon was closed and turned over to the City of Portland.  After Fort McKinley's closure it was transferred to the United States Navy, which sold the site to private interests in 1961.  The Fort McKinley Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.

Construction on Fort McKinley began in 1897 and was complete by 1906.  The fort was divided by Diamond Cove into a North Fork and a South Fork, with nine gun batteries:

North Fork

Battery Ingalls with eight 12-inch coast defence M1890 Mortars mounted on M1896 barbettes; Battery Berry with two 12-inch M1888 guns mounted on M1896 disappearing gun carriages; Battery Thompson with three 8-inch M1888 guns mounted on disappearing gun carriages; Battery Acker with two 6-inch M1897 guns mounted on M1898 disappearing gun carriages; and Battery Farry with two 3-inch M1898 guns mounted on an M1898 masking parapet.

 (Library of Congress Photos)

8-inch Model 1888 gun mounted on a disappearing carriage at Battery McIntosh, Fort Dade, Edgmont Key, Forida in 1918.

South Fork

Battery Weymouth with three 8-inch M1888 guns mounted on M1896 disappearing gun carriages; Battery Honeycutt with two 8-inch M1888 guns mounted on M1896 disappearing gun carriages; Battery Carpenter with two 6-inch M1900 guns mounted on M1900 pedestals; and Battery Ramsay with two 3-inch M1898 guns mounted on M1898 masking parapets.

Fort Lyon was completed by 1909 with two gun batteries, Battery Bayard with three 6-inch M1903 guns mounted on M1903 disappearing gun carriages and Battery Abbot with three 3-inch M1903 guns mounted on M1903 pedestals.  (Wikipedia)

 (Coastal Defese Study Group Photo)

12-inch breech-loading gun, M1895, on a M1897 disappearing carriage at the moment of firing.  The soldier in the foreground has just pulled the long firing lanyard, which can be seen stretching up to the breechlock of the gun. The gun is "in battery", raised just above the edge of the parapet of the gun position. The crew member on the catwalk at the upper left of the gun is looking through the optical telescopic gun sight. On the left in the group of crew members can be seen the talker (wearing a headset), who passes firing data from the Range Section of the battery to the man on the gun sight. 

 (Library of Congress Photo)

12-inch gun (left) on early low-angle barbette carriage circa 1895 with 10-inch and 8-inch guns, Sandy Hook coastal defence.

 (Philipp Michel Reichold Photo) 

An 1890 M1 12-inch mortar elevated to firing position. The mortar in the background has been depressed to loading position, Fort Desoto Park, Pinellas County, Florida.

 (National Park Service Photo)

12-inch mortars in a pit, similar to Battery Ingalls.

The 12-inch (305-mm) caliber coast defense mortar was a massive weapon emplaced during the 1890s and early 20th century to defend U.S. harbours from seaborne attack.

Hog Island, Fort Gorges

 (Historic American Buildings Survey Photo)

Fort Gorges, Hog Island Ledge, Portland Harbor, Portland, Cumberland County, Maine.

Fort Gorges is a former United States military fort built on Hog Island Ledge in Casco Bay.  Built from 1858 to 1864, no battles were fought there and no troops were stationed there. Advancing military technology, including iron clad ships and long range guns, made the fort obsolete before it could be used. The fort is now a park, accessible only by boat.  It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

The fort was designed by Colonel Reuben Staples Smart, and is built of granite.  The fort was completed in 1865 as the American Civil War ended.  Modern explosives made the fort obsolete by the time it was completed.  A modernization plan was begun in 1869, but funding was cut off in 1876, with the third level of the fort still unfinished.  During the modernization project, sod-covered sand was added to the top level of the fort to protect gun encasements and powder magazines from attacks.  The Fort's armament consisted of thirty-four 10-inch Rodman Guns, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, mounted in the fort's casemates. 

 (Library of Congress Photo)

Parrot, 10-inch (300-pounder), rifle, seacoast, Model 1862, in service during the American Civil War.

In 1898, all guns were removed from the fort except a large 10-inch Parrott Rifle which was emplaced on the top of the fort.  The 10-inch (300-pounder) Parrott rifle, weighing 26,900-lbs still remains in place and is one of the largest surviving specimens of Civil War vintage artillery.  The fort was last used by the Army during the Second World War, when it was used to store submarine mines.  (Wikipedia)


 (Houlton Postcard Photo, 1944)

German First World War 15-cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 (15-cm sFH 13), First World War Memorial.

Houlton, Hancock Barracks

Hancock Barracks (1828-1845) - A U.S. Army barracks established by the U.S. Army 5 May 1828 on the U.S. - Canada border to provide a presence during a border dispute with Canada known as the Aroostook War.  The barracks was garrisoned with three companies of the 1st U.S. Artillery.  The post was abandoned 9 Sep 1845.

House Island, Fort Scammel

 (Econrad Photo)

House Island is a private island in Portland Harbor in Casco Bay, with Fort Scammel located on the West side of the island.  Henry A.S. Dearborn, an officer of the Massachusetts Militia and a future general, built Fort Scammell on the island in 1808 as part of the national second system of fortifications.  It was named after Alexander Scammel, Adjutant-General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, who was killed in action during the Battle of Yorktown.  The fort was designed for harbour defence, with cannon batteries designed to protect the main shipping channel into Portland harbor, along with Fort Preble.  The fort was made of stone, brick, and earth, and initially mounted fifteen guns and a 10-inch mortar.  The Secretary of War's report on fortifications for 1811 describes Fort Scammell as "a circular battery of masonry with circular flanks, mounting fifteen heavy guns, is covered in the rear with a wooden blockhouse, mounting six guns...". Typical weapons of the period were 24-pounder or 32-pounder smoothbore guns.

In the 1840s–1850s, as part of the national third system of fortifications, Fort Scammell was modernized by extending its walls to enclose a larger area.  Thomasa Lincoln Casey, an Army Engineer Officer known for his work on the Washington Monument, completely rebuilt the fort beginning in 1862 during the American Civil War.  As rebuilt to the new Third System design Fort Scammell was unique in the US, with the design centered on two stone-and-brick bastions connected by earth walls rather than stone curtain walls.  A third bastion was never completed.  The west bastion had a single tier of casemates and the east bastion had two tiers.  In the 1870s additional earthworks to accommodate 10-inch and 15-inch Rodman Guns were constructed, but only some of these were completed due to a national freeze on fort construction in the late 1870s.  Fort Scammell was not re-armed in the Spanish-American War of 1898, and was listed as disarmed in a 1903 report.  Two emplacements for anti-aircraft guns were added in 1917, probably for the 3-inch gun M1917.  Of all the forts in Casco Bay, Fort Scammell was the only fort to fire a shot and be fired upon in battle, in early August 1813.

 (Library of Congress Photos)

3-inch AA gun on M1917 pedestal mount.


 ( Photo)

IX-inch Dahlgren Shell Gun (TBC) with Millar pattern breeching ring, mounted on a concrete platform, Penobscott Cemetery, Levant Road. 

Kittery, Fort Foster

Fort Foster, now part of Fort Foster Park, is a historic fort active 1901-1946 on the southwest tip of Gerrish Island in the Kittery Point area.  The park includes beaches and trails.  Battery Bohlen and Battery Chapin were the major parts of the fort.  The land was acquired by the U.S. federal government in 1872 and the fort was built from 1898 to 1901 as part of the large-scale Endicott Program.  Other forts of this era in the Coast Defences of Portsmouth included Fort Constitution and Fort Stark.  The site was a sub-post of Fort Constitution and was named for American Civil War-era Brevet Major General John G. Foster of New Hampshire.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

Practice loading of a 10-inch gun at Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn, NY.

Fort Foster originally had two gun batteries: Battery Bohlen with three 10-inch (254-mm) M1895 disappearing guns and Battery Chapin with two 3-inch (76-mm) M1902 guns on pedestal mounts.  Battery Bohlen was built in 1898-1901 and Battery Chapin was completed in 1904.  Battery Bohlen was named for Brigadier General Henry Bohlen, killed in the Civil War, and Battery Chapin was named for Brigadier General Edward Chapin, also killed in the Civil War.  In 1909 a secondary control station for an underwater minefield in the harbor was added; Battery Chapin was built primarily to defend this minefield against minesweepers.  After the American entry into the First World War in early 1917, many guns were removed from coast defenses for potential service on the Western Front.  Most of these weapons were not sent overseas or did not see action.  All three 10-inch (254-mm) guns of Battery Bohlen were removed for potential use as railway artillery in October 1917, and were returned to the fort in September 1919.

 (US Navy Photo)

16-inch casemated gun, Battery Davis at Fort Funston in San Francisco.

During the Second World War Fort Foster's heavy guns were superseded by a new 16-inch (406-mm) gun battery at Fort Dearborn.  The 10-inch guns of Battery Bohlen were scrapped in 1942.  However, new construction also took place at Fort Foster as part of the general improvement of US coast defenses that began in 1940. In 1940-1944 the Harbor Defences of Portsmouth were garrisoned by the 22nd Coast Artillery Regiment.  A new mine control station and mine casemate were built, along with two new gun batteries.  Battery 205, begun in 1942, was to have two 6-inch (152-mm) M1 guns on shielded barbette carriages with a bunker for ammunition and fire control, but construction was suspended in 1944 and the battery was never armed.  A six-story fire control tower was constructed to spot targets for this battery.  Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat Battery (AMTB) 952 was also built at Fort Foster in 1943, with an authorized strength of two fixed 90-mm M1A2 anti-aircraft guns and two towed 90-mm M1A2 anti-aircraft guns.  The remaining batteries were deactivated in 1946 and the fort was closed in 1948.  (Wikipedia)
 (Author Photo)
90-mm M1A2 anti-aircraft gun, 5 Canadian Division Support Group Base Gagetown, New Brunswick.
Kittery Point, Fort McClary
 (petersent Photo)
Fort McClary is a former defensive fortification located along the southern coast of Maine.  Built at the mouth of the Piscataqua River, it was used primarily throughout the 19th century to protect approaches to the harbor of Portsmouth, New Hmpshire, and its U.S. naval shipyard.  Coastal defenses on the site date to the late 17th century, when local shipbuilder William Pepperell acquired the property and erected crude defense works in 1689. (Prior to that the village was protected by Fort William and Mary at Portsmouth.)  In 1715, during the lead up to Father Rale's War, the Province of Massachusetts Bay voted to erect a permanent breastwork of six guns for the defense of the Piscataqua River.  This fortification, known as Fort William, was transferred to the United States government in 1803; none of its features are known to survive. 

 (Stanton Photo)

SBML Carronade mounted on a wood traversing carriage inside the boat house.

Fort McClary was officially established in 1808, named for New Hampshire native Major Andrew McClary, an American officer killed in the 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill.  The fort was used throughout the 19th century, most notably during the War of 1812, and was further expanded in the 1840s, probably a consequence of tensions with Great Britain over the disputed border between Maine and New Brunswick.  The fort saw active use during the American Civil War, at which time it achieved much of its present structure.  Its Civil War garrison notably included the Vice President of the United States Hannibal Hamlin, who enlisted in the Maine Coast Guards as a private and served as a cook in the fort.  It saw little action during these conflicts.  By the 1910s, most of the fort had fallen into disrepair and it was officially decommissioned in 1918.


 (Library of Congress Photo)

5"/51 (12.7-cm) gun, possibly on USS Texas B-35, between 1910 and 1915.

5"/51 calibre Simm Gun, 23,000-lbs.  This gun was acquired after the closure of Naval Air Station Brunswick.  Formerly located on the base next to the chapel, it is believed to have been removed from one of three ships: USS Nevada, the USS Florida or the USS Olympia.  The serial number is unreadable due to layers of paint.

5"/51 calibre guns initially served as the secondary battery of United States Navy battleships built from 1907 through the 1920s, also serving on other vessels.  United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun fired a projectile 5 inches (127-mm) in diameter, and the barrel was 51 calibers long (barrel length is 5" × 51 = 255" or 6.4 meters).

USS Florida (BB-30), anchored in harbour, circa 1921.  (Photo courtesy of Gustave Maurer, ex-Chief Photographer, 1921.  U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph)


 (William Fisher Photos)

SBML 32-pounder  (TBC) Carronade mounted on a wood naval gun carriage facing the harbour at Lincolnville Beach.  It has a bronze plaque which reads, "This cannon was stationed at Lincolnville beach for the protection of this village during the War of 1812.  Restored to this original location on May 18, 1957 by Edwin W. Kibbe who gave it to the people of the Town of Lincolnville".

Livermore Falls, Androscoggin

 ( Photo)

SBML 32-pounder Rodman gun mounted vertically on a Civil War Memorial at the corner of Knapp and Church Streets.


Bronze SBML Model 1841 6-pounder Field Gun, Cyrus Alger & Company, Serial No. 19.


 (Thierry H. Bonneville Photo)

M60A1 Tank, Veterans Memorial Park.


 (Thierry H. Bonneville Photo)

M60A1 Tank and Bell UH-1 Iroquois helicopter, American Legion Post No. 80.

Bell UH-1H Iroquois (Serial No. 64-13678), mounted on a pylon near the airport.


 (Author Photo)

German First World War 7.58-mm leMW trench mortar in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.

German First World War 7.58-mm leMW trench mortar. Veterans Memorial Park.

The 7.58-cm leichtes Minenwerfer alter Art old model (7.58-cm leMW a.A.) is a German trench mortar.  The Russo-Japanese War of 1905 had shown the value of mortars against modern fieldworks and fortifications and the Germans were in the process of fielding a whole series of mortars before the beginning of the Great War.  Their term for them was Minenwerfer, literally mine-thrower, and they were initially assigned to engineer units in their siege warfare role.  By the Winter of 1916-17 they were transferred to the infantry where the leMW’s light weight permitted them to accompany the infantry in the advance.

The leMW was a rifled muzzle loader (RML) with hydraulic cylinders on each side of the tube to absorb the recoil forces and spring recuperators to return the tube to firing position. It had a rectangular firing platform with limited traverse and elevation.  Wheels could be added to ease transportation or it could be carried by at least six men.  In 1916 a new version, designated as the n.A. (neuer Art) new model, was fielded that had a new circular firing platform that added a turntable which permitted a full 360 degree traverse.  It also had a longer 16-inch (41-cm) barrel and could be used for direct fire between 0° and 27° elevation if the 90 kg (200 lb) trail was fitted to absorb the recoil forces.  In this mode it was pressed into service as an Anti-Tank Gun.  (Wikipedia)

Phippsburg, Fort Baldwin

 (Nabeel H Photo)

Fort Baldwin is a former coastal defence fortification near the mouth of the Kennebec River.  It was named after Jeduthan Baldwin, an engineer for the Continental Army during the American Revolution.  The fort was constructed between 1905 and 1912 and originally consisted of three batteries:

1. Battery Cogan with two 3-inch M1903 guns on pedestal mounts.  Named in honour of a lieutenant in the 5th Continental Regiment during the American Revolution; 

2. Battery Joseph Roswell Hawley with two 6-inch M1900 guns on pedestal mounts. This battery also housed the fort's original observation station and electric equipment. Named in honor of Brigadier General Joseph R. Hawley who served with distinction during the American Civil War; and,

3. Battery Hardman with one 6-inch gun M1905 on a disappearing carriage.  Named in honor of a Captain in the 2nd Maryland Regiment, Continental Army during the American Revolution.

6-inch gun M1905 on a disappearing carriage M1903, Presidio, California.  (National Park Service Photo, left); and a 6-inch gun M1903 firing. (Library of Congress Photo, right)

Additionally, facilities for a controlled minefield in the river were built at nearby Fort Popham.  The fort was in caretaker status prior to the American entry into the First World War.  During that war, Fort Baldwin and Fort Popham had a garrison of 200 soldiers from the 13th and 29th Coast Artillery companies of the Coast Defences of Portland.  All three 6-inch guns were withdrawn in 1917 as part of a program to put these weapons on field carriages and use them on the Western Front.  Battery Hawley's guns were not sent overseas and were remounted in 1919.  Battery Hardman's gun was sent to France; apparently it was eventually returned to the US but not to Fort Baldwin.  A history of the Coast Artillery in World War I states that none of the regiments in France equipped with 6-inch guns completed training in time to see action before the Armistice.

In 1924, Fort Baldwin was disarmed as part of a general drawdown of less-threatened coast defenses and sold to the State of Maine. Early in the Second World War, four circular concrete "Panama mounts" were constructed at Fort Baldwin, two of them on Battery Hawley's 6-inch gun positions.  These were to provide improved firing platforms for towed 155-mm M1918 guns that were adopted by the Coast Artillery following the First World War.

From 1941 to 1943, Battery D, 8th Coast Artillery protected Fort Baldwin and its Fire Control Tower that could radio the precise position of enemy vessels to batteries in Casco Bay, notably Battery Steele with its 16-inch guns.  

A battery of four 155-mm guns, most likely from Fort Williams, was deployed to Fort Baldwin from early 1942 to 17 January 1944.  After the war, the Army returned the property to the State of Maine in 1949.  The fort was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.  (Wikipedia)

 (US Army Photos)

Canon de 155-mm GPF mle 1917 Field Gun employed in Coastal Defence.

The French Canon de 155 Grande Puissance Filloux mle 1917 with a wheeled gun carriage weighed 28,500 lbs and had a 2-foot long L/38.2 barrel.  It had a range of more than 20 km (12 miles).  These guns were manufactured in the USA from 1917, after the US switched to metric artillery based on French patterns. It was used by the United States Army and United States Marine Corps as their primary heavy artillery gun under the designation 155-mm Gun M1917 (French-made) or M1918 (US-made) until 1942.

Phippsburg, Fort Popham

 (Doug Kerr Photo)

Fort Popham is a Civil War-era coastal defence fortification at the mouth of the Kennebec River in Phippsburg.  During the American Revolution a minor fortification stood on this site; in 1808 the federal government built a small battery to accommodate guns on field carriages on this location as part of the Second System of fortifications that guarded the coast.  In 1811 it was described as "An enclosed work, with a battery of six heavy guns mounted, a small magazine, and wooden barracks for 40".  The battery remained manned until 1815 and saw minor action during the War of 1812.  After the war four of the guns were relocated to a new battery at Cox's Head, north of Fort Popham on the west bank of the Kennebec.  This was a brick fort with barracks for 105 men.

Fort Popham was originally designed to mount 42 heavy guns, a mix of 10-inch and 15-inch Rodman Guns, but construction was halted in 1869 with only two of the planned three tiers completed.  In the late 19th century, Fort Popham's armament consisted of 36 Rodman guns and some Parrot, 10-inch, rifle, seacoast, Model 1862, and smaller Parrott Rifles.  One of the Rodman guns was donated to the town of Bowdoinham to remember its soldiers who died in the Civil War.  The gun is still there.  A 6.4-inch Parrott rifle sits near the fort grounds; it is listed as being at the fort in 1903.  The back side of Fort Popham was built with a low moated curtain containing a central gate and 20 musket ports.

In 1869, construction at Fort Popham stopped before the fortification was completed.  The fort was garrisoned again after additional work was performed during the Spanish–American War and the First World War.  In 1899, shortly after the Spanish–American War, a single 8-inch M1888 gun was mounted near the fort on a converted Rodman carriage, joining four 15-inch Rodman guns; it was removed in 1910.  This was an emergency measure to provide modern guns at threatened locations until the Endicott program forts could be completed. Under this program, construction of Fort Baldwin on the headland above Fort Popham began in 1905 with longer-range guns, which eventually rendered Fort Popham obsolete. However, at the time Fort Baldwin was built, Fort Popham remained important, with new facilities for a controlled minefield in the river at the fort.  During the First World War, Forts Popham and Baldwin were garrisoned by about 200 men of the 13th and 29th Coast Artillery companies of the Coast Defenses of Portland.  (Wikipedia)


 (Junglerot Photo, left, Corey Templeton Photo,right)

4.5-inch siege rifle Model 1861, mounted on a wheeled wood gun carriage, No. 1 of 2. Fort Allen Park, Eastern promenade.

4.5-inch siege rifle Model 1861, mounted on a wheeled wood gun carriage, No. 2 of 2. Fort Allen Park, Eastern promenade.

 (Library of Congress Photo, ID det.4a14470)

Six–inch gun on USS Newark, the USS Maine mounted six of these.

 (Rocco DiDonato Photo, left, Risby Photo, right)

 (White Cedar Inn Photo, left, Rachel Marrill Photo, right)

6-inch naval rifle from the USS Maine ca. 1895. Fort Allen Park on the Eastern Promenade of Portland.

USS Maine.  (USN Photo)

Portland, Fort Gorges

 (Brian Stansbury Photo)

Parrot, 10-inch (300-pounder), rifle, seacoast, Model 1862, South Carolina.

The Parrott rifle, invented by Robert Parker Parrott, was manufactured in different sizes, from 10-pounders up to the rare 300-pounder.  The 10- and 20-pounder versions were used by both armies in the field during the American Civil War.  The smaller size was much more prevalent; it came in two bore sizes: 2.9-inch (74-mm) and 3.0-inch (76-mm).  Confederate forces used both bore sizes during the war, which added to the complication of supplying the appropriate ammunition to its batteries.

  (Author Photos)

M1861 10-pounder RML Parrot Rifle, Louisiana National Guard Museum, Louisiana, New Orleans.

Portland, City Hall

SBML 4-pounder Gun (TBC), mounted, King George III cypher and British broad arrow, Revolutionary War era.

Portland, Evergreen Cemetery

Bronze RML 12-pounder Dahlgren boat howitzer, Light.

   (Author Photos)

SBML 12-pounder Mountain Howitzer Model 1835, New Orleans National Guard Museum, Louisiana, New Orleans

In 1848 Lieutenant John A. Dahlgren, of the U.S. Navy, was assigned to determine the suitability of army mountain howitzers for mastheads, small boats, and landing parties. Not satisfied with their performance, Dahlgren initiated what was to become the development of a family of similar small bronze weapons for use in attacking small vessels that were highly armed, to cover the landing of regular troops and to accompany parties of sailors when disembarked. There were three different sizes of Dahlgren Boat Howitzers, Small, Light and Heavy.

Bronze RML 12-pounder Dahlgren boat howitzer, Heavy.

Prospect, Fort Knox

 (Magicpiano Photo, left, and John Stanton Photo, right)

 (John Stanton Photo)

 (Diagram of Fort Knox, from the Visitors Guide)

Fort Knox, now Fort Knox State Park or Fort Knox State Historic Site, is located on the western bank of the Penobscot River in the town of Prospect, Maine, about 5 miles (8.0 km) from the mouth of the river. Built between 1844 and 1869, it was the first fort in Maine built of granite (instead of wood).  It is named after Major General Henry Knox, the first U.S. Secretary of War and Commander of Artillery during the American Revolutionary War, who at the end of his life lived not far away in Thomaston.  The fort was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970, as a virtually intact example of a mid-19th century granite coastal fortification.

Local memory of the humiliation of Maine at the hands of the British during the American Revolution and again during the War of 1812 contributed to subsequent anti-British feeling in Eastern Maine.  The Penobscot Expedition of 1779 aimed to force the British from Castine, but ended in a debacle.  The Americans lost 43 ships and suffered approximately 500 casualties.  Then in autumn 1814, during the War of 1812, a British naval force and soldiers sailed up the Penobscot and defeated an outnumbered American force in the Battle of Hampden.  The British followed their victory by looting both Hampden and Bangor.  The American defeat contributed to the post-war movement for Maine's statehood, which occurred in 1820, as Massachusetts had failed to protect the region.

The Aroostook War of 1838-1839 revived anti-British feeling and concern over the vulnerability of the region to another attack like that of 1814.  Also, Penobscot and Bangor were a major source of shipbuilding lumber.  The response was the inclusion of the Penobscot in the Third System of coastal fortifications, and the construction of Fort Knox, a large, expensive, granite fort at the mouth of the Penobscot River.  The fort had two batteries facing the river, each equipped with a furnace to heat cannonballs sufficiently that they could ignite wooden ships if the ball lodged in the vessel. These furnaces became obsolete with the adoption of ironclads.

 (John Stanton Photo, left, Leonard G. Photo, right)

10-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 10-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 14,980-lbs, mounted on an iron wheeled gun carriage.  The mechanism to set and retain the elevation is missing. 

Rodman guns were a series of American Civil War–era Columbiads designed by Union artilleryman Thomas Jackson Rodman (1815–1871). The guns were designed to fire both shot and shell.  These heavy guns were intended to be mounted in seacoast fortifications.  They were built in 8-inch, 10-inch, 13-inch, 15-inch, and 20-inch bore.  Other than size, the guns were all nearly identical in design, with a curving bottle shape, large flat cascabels and with ratchets or sockets for the elevating mechanism.  Rodman guns were true guns that did not have a howitzer-like powder chamber, as did many earlier Columbiads. Rodman guns differed from all previous artillery because they were hollow cast, a new technology that Rodman developed that resulted in cast iron guns that were much stronger than their predecessors.  They were all smoothbore guns designed to fire spherical shot and shell, primarily against ships.

The guns were elevated and depressed by means of a lever called the elevating bar. The point of this lever fits into ratchets on the earliest guns cast, or sockets on the later guns. The fulcrum, called the ratchet post, fit on the rear transom of the upper carriage. The ratchet post was cast iron and had several notches for adjusting the position of the elevating bar. Rodman guns were placed in seacoast fortifications around the United States. It took 8 men to load and fire a 10-inch Rodman gun, and 12 men for a 15-inch Rodman gun. Over 140 Rodman guns survive today and they may be seen at coastal fortifications around the USA.  (Wikipedia)

 (John Stanton Photos)

8-inch Rodman Gun (Columbiad, 8-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1844), weight 9,240-lbs, converted rifle, resting on a pair of stone blocks at the entrance to the Fort Knox site.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

15-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 15-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), Battery Rodgers, Alexandria, Virginia.

 (Library of Congress Photo)

15-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 15-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), mounted on a center-pintle barbette carriage, "the Lincoln Gun", at Fort Monroe, Virginia.

 (Sarek of Vulcan Photo)

15-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 15-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 50,070-lbs, mounted on an iron wheeled carriage, No. 1 of 2.  Battery A.

 (John Stanton Photo.

Battery B, with a 15-inch Rodman Gun, (Columbiad, 15-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 50,070-lbs, No. 2 of 2, unmounted, laying in it's gun emplacement. 

  (John Stanton Photo)

SBML 24-pounder Siege and Garrison Howitzer, M1844, mounted on iron gun carriages.  These guns were used to cover blind approaches and moats around masonry fortifications, specifically the flanks of the walls, thereby earning the nick-name “Flank Howitzer”. No. 1 of 2.

SBML 24-pounder Siege and Garrison Howitzer, M1844, No. 2 of 2.


 (Rockland Historical Society Photo)

SBML Gun, No. 1 of 2 mounted on a concrete stand, with a set of nine-inch cannon balls are stacked nearby (far larger than the muzzle of the gun).

SBML Gun, No. 2 of 2 mounted on a concrete stand.  These two guns were donated to the local Rockland Chapter of the Grand Army of the Republic by the Federal Government in 1897.


   (William Fischer Jr Photos)

RML 4.2-inch (30-pounder) Parrott Rifle.  The muzzle and trunnions are marked WPF 4.2 RMH 4190, No. 352, 1864, West Point Foundry.  The gun is mounted on a concrete stand at the Midcoast Area Veteran's Memorial. 

The Parrott rifle was a type of muzzle-loading rifled artillery weapon used extensively in the American Civil War.  The gun was invented by Captain Robert Parker Parrott, a graduate of West Point. Parrotts were manufactured with a combination of cast and wrought iron.  The cast iron made for an accurate gun, but was brittle enough to suffer fractures.  Therefore, a large wrought iron reinforcing band was overlaid on the breech to give it additional strength.  Similar guns had been designed this way in the past, but the method of securing this band was the innovation that allowed the Parrott to overcome the deficiencies of these earlier models. It was applied to the gun red-hot and then the gun was turned while pouring water down the muzzle, allowing the band to attach uniformly.   By the end of the Civil War, both sides were using this type of gun extensively.  In the field, the 10- and 20-pounders were used by both armies. Parrott rifles were manufactured in different sizes, from 10-pounders up to the rare 300-pounder.  Several hundred Parrott gun tubes remain today, many adorning battlefield parks, county courthouses, museums, etc.  The gun tubes made by Parrott's foundry are identifiable by the letters WPF (West Point Foundry), along with a date stamp between 1860 and 1889, found on the front face of the gun tube.


 (Library of Congress Photo)

Two 30-pounder Parrott Rifles and stacks of shells inside Fort Putnam, South Carolina.

RML 4.2-inch (30-pounder) Parrott Rifle. US Route 1.


 (Oliver's Travels Photo, left, Taoab Photo, right)

12-pounder Whitworth Breechloading Rifle, manufactured in England, mounted on a wheeled carriage, beside the Civil War Memorial.


SBML 32-pounder, 57-cwt, US Navy, ca. 1840’s, No. 1 of 2. US Route 1.

SBML 32-pounder, 57-cwt, US Navy, ca. 1840’s, No. 1 of 2. US Route 1.


  (Thierry H. Bonneville Photos)

SBML 1-pounder Gun "Old Zack", mounted on a wheeled carriage, beside the War Memorial.  This gun is likely pre-civil war vintage.

  (Thierry H. Bonneville Photos)

Bronze SBML 12-pounder Gun mounted on a concrete stand, muzzle/trunnion #1, inscribed Federal Acceptance, No. 427, Casting No. 438, Revere Copper Co, 1238 lbs, 1864 (Date of Acceptance), RMH (Person in charge and Acceptance).  No. 1 of 2, part of the Civil War Memorial.

Bronze SBML 12-pounder Gun mounted on a concrete stand, muzzle/trunnion # 2 inscribed Federal Acceptance, No. 432, Casting No. 451, Revere Copper Co, 1238 lbs, 1864 (Date of Acceptance), RMH (Person in charge and Acceptance).  No. 2 of 2 , part of the Civil War Memorial.

South Berwick/York

 ( Photo)

RML 4.2-inch (30-pounder) Parrott Rifle, mounted on an iron garrison carriage, No. 1 of 3 in Monument Square, Portland Street.

RML 4.2-inch (30-pounder) Parrott Rifle, mounted on an iron garrison carriage, No. 2 of 3 in Monument Square, Portland Street.

 (Jake Hunkler Photo)

RML 4.2-inch (30-pounder) Parrott Rifle, mounted on an iron garrison carriage, No. 3 of 3 in Monument Square, Portland Street.

South Portland, Cumberland

BL 4-inch rifle, US Navy, ca. 1900 made at Naval Gun Factory, Washington Navy Yard. American Legion Post on Broadway.

 ( Photo)

8-inch Rodman Gun (Columbiad, 8-inch, smoothbore, seacoast, Model 1844), weight 9,240-lbs, converted rifle, mounted vertically on a Civil War Monument, Forest City Cemetery, Lincoln Street.

South Portland, Fort Preble

 (Daderot Photo)

Fort Preble, remains of one of the six-inch disappearing gun emplacements of Battery Rivardine.

Fort Preble was a military fort built in 1808 and progressively added to through 1906.  It is now on the campus of Southern Maine Community College. Secretary of War Henry Dearborn authorized construction of Fort Preble in 1808 with his son, Massachusetts Militia officer and future general Henry A. S. Dearborn, supervising the construction.  The fort was named in honour of Commodore Edward Preble, who led a squadron of American warships during the Barbary Wars.  Preble died in Portland in 1807 and is buried there.  The initial construction at Fort Preble was part of the Second System of US fortifications.  

 (Calendar5 Photo)

50-pounder (7.25-inch, 184-mm) M1811 Columbiad, Clear Lake, Wisconsin.

Fort Preble was a star fort made of stone, brick, and sod, with 14 heavy guns including two 50-pounder (7.25-inch, 184-mm) Columbiads.  The fort is described in the Secretary of War's report for December 1811 as "an enclosed star fort of masonry, with a circular battery with flanks; mounting 14 heavy guns (with) barracks for one company".  Along with Fort Scammell on nearby House Island, Fort Preble was built to deter attack by a hostile power in the event the United States was considered a belligerent in the ongoing conflict between Great Britain and Napoleonic France.  Various units manned Fort Preble during the War of 1812.  Fort Preble received new batteries circa 1845, a 12-gun North Battery and a 10-gun South Battery.

 (Coast Defense Study Group Photo)

Two 12-inch mortars, Fort H.G. Wright, on Fishers Island, NY.

In 1896-1906 several modern Endicott era coast defence batteries were installed at the fort as part of the Coast Defences of Portland, which also included Fort Williams, Fort McKinley, and Fort Levett.  Batteries Kearny and Chase totaled sixteen 12-inch mortars (305-mm) and were completed in 1901.  These were named for Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny of the Mexican-American War and Lieutenant-Colonel Constantine Chase of the Civil War.  Originally all sixteen mortars were Battery Kearny, but Battery Chase was named in 1906, with each battery comprising eight mortars.  They were followed in 1906 by Battery Rivardi with two disappearing 6-inch (152-mm) guns and Battery Mason with one 3-inch (76-mm) gun.  Battery Rivardi was named for John J. U. Rivardi of the 1st US Artillerists and Engineers, who served 1795-1802 and worked on the First System forts.  Battery Mason was named for Philip D. Mason, an artillery officer killed in the Civil War.  Two mortars from Battery Kearny-Chase were moved to West Point in 1911, probably to instruct cadets in their use.

The fort remained active through the First World War, but was partially disarmed as part of a program to send heavy artillery and railway artillery to the Western Front.  Battery Rivardi's two 6-inch guns were shipped to France for use as field guns in 1917 and were not returned to the fort.  Six mortars from Batteries Kearny and Chase were removed in 1918-19 for use as railway mortars; this was part of a general halving of mortars to alleviate overcrowding of their emplacements during reloading.  This left Fort Preble with eight mortars and one 3-inch gun.  In 1924 the Coast Artillery adopted a regimental organization, and the Regular Army's 8th Coast Artillery Regiment was formed at Fort Preble.  A reserve regiment to supplement the regular forces in wartime was also formed, the 240th Coast Artillery of the Maine National Guard.  Both of these regiments manned the Harbour Defences of Portland early in the Second World War, in which Fort Preble was a naval net depot for net laying ships and a control station for the Casco Bay degaussing range.  All remaining mortars were scrapped in 1942; Fort Preble was superseded by new defenses centered on Battery Steele on Peaks Island.  Only one 3-inch gun remained, which was removed in 1946.  (Wikipedia)


 (Hal Jespersen Photos)

3-inch Ordnance Rifle, (Griffen Gun), Gettysburg National Military Park.

3-inch Ordnance Rifle, Serial No. 178.  American Legion hall.

The 3-inch (76-mm) rifle was the most widely used rifled gun during the war. Invented by John Griffen, it was extremely durable, with the barrel made of wrought iron, primarily produced by the Phoenix Iron Company of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania.

3-inch Ordnance Rifle, Serial No. 260.


Muzzle loading 20-pounder gun (TBC), mounted on an iron stand in an elevated position, placed in front of the Civil War Memorial.

Winterport, Waldo

 ( Photo)

SBML Gun mounted on a concrete stand, No. 1 of 4 at the base of the Civil War Memorial.

SBML Gun mounted on a concrete stand, No. 2 of 4 at the base of the Civil War Memorial.

SBML Gun mounted on a concrete stand, No. 3 of 4 at the base of the Civil War Memorial.

SBML Gun mounted on a concrete stand, No. 4 of 4 at the base of the Civil War Memorial.


 (Phil Di Vece Photo)

SBML Model 1841 6-pounder Field Gun, dated 1861, mounted on a wood naval gun carriage, alongside the Veteran's War Memorial.


 (Library of Congress Photo)

Fort Brady, near Petersburg, Virginia, Battery of Parrott guns manned by Company C, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery in 1865.  Two 100-pounder Parrott rifles (Parrott, 6.4-inch, rifle, seacoast, Model 1861),  on the flanks, and two 4.2-inch 30-pounder Parrotts, center on siege carriages, inside Fort Brady during the Siege of Petersburg in 1865.  The 6.4-inch rifles are on iron, front pintle, barbette carriages and the 4.2-inch rifles are on siege carriages.

100-pounder Naval Parrott rifle (Parrott, 6.4-inch, rifle, seacoast, Model 1861), weight 9,672-lbs, capable of firing an 80 or 100-pound shell with a 10-pound charge over 7,810 yards.   It took a crew of 17 to man it.  There is no indication of where this cannon might have seen action.  The inscription R.R.P. No. 206 refers to Robert Parker Parrott, inventor, and it may be a production number from the West Point Foundry where he was superintendent from 1836 to 1867.  This cannon is mounted on a granite base on the side of the hill below the Old York Gaol, a National Historic Landmark. There is a memorial to WWI veterans below it.  The Rifle stands in front of the Old York Gaol, built in 1719, partially from materials from the former jail dating from 1656.  The Old York Gaol claims to be the oldest jail in the United States.  It served as a jail at least until about 1860, and was restored as a museum in 1900.  (Wikipedia)